informal (adj.) Look up informal at
mid-15c., "lacking form; not in accordance with the rules of formal logic," from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + formal. Meaning "irregular, unofficial" is from c. 1600. Sense of "done without ceremony" is from 1828. Related: Informally.
informality (n.) Look up informality at
1590s, from informal + -ity.
informant (n.) Look up informant at
1660s, "someone or something that supplies information," from Latin informantem (nominative informans), present participle of informare (see inform). Meaning "one who gives information to the authorities, informer" is from 1783. As an adjective from 1890. The older noun was informer.
informatics (n.) Look up informatics at
1967, translating Russian informatika (1966), from information; also see -ics.
information (n.) Look up information at
late 14c., "act of informing," from Old French informacion, enformacion "information, advice, instruction," from Latin informationem (nominative informatio) "outline, concept, idea," noun of action from past participle stem of informare (see inform). Meaning "knowledge communicated" is from mid-15c. Information technology attested from 1958. Information revolution from 1969.
informative (adj.) Look up informative at
"instructive," late 14c., "formative, shaping, plastic," from Medieval Latin informativus, from Latin informatus, past participle of informare (see inform). Related: Informatively.
informer (n.) Look up informer at
late 14c., enfourmer "instructor, teacher," native agent noun from inform and also from Old French enformeor. Meaning "one who gives information against another" (especially in reference to law-breaking) is c. 1500.
infotainment (n.) Look up infotainment at
1983, from info- + entertainment.
infra (adv.) Look up infra at
"under, below, further on," from Latin infra (see infra-).
infra dig. Look up infra dig. at
1824, colloquial abbreviation of Latin infra dignitatem "beneath the dignity of."
infra- Look up infra- at
word-forming element from Latin infra (adv., prep.) "below, underneath, beneath; later than, smaller, inferior to," from PIE *ndher "under" (cognates: Sanskrit adnah "below," Old English under "under, among;" see under). Opposed to super-. Its use as a prefix was rare in Latin.
infra-red Look up infra-red at
also infrared, 1881 (noun and adjective), from infra- + red.
infraction (n.) Look up infraction at
mid-15c., "the breaking of an agreement," from Middle French infraction and directly from Latin infractionem (nominative infractio) "a breaking, weakening," noun of action from past participle stem of infringere "to break, crush" (see infringe).
infralapsarian (adj.) Look up infralapsarian at
1731, from infra- + Latin lapsus "a fall" (see lapse (n.)) + ending from unitarian, etc. In reference to the Calvinist doctrine that god's election of some to everlasting life was consequent to his decree to allow the Fall of man, and was thus a remedial measure. Contrasted to supralapsarian, in reference to the belief that He always meant to consign most of mankind to eternal fire and that the decision to create some men to be damned was his first decree. There's also a moderate sublapsarian view. Here the decree to elect those who would believe and leave those who do not believe to damnation also comes after the decree to allow the fall, but the decree to provide salvation for man comes immediately after the decree to elect.
infrasonic (adj.) Look up infrasonic at
1927, from infra- + sonic.
infrastructure (n.) Look up infrastructure at
1887, from French infrastructure (1875); see infra- + structure (n.). The installations that form the basis for any operation or system. Originally in a military sense.
infrequency (n.) Look up infrequency at
c. 1600, from Latin infrequentia "a small number, thinness, scantiness," noun of quality from infrequentem (see infrequent). Related: Infrequence (1640s).
infrequent (adj.) Look up infrequent at
1530s, from Latin infrequentem (nominative infrequens) "occurring seldom, unusual; not crowded, absent," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + frequens (see frequent). Related: Infrequently.
infrigidation (n.) Look up infrigidation at
early 15c., from Late Latin infrigidationem (nominative infrigidatio), noun of action from infrigidare "to make cold," from in- "in, into" (see in- (2)) + frigidare, from frigidus "cold" (see frigid). Related: infrigidate (v.).
infringe (v.) Look up infringe at
mid-15c., enfrangen, "to violate," from Latin infringere "to damage, break off, break, bruise," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + frangere "to break" (see fraction). Meaning of "encroach" first recorded c. 1760. Related: Infringed; infringing.
infringement (n.) Look up infringement at
1590s, from infringe + -ment.
infundibulum (n.) Look up infundibulum at
1799 in the anatomical sense, from Latin infundibulum, literally "a funnel," from infundere "to pour into" (see infuse) + -bulum, suffix forming names of instruments. In some cases a loan-translation into Latin of Greek khoane "funnel." Related: Infundibular.
infuriate (v.) Look up infuriate at
1660s, from Italian infuriato, from Medieval Latin infuriatus, past participle of infuriare "to madden," from Latin in furia "in a fury," from ablative of furia (see fury). Related: Infuriated; infuriating; infuriatingly.
infuse (v.) Look up infuse at
early 15c., "to pour in, introduce, soak," from Latin infusus, past participle of infundere "to pour into," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + fundere "pour, spread" (see found (v.2)). Figurative sense of "instill, inspire" first recorded 1520s (infusion in this sense dates from mid-15c.). Related: Infused; infusing.
infusion (n.) Look up infusion at
c. 1400, from Old French infusion (13c.) or directly from Latin infusionem (nominative infusio), noun of action from past participle stem of infundere (see infuse).
ingenious (adj.) Look up ingenious at
early 15c., "intellectual, talented," from Middle French ingénieux "clever, ingenious" (Old French engeignos), from Latin ingeniosus "of good capacity, full of intellect; clever, gifted with genius," from ingenium "innate qualities, ability," literally "that which is inborn," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + gignere, from PIE *gen- "produce" (see genus). Sense of "skillful, clever at contrivance" first recorded 1540s. In a sense of "crafty, clever, skillful" Middle English had enginous (mid-14c.), from Old French engeignos, also engineful "skillful (in war)" (c. 1300). Related: Ingeniously; ingeniousness.
