infortunate (adj.) Look up infortunate at
"unlucky, luckless," late 14c., from Latin infortunatus, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + fortunatus "prospered, prosperous; lucky, happy" (see fortunate (adj.)). Also used in medieval astrology in reference to the supposed malevolent influence of certain positions or combinations of planets. The word lies beneath the "obsolete" headstone in OED. Related: infortune (n.); infortunacy.
infotainment (n.) Look up infotainment at
1983, from info- + entertainment.
infra (adv.) Look up infra at
"under, below, further on," from Latin infra "below, under, beneath" (see infra-). A Latin word sometimes encountered in footnotes.
infra dig. Look up infra dig. at
"beneath one's dignity, unbecoming to one's position in society," 1824, colloquial abbreviation of Latin infra dignitatem "beneath the dignity of." See infra- + dignity.
infra- Look up infra- at
word-forming element meaning "below, beneath," from Latin infra (adverb and preposition) "below, underneath, on the under side, beneath," also "later than; smaller than; inferior to," related to infernus "low, below," from PIE *ndher "under" (cognates: Sanskrit adnah "below," Old English under "under, among;" see under). Modern popular use of it dates from the 1920s, as an opposite to super-, often in science fiction. "This use of infra- is scarcely a Latin one" [OED].
infra-red (adj.) Look up infra-red at
also infrared, 1873, "below the red" (in the spectrum), from infra- + red (adj.1). As a noun, also from 1873.
infraction (n.) Look up infraction at
mid-15c., "the breaking of an agreement," from Old French infraction (13c.) and directly from Latin infractionem (nominative infractio) "a breaking, weakening," noun of action from past participle stem of infringere "to damage, break off, break, bruise," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + frangere "to break" (see fraction). The verb infract (1560s) is archaic.
infralapsarian (adj.) Look up infralapsarian at
1731, from infra- + Latin lapsus "a fall" (see lapse (n.)) + ending from unitarian, etc.

Of or pertaining to the Calvinist doctrine that god's election of some to everlasting life was consequent to his decree to allow the Fall of man, and was thus a remedial measure. Contrasted to supralapsarian, in reference to the belief that the decision to create some men to be damned was His first decree. In the sublapsarian view, He did not decree, but foresaw, the Fall; the decree to elect those who would believe also comes after the decree to allow the Fall, but the decree to provide salvation for man comes immediately after the decree to elect.
infrasonic (adj.) Look up infrasonic at
1927, on the model of supersonic, etc., from infra- + sonic. Or perhaps modeled on French infra-sonore.
infrastructure (n.) Look up infrastructure at
1887, from French infrastructure (1875); see infra- + structure (n.). The installations that form the basis for any operation or system. Originally in a military sense.
infrequency (n.) Look up infrequency at
1670s, fact of being infrequent," from Latin infrequentia "a small number, thinness, scantiness," noun of quality from infrequentem (nominative infrequens) "occurring seldom, unusual; not crowded, absent," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + frequens (see frequent). Older in this sense is infrequence (1640s). Earlier infrequency was used in a now-obsolete sense of "state of being unfrequented" (c. 1600).
infrequent (adj.) Look up infrequent at
1530s, "little used" (now obsolete); 1610s, "not occurring often," from Latin infrequentem (nominative infrequens) "occurring seldom, unusual; not crowded, absent," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + frequens "repeated, regular, constant, often" (see frequent). Related: Infrequently.
infrigidation (n.) Look up infrigidation at
early 15c., in medicine, "a making cold, cooling; a state of coolness," from Late Latin infrigidationem (nominative infrigidatio) "a cooling," noun of action from past participle stem of infrigidare "to make cold," from in- "in, into" (see in- (2)) + frigidare, from frigidus "cold" (see frigid). A verb infrigidate is attested from 1540s.
infringe (v.) Look up infringe at
mid-15c., enfrangen, "to violate," from Latin infringere "to damage, break off, break, bruise," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + frangere "to break" (see fraction). Meaning "encroach" first recorded c. 1760. Related: Infringed; infringing.
infringement (n.) Look up infringement at
"a break or breach" (of a contract, right, etc.), from infringe + -ment. Earlier in a now-obsolete sense of "contradiction" (1590s).
