infusion (n.) Look up infusion at
c. 1400, from Old French infusion (13c.) or directly from Latin infusionem (nominative infusio), noun of action from past participle stem of infundere (see infuse).
ing (3) Look up ing at
Old English -ing, patronymic suffix (denoting common origin); surviving in place names (Birmingham, Nottingham) where it denotes "tribe, community."
ingenious (adj.) Look up ingenious at
early 15c., "intellectual, talented," from Middle French ingénieux "clever, ingenious" (Old French engeignos), from Latin ingeniosus "of good capacity, full of intellect; clever, gifted with genius," from ingenium "innate qualities, ability," literally "that which is inborn," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + gignere, from PIE *gen- "produce" (see genus). Sense of "skillful, clever at contrivance" first recorded 1540s. In a sense of "crafty, clever, skillful" Middle English had enginous (mid-14c.), from Old French engeignos, also engineful "skillful (in war)" (c. 1300). Related: Ingeniously; ingeniousness.
ingenue (n.) Look up ingenue at
1848, from French ingénue "artless girl, especially on the stage," fem. of ingénu "ingenuous, artless, simple" (13c.), from Latin ingenuus (see ingenuous). Italicized in English into 20c.
ingenuity (n.) Look up ingenuity at
1590s, "honor, nobility," from Middle French ingénuité and directly from Latin ingenuitatem (nominative ingenuitas) "condition of a free-born man," figuratively "generosity, noble-mindedness," from ingenuus (see ingenuous). Etymologically, this word belongs to ingenuous, but in 17c. ingenious and ingenuous so often were confused (even by Shakespeare) that ingenuity has acquired the meaning "capacity for invention or construction" (first attested 1640s).
ingenuous (adj.) Look up ingenuous at
1590s, "noble in nature," from Latin ingenuus "with the virtues of freeborn people, of noble character, frank, upright, candid," originally "native, freeborn," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + gen-, root of gignere "beget, produce" (see genus). Sense of "artless, innocent" is 1670s, via evolution from "high-minded" to "honorably open, straightforward," to "innocently frank." Related: Ingenuously; ingenuousness.
ingest (v.) Look up ingest at
1610s, from Latin ingestus, past participle of ingerere "to throw in, pour in, heap upon," from in- "into" (see in- (2)) + gerere "to carry" (see gest). Related: Ingested; ingesting.
ingestion (n.) Look up ingestion at
1610s, from Latin ingestionem (nominative ingestio) "a pouring in," noun of action from past participle stem of ingerere (see ingest).
ingle (n.) Look up ingle at
"fireplace," c. 1500, from Scottish, probably from Gaelic aingeal "fire," of uncertain origin. The vogue for Scottish poetry in late 18c. introduced ingleside, ingle-nook to literary English.
inglorious (adj.) Look up inglorious at
1570s, from Latin ingloriosus, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + gloriosus (see glorious). Related: Ingloriously; ingloriousness.
ingoing (adj.) Look up ingoing at
also in-going, 1825, from in + going.
ingot (n.) Look up ingot at
late 14c., "mold in which metal is cast," probably from in- (2) "in" + Old English goten, past participle of geotan "to pour" (see found (v.2)). Sense of "mass of cast metal" first attested early 15c.
ingrain (v.) Look up ingrain at
1766, see engrain. Figurative use, of qualities, habits, etc., attested from 1851 (in ingrained). Of dyed carpets, etc., 1766, from in grain.
ingrate (n.) Look up ingrate at
"ungrateful person," 1670s, from earlier adjective meaning "unfriendly" (late 14c.) also "ungrateful, unthankful," from Latin ingratus "unpleasant," also "ungrateful," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + gratus "pleasing, beloved, dear, agreeable" (see grace (n.)). The noun meaning "ungrateful person" dates from 1670s.
ingratiate (v.) Look up ingratiate at
1620s, possibly via 16c. Italian ingraziarsi "to bring (oneself) into favor," from Latin in gratiam "for the favor of," from in "in" (see in- (2)) + gratia "favor, grace" (see grace).
