Indo-Germanic (adj.) Look up Indo-Germanic at
1835, from German; see Indo-European.
Indo-Iranian (adj.) Look up Indo-Iranian at
1838, from Indo- + Iranian.
Indo-Pacific (adj.) Look up Indo-Pacific at
1851, in biology, from Indo- + Pacific.
indocile (adj.) Look up indocile at
c. 1600, from French indocile (15c.) or directly from Latin indocilis, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + docilis (see docile).
indoctrinate (v.) Look up indoctrinate at
formerly also endoctrinate, 1620s, "to teach," formed as if from Latin (but there seems to have been no word *indoctrinare), perhaps modeled on French endoctriner or extended from earlier (now obsolete) verb indoctrine, endoctrine, "to instruct" (mid-15c.); see in- (2) "in" + doctrine + -ate (2)). Meaning "to imbue with an idea or opinion" first recorded 1832. Related: Indoctrinated; indoctrinating.
indoctrination (n.) Look up indoctrination at
1640s, "instruction," noun of action from indoctrinate. In reference to imbuing with opinions or ideology, from 1865.
indolence (n.) Look up indolence at
c. 1600, "indifference to pain," from French indolence (16c.) or directly from Late Latin indolentia "freedom from pain, insensibility," noun of state from Latin indolentem (nominative indolens) "insensitive to pain," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + dolentem (nominative dolens) "grieving," present participle of dolere "suffer pain, grieve" (see doleful). Originally of prisoners under torture, etc. The intermediate sense "state of rest or ease neither pleasant nor painful" (1650s) is now obsolete as well; main modern sense of "laziness, love of ease" (1710) perhaps reflects the notion of avoiding trouble (compare taking pains "working hard, striving (to do)").
The Castle hight of Indolence,
And its false Luxury;
Where for a little Time, alas!
We liv'd right jollity.

[Thomson, "The Castle of Indolence," 1748]
indolent (adj.) Look up indolent at
1660s, "causing no pain, painless," from French indolent (16c.) or directly from Late Latin indolentem (see indolence). Sense of "living easily, slothful," is 1710, a sense perhaps developed in French. Related: Indolently.
indomitable (adj.) Look up indomitable at
1630s, "that cannot be tamed or subdued," from Late Latin indomitabilis "untameable," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + *domitabilis, from Latin domitare, frequentative of domare "to tame" (see tame (adj.)). In reference to persons or personal qualities, "unyielding, persistent, resolute," by 1830. Related: Indomitably.
Indonesia Look up Indonesia at
"the East Indies," 1850, from Indo- "India" + Greek nesos "island" (see Chersonese) + -ia. Formerly called Indian Archipelago or East Indies Islands (see Indies). Related: Indonesian "of or from the East Indies" (1850).
indoor (adj.) Look up indoor at
also in-door, 1711, opposed to outdoor, contracted from within door; the form indoors is attested from 1759 (within-doors is from 1750). As an adverb from 1884.
indorse (v.) Look up indorse at
see endorse.
indorsement (n.) Look up indorsement at
see endorsement.
Indra Look up Indra at
Vedic thunder god, from Sanskrit Indrah, a word of uncertain origin.
indrawn (adj.) Look up indrawn at
also in-drawn, 1751, from in (adv.) + past tense of draw (v.). Middle English had indraw "bring about, cause" (late 14c.), "pull inward" (early 15c.). Also compare indraft "inward flow, a drawing in" (1590s). The modern verb indraw (1883) is rare and might be a back-formation.
indri (n.) Look up indri at
1839, European name for the babakoto, a lemur-like arboreal primate of Madagascar (Indris Lichanotus); the common story since late 19c. is that the name was given in error by French naturalist Pierre Sonnerat (1748-1814), c. 1780, from mistaken use of Malagasy indry! "Look! See!" this being what his native guides said when they spotted the creature and called his attention to it.