infundibulum (n.) Look up infundibulum at
1799, "funnel-shaped organ or body part," from a Modern Latin use of Latin infundibulum "a funnel," from infundere "to pour into" (see infuse) + -bulum, suffix forming names of instruments. In some cases a loan-translation into Latin of Greek khoane "funnel." Related: Infundibular.
infuriate (v.) Look up infuriate at
1660s, from Italian infuriato, from Medieval Latin infuriatus, past participle of infuriare "to madden, enrage," from Latin in furia "in a fury," from ablative of furia (see fury). Also from 1660s as an adjective in English, but this use is rare. Related: Infuriated; infuriating; infuriation.
infuriating (adj.) Look up infuriating at
1885, present participle adjective from infuriate (v.). Related: Infuriatingly.
infuse (v.) Look up infuse at
early 15c., "to pour in, introduce, soak (something in liquid)," from Latin infusus, past participle of infundere "to pour into, pour out; press in, crowd in; mix, mingle," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + fundere "pour, spread" (see found (v.2)). Related: Infused; infusing; infusory; infusorial.
infusion (n.) Look up infusion at
c. 1400, from Old French infusion (13c.) or directly from Latin infusionem (nominative infusio), noun of action from past participle stem of infundere (see infuse).
ingenious (adj.) Look up ingenious at
early 15c., "intellectual, talented," from Middle French ingénieux "clever, ingenious" (Old French engeignos), from Latin ingeniosus "of good capacity, full of intellect; clever, gifted with genius," from ingenium "innate qualities, ability," literally "that which is inborn," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + gignere, from PIE *gen- "produce" (see genus). Sense of "skillful, clever at contrivance" first recorded 1540s. In a sense of "crafty, clever, skillful" Middle English had enginous (mid-14c.), from Old French engeignos, also engineful "skillful (in war)" (c. 1300). Related: Ingeniously; ingeniousness.
ingenue (n.) Look up ingenue at
1848, from French ingénue "artless girl, especially on the stage," fem. of ingénu "ingenuous, artless, simple" (13c.), from Latin ingenuus (see ingenuous). Italicized in English into 20c.
ingenuity (n.) Look up ingenuity at
1590s, "honor, nobility," from Middle French ingénuité "quality of freedom by birth" and directly from Latin ingenuitatem (nominative ingenuitas) "condition of a free-born man," figuratively "frankness, generosity, noble-mindedness," from ingenuus "frank, candid, noble" (see ingenuous).

Etymologically, this word belongs to ingenuous, but in 17c. ingenious "intellectual, talented" and ingenuous so often were confused (even by Shakespeare) that ingenuity in English has come to mean only "capacity for invention or construction." That sense of this word is first attested 1640s; the word for it in Middle English was ingeniosity (the native word is craftiness). French ingénuité has evolved through "natural and graceful freedom of manners" to "graceful simplicity" (compare ingenue); for the sense "ingeniousness," French uses ingénuosité.
ingenuous (adj.) Look up ingenuous at
1590s, "noble in nature," from Latin ingenuus "with the virtues of freeborn people, of noble character, frank, upright, candid," originally "native, freeborn," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + gen-, root of gignere "beget, produce" (see genus). Sense of "artless, innocent" is 1670s, via evolution from "high-minded" to "honorably open, straightforward," to "innocently frank." Related: Ingenuously; ingenuousness.
ingest (v.) Look up ingest at
1610s, from Latin ingestus, past participle of ingerere "to throw in, pour in, heap upon," from in- "into" (see in- (2)) + gerere "to carry" (see gest). Related: Ingested; ingesting.
ingestion (n.) Look up ingestion at
1610s, from Latin ingestionem (nominative ingestio) "a pouring in," noun of action from past participle stem of ingerere (see ingest).
ingle (n.) Look up ingle at
"fireplace," c. 1500, from Scottish, probably from Gaelic aingeal "fire," of uncertain origin. The vogue for Scottish poetry in late 18c. introduced ingleside, ingle-nook to literary English.
inglorious (adj.) Look up inglorious at
1570s, from Latin ingloriosus, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + gloriosus (see glorious). Related: Ingloriously; ingloriousness.
ingoing (adj.) Look up ingoing at
also in-going, 1825, from in + going.
ingot (n.) Look up ingot at
late 14c., "mold in which metal is cast," probably from in- (2) "in" + Old English goten, past participle of geotan "to pour" (see found (v.2)). Sense of "mass of cast metal" first attested early 15c.