ingratitude (n.) Look up ingratitude at
mid-14c., from Old French ingratitude (13c.) and directly from Latin ingratitudinem (nominative ingratitudo), noun of quality from ingratus (see ingrate).
ingredient (n.) Look up ingredient at
early 15c., from Latin ingredientem (nominative ingrediens) "that which enters into" (a compound, recipe, etc.), present participle of ingredi "go in, enter," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + gradi "to step, go" (see grade (n.)).
ingress (n.) Look up ingress at
mid-15c., from Latin ingressus "an advance; walking; an entry," from past participle stem of ingredi "to step into, enter" (see ingredient). The verb, sometimes said to be American English, is attested from early 14c.
ingrown (adj.) Look up ingrown at
1660s, "native, innate," from in + grown. Of nails, "that has grown into the flesh," 1878.
inguinal (adj.) Look up inguinal at
1680s, from Latin inguinalis "of the groin," from inguen (genitive inguinis) "groin," from PIE *engw- "groin, internal organ" (cognates: Greek aden "gland").
inhabit (v.) Look up inhabit at
late 14c., from Old French enhabiter "dwell in" (12c.), from Latin inhabitare "to dwell in," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + habitare "to dwell," frequentative of habere "hold, have" (see habit (n.)). Related: Inhabited; inhabiting.
inhabitable (adj.) Look up inhabitable at
a word used in two opposite senses: "not habitable" (late 14c., from in- (1) "not" + habitable) and "capable of being inhabited" (c. 1600, from inhabit + -able).
inhabitant (n.) Look up inhabitant at
early 15c., from Anglo-French inhabitant, from Latin inhabitantem (nominative inhabitans), present participle of inhabitare (see inhabit). Related: Inhabitants. As an adjective, also from early 15c.
inhalant Look up inhalant at
1825 (adj.), c. 1830 (n.)., from Latin inhalantem, present participle of inhalare (see inhale).
inhalation (n.) Look up inhalation at
1620s, noun of action from past participle stem of Latin inhalare (see inhale).
inhale (v.) Look up inhale at
1725, "to breathe in," back-formation from inhalation or else from Latin inhalare "breathe upon," from in- "upon" (see in- (2)) + halare "breathe." Related: Inhaled; inhaling. Current sense is because the word was taken as the opposite of exhale. Slang sense of "eat rapidly" is recorded from 1924. As a noun, by 1934. Related: Inhaled; inhaling.
inhance (v.) Look up inhance at
obsolete form of enhance.
inharmonious (adj.) Look up inharmonious at
1711, from in- (1) "not" + harmonious. Related: Inharmoniously.
inhere (v.) Look up inhere at
1580s, "to exist, have being," from Latin inhaerere "to stick in or to" (see inherent). Figurative (immaterial) use attested by 1610s (also in Latin). Related: Inhered; inhering.
inherence (n.) Look up inherence at
1570s, from Medieval Latin inhaerentia, from inhaerentem (see inherent). Related: Inherency (c. 1600).
inherent (adj.) Look up inherent at
1570s, from Latin inhaerentem (nominative inhaerens), present participle of inhaerere "be closely connected with," literally "adhere to," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + haerere "to stick" (see hesitation). Related: Inherently.
inherit (v.) Look up inherit at
c. 1300, "to make (someone) an heir," from Old French enheriter "make heir, appoint as heir," from Late Latin inhereditare "to appoint as heir," from Latin in- "in" (see in- (2)) + hereditare "to inherit," from heres (genitive heredis) "heir" (see heredity). Sense of "receive inheritance" arose mid-14c.; original sense is retained in disinherit. Related: Inherited; inheriting.
inheritance (n.) Look up inheritance at
late 14c., enheritaunce "fact of receiving by hereditary succession;" early 15c. as "that which is inherited," from Anglo-French enheritance, Old French enheritaunce, from enheriter (see inherit). Heritance "act of inheriting" is from mid-15c.