ingenue (n.) Look up ingenue at
1848, from French ingénue "artless girl, especially on the stage," fem. of ingénu "ingenuous, artless, simple" (13c.), from Latin ingenuus (see ingenuous). Italicized in English into 20c.
ingenuity (n.) Look up ingenuity at
1590s, "honor, nobility," from Middle French ingénuité and directly from Latin ingenuitatem (nominative ingenuitas) "condition of a free-born man," figuratively "generosity, noble-mindedness," from ingenuus (see ingenuous). Etymologically, this word belongs to ingenuous, but in 17c. ingenious and ingenuous so often were confused (even by Shakespeare) that ingenuity has acquired the meaning "capacity for invention or construction" (first attested 1640s).
ingenuous (adj.) Look up ingenuous at
1590s, "noble in nature," from Latin ingenuus "with the virtues of freeborn people, of noble character, frank, upright, candid," originally "native, freeborn," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + gen-, root of gignere "beget, produce" (see genus). Sense of "artless, innocent" is 1670s, via evolution from "high-minded" to "honorably open, straightforward," to "innocently frank." Related: Ingenuously; ingenuousness.
ingest (v.) Look up ingest at
1610s, from Latin ingestus, past participle of ingerere "to throw in, pour in, heap upon," from in- "into" (see in- (2)) + gerere "to carry" (see gest). Related: Ingested; ingesting.
ingestion (n.) Look up ingestion at
1610s, from Latin ingestionem (nominative ingestio) "a pouring in," noun of action from past participle stem of ingerere (see ingest).
ingle (n.) Look up ingle at
"fireplace," c. 1500, from Scottish, probably from Gaelic aingeal "fire," of uncertain origin. The vogue for Scottish poetry in late 18c. introduced ingleside, ingle-nook to literary English.
inglorious (adj.) Look up inglorious at
1570s, from Latin ingloriosus, from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + gloriosus (see glorious). Related: Ingloriously; ingloriousness.
ingoing (adj.) Look up ingoing at
also in-going, 1825, from in + going.
ingot (n.) Look up ingot at
late 14c., "mold in which metal is cast," probably from in- (2) "in" + Old English goten, past participle of geotan "to pour" (see found (v.2)). Sense of "mass of cast metal" first attested early 15c.
ingrain (v.) Look up ingrain at
1766, see engrain. Figurative use, of qualities, habits, etc., attested from 1851 (in ingrained). Of dyed carpets, etc., 1766, from in grain.
ingrate (n.) Look up ingrate at
"ungrateful person," 1670s, from earlier adjective meaning "unfriendly" (late 14c.) also "ungrateful, unthankful," from Latin ingratus "unpleasant," also "ungrateful," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + gratus "pleasing, beloved, dear, agreeable" (see grace (n.)). The noun meaning "ungrateful person" dates from 1670s.
ingratiate (v.) Look up ingratiate at
1620s, possibly via 16c. Italian ingraziarsi "to bring (oneself) into favor," from Latin in gratiam "for the favor of," from in "in" (see in- (2)) + gratia "favor, grace" (see grace).
ingratitude (n.) Look up ingratitude at
mid-14c., from Old French ingratitude (13c.) and directly from Latin ingratitudinem (nominative ingratitudo), noun of quality from ingratus (see ingrate).
ingredient (n.) Look up ingredient at
early 15c., from Latin ingredientem (nominative ingrediens) "that which enters into" (a compound, recipe, etc.), present participle of ingredi "go in, enter," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + gradi "to step, go" (see grade (n.)).
ingress (n.) Look up ingress at
mid-15c., from Latin ingressus "an advance; walking; an entry," from past participle stem of ingredi "to step into, enter" (see ingredient). The verb, sometimes said to be American English, is attested from early 14c.
ingrown (adj.) Look up ingrown at
1660s, "native, innate," from in + grown. Of nails, "that has grown into the flesh," 1878.
inguinal (adj.) Look up inguinal at
1680s, from Latin inguinalis "of the groin," from inguen (genitive inguinis) "groin," from PIE *engw- "groin, internal organ" (cognates: Greek aden "gland").
inhabit (v.) Look up inhabit at
late 14c., from Old French enhabiter "dwell in" (12c.), from Latin inhabitare "to dwell in," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + habitare "to dwell," frequentative of habere "hold, have" (see habit (n.)). Related: Inhabited; inhabiting.
inhabitable (adj.) Look up inhabitable at
a word used in two opposite senses: "not habitable" (late 14c., from in- (1) "not" + habitable) and "capable of being inhabited" (c. 1600, from inhabit + -able).
inhabitant (n.) Look up inhabitant at
early 15c., from Anglo-French inhabitant, from Latin inhabitantem (nominative inhabitans), present participle of inhabitare (see inhabit). Related: Inhabitants. As an adjective, also from early 15c.
inhalant Look up inhalant at
1825 (adj.), c. 1830 (n.)., from Latin inhalantem, present participle of inhalare (see inhale).
inhalation (n.) Look up inhalation at
1620s, noun of action from past participle stem of Latin inhalare (see inhale).
inhale (v.) Look up inhale at
1725, "to breathe in," back-formation from inhalation or else from Latin inhalare "breathe upon," from in- "upon" (see in- (2)) + halare "breathe." Related: Inhaled; inhaling. Current sense is because the word was taken as the opposite of exhale. Slang sense of "eat rapidly" is recorded from 1924. As a noun, by 1934. Related: Inhaled; inhaling.
inhance (v.) Look up inhance at
obsolete form of enhance.