ingrain (v.) Look up ingrain at
see engrain, or ingrained.
ingrained (adj.) Look up ingrained at
"deeply rooted," 1590s, literally "dyed with grain "cochineal," the red dyestuff (see engrain). Figuratively, "thoroughly imbued" (of habits, principles, prejudices, etc.) from 1851. In reference to dyed carpets, etc., it is attested from 1766, from the manufacturing phrase in (the) grain "in the raw material before manufacture."
ingrate (n.) Look up ingrate at
"ungrateful person," 1670s, from earlier adjective meaning "unfriendly" (late 14c.) also "ungrateful, unthankful," from Latin ingratus "unpleasant," also "ungrateful," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + gratus "pleasing, beloved, dear, agreeable" (see grace (n.)).
ingratiate (v.) Look up ingratiate at
1620s, possibly via 16c. Italian ingraziarsi "to bring (oneself) into favor," from Latin in gratiam "for the favor of," from in "in" (see in- (2)) + gratia "favor, grace" (see grace).
ingratitude (n.) Look up ingratitude at
mid-14c., from Old French ingratitude (13c.) and directly from Latin ingratitudinem (nominative ingratitudo), noun of quality from ingratus (see ingrate).
ingredient (n.) Look up ingredient at
early 15c., from Latin ingredientem (nominative ingrediens) "that which enters into" (a compound, recipe, etc.), present participle of ingredi "go in, enter," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + gradi "to step, go" (see grade (n.)).
ingress (n.) Look up ingress at
mid-15c., from Latin ingressus "an advance; walking; an entry," from past participle stem of ingredi "to step into, enter" (see ingredient). The verb, sometimes said to be American English, is attested from early 14c.
ingrown (adj.) Look up ingrown at
1660s, "native, innate," from in + grown. Of nails, "that has grown into the flesh," 1878.
inguinal (adj.) Look up inguinal at
1680s, from Latin inguinalis "of the groin," from inguen (genitive inguinis) "groin," from PIE *engw- "groin, internal organ" (cognates: Greek aden "gland").
inhabit (v.) Look up inhabit at
late 14c., from Old French enhabiter "dwell in" (12c.), from Latin inhabitare "to dwell in," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + habitare "to dwell," frequentative of habere "hold, have" (see habit (n.)). Related: Inhabited; inhabiting.
inhabitable (adj.) Look up inhabitable at
a word used in two opposite senses: "not habitable" (late 14c., from in- (1) "not" + habitable) and "capable of being inhabited" (c. 1600, from inhabit + -able).
inhabitant (n.) Look up inhabitant at
early 15c., from Anglo-French inhabitant, from Latin inhabitantem (nominative inhabitans), present participle of inhabitare (see inhabit). Related: Inhabitants. As an adjective, also from early 15c.
inhalant Look up inhalant at
1825 (adj.), c. 1830 (n.)., from Latin inhalantem, present participle of inhalare (see inhale).
inhalation (n.) Look up inhalation at
1620s, noun of action from past participle stem of Latin inhalare (see inhale).
inhale (v.) Look up inhale at
1725, "to breathe in," back-formation from inhalation or else from Latin inhalare "breathe upon," from in- "upon" (see in- (2)) + halare "breathe." Current sense is because the word was taken as the opposite of exhale. Slang sense of "eat rapidly" is recorded from 1924. As a noun, by 1934. Related: Inhaled; inhaling.
inhance (v.) Look up inhance at
obsolete form of enhance.
inharmonious (adj.) Look up inharmonious at
1711, from in- (1) "not" + harmonious. Related: Inharmoniously.
inhere (v.) Look up inhere at
1580s, "to exist, have being," from Latin inhaerere "to stick in or to" (see inherent). Figurative (immaterial) use attested by 1610s (also in Latin). Related: Inhered; inhering.
inherence (n.) Look up inherence at
1570s, from Medieval Latin inhaerentia, from inhaerentem (see inherent). Related: Inherency (c. 1600).
inherent (adj.) Look up inherent at
1570s, from Latin inhaerentem (nominative inhaerens), present participle of inhaerere "be closely connected with," literally "adhere to," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + haerere "to stick" (see hesitation). Related: Inherently.