inhibit (v.) Look up inhibit at
early 15c., "to forbid, prohibit," back-formation from inhibition or else from Latin inhibitus, past participle of inhibere "to hold in, hold back, keep back" (see inhibition). Psychological sense (1876) is from earlier, softened meaning of "restrain, check, hinder" (1530s). Related: Inhibited; inhibiting.
inhibition (n.) Look up inhibition at
late 14c., "formal prohibition; interdiction of legal proceedings by authority;" also, the document setting forth such a prohibition, from Old French inibicion and directly from Latin inhibitionem (nominative inhibitio) "a restraining," from past participle stem of inhibere "to hold in, hold back, keep back," from in- "in, on" (see in- (2)) + habere "to hold" (see habit (n.)). Psychological sense of "involuntary check on an expression of an impulse" is from 1876.
inhibitor (n.) Look up inhibitor at
1868 in scientific use (earlier as a Scottish legal term), agent noun in Latin form from inhibit.
inhibitory (adj.) Look up inhibitory at
late 15c., from Medieval Latin inhibitorius, from past participle stem of Latin inhibere (see inhibition).
inhospitable (adj.) Look up inhospitable at
1560s, from Middle French inhospitable (15c.), from Medieval Latin inhospitabilis (equivalent of Latin inhospitalis), from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Medieval Latin hospitabilis (see hospitable).
inhouse (adj.) Look up inhouse at
also in-house, 1955, from in + house.
inhuman (adj.) Look up inhuman at
mid-15c., "cruel," from Latin inhumanus "inhuman, savage, cruel, rude, barbarous," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + humanus "human" (see human). Spelled inhumane till 18c. (see humane).
inhumane (adj.) Look up inhumane at
late 15c., from Latin inhumanus (see inhuman). Originally a variant spelling and pronunciation of inhuman, it appears to have died out 17c. but been revived c. 1822 as a negative form of humane.
inhumanity (n.) Look up inhumanity at
late 15c., from French inhumanité (14c.) or directly from Latin inhumanitatem (nominative inhumanitas) "inhuman conduct, savageness," noun of quality from inhumanus (see inhuman).
And Man, whose heav'n-erected face
The smiles of love adorn,--
Man's inhumanity to man
Makes countless thousands mourn!
[Robert Burns, "Man was Made to Mourn," 1784]
inhumation (n.) Look up inhumation at
1630s, noun of action from Latin inhumare (see inhume).
inhume (v.) Look up inhume at
c. 1600 (implied in inhumed), from Latin inhumare "to bury," literally "to put into the ground," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + humus "earth, soil" (see humus).
Inigo Look up Inigo at
masc. proper name, from Spanish Iñigo, probably from Latin Ignatius.
inimical (adj.) Look up inimical at
1640s, from Late Latin inimicalis "hostile," from Latin inimicus "unfriendly, an enemy" (see enemy).
Inimical expresses both feeling and action, generally in private affairs. Hostile also expresses both feeling and action, but applies especially to public affairs: where it applies to private matters, it expresses either strong or conspicuous action or feeling, or both, or all. [Century Dictionary, 1906]
inimitability (n.) Look up inimitability at
1711, from inimitable + -ity.
inimitable (adj.) Look up inimitable at
late 15c., from Latin inimitabilis "that cannot be imitated," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + imitabilis (see imitable). Related: Inimitably.
iniquitous (adj.) Look up iniquitous at
1726, from iniquity + -ous. Related: Iniquitously.
iniquity (n.) Look up iniquity at
c. 1300, "hostility, malevolence; a hostile action," from Old French iniquité "wickedness, unfavorable situation," from Latin iniquitatem (nominative iniquitas) "unequalness, unevenness, injustice," noun of quality from iniquus "unjust, unequal; slanting, steep," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + aequus "just, equal" (see equal (adj.)). For vowel change, see acquisition. Meaning "evil, wickedness" is from late 14c.