However, as Hacking (1981) pointed out, Sonnerat was far too familiar with indris -- he described and figured them in detail, and apparently kept at least one in captivity -- for this story to be plausible. Furthermore, endrina is actually recorded as a native name for the indri (Cousins, 1885), and indri could easily be a variant of this name. Although the word endrina is first recorded in Malagasy only in 1835, there is no evidence that it could be a back-formation from the French indri (Hacking, 1981), and it seems implausible that the Malagasy would adopt an erroneous French name for an animal they were them selves familiar with. [Dunkel, Alexander R., et al., "Giant rabbits, marmosets, and British comedies: etymology of lemur names, part 1," in "Lemur News," vol. 16, 2011-2012, p.67]
indubious (adj.) Look up indubious at
"certain, not doubtful," 1620s, from Latin indubius "not doubtful," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + dubius "vacillating, fluctuating," figuratively "wavering in opinion, doubting" (see dubious). Related: Indubiously.
indubitable (adj.) Look up indubitable at
mid-15c., "too plain to admit of doubt," from Latin indubitabilis "that cannot be doubted," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + dubitabilis "doubtful," from dubitare "hesitate, doubt" (see doubt (v.)).
indubitably (adv.) Look up indubitably at
"unquestionably, without a doubt," late 15c., from indubitable + -ly (2).
induce (v.) Look up induce at
formerly also enduce, late 14c., "to lead by persuasions or other influences," from Latin inducere "lead into, bring in, introduce, conduct; persuade; suppose, imagine," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + ducere "to lead" (see duke (n.)). Meaning "to bring about" in any way (in reference to a trance, a fever, etc.) is from early 15c.; sense of "to infer by reasoning" is from 1560s. Electro-magnetic sense first recorded 1777. Related: Induced; inducing.
inducement (n.) Look up inducement at
1590s, "that which induces," from induce + -ment.
inducive (adj.) Look up inducive at
"tending to induce," 1610s, from induce + -ive.
induct (v.) Look up induct at
late 14c., "introduce, initiate, especially into office or employment," from Latin inductus, past participle of inducere "to lead into, introduce" (see induce). Originally of church offices; sense of "bring into military service" is 1934 in American English. Related: Inducted; inducting.
inductance (n.) Look up inductance at
1886, in electricity, from induct + -ance.
inductee (n.) Look up inductee at
1941, American English, from induct + -ee.
induction (n.) Look up induction at
late 14c., "advancement toward the grace of God;" also (c. 1400) "formal installation of a clergyman," from Old French induction (14c.) or directly from Latin inductionem (nominative inductio) "a leading in, introduction, admission," noun of action from past participle stem of inducere "to lead" (see induce).

As a term in logic (early 15c.) it is from Cicero's use of inductio to translate Greek epagoge "leading to" in Aristotle. Induction starts with known instances and arrives at generalizations; deduction starts from the general principle and arrives at some individual fact. As a term in physics, in reference to electrical influence, 1801; military service sense is from 1934, American English. Related: Inductional.
inductive (adj.) Look up inductive at
early 15c., "bringing on, inducing," from Old French inductif or directly from Late Latin inductivus "serving to induce or infer," from induct-, past participle stem of Latin inducere (see induce). As a term in logic, "based on induction" (q.v.), from 1764. Related: Inductively.
inductor (n.) Look up inductor at
1650s, "one who initiates," agent noun from Latin stem of induce. Classical Latin inductor meant "one who stirs up, an instigator." Electromagnetic senses are from 1837.
indulge (v.) Look up indulge at
formerly also endulge, 1630s, "to grant as a favor;" 1650s, "to treat with unearned favor" (in reference both to persons and desires), a back-formation from indulgence (q.v.), or else from Latin indulgere "be complaisant, be indulgent, yield; give oneself up to;" probably a compound verb with first element in- "in," but the second element is obscure. Related: Indulged; indulging; indulgingly.
indulgence (n.) Look up indulgence at
mid-14c., in the Church sense, "a freeing from temporal punishment for sin, remission from punishment for sin that remains due after absolution," from Old French indulgence or directly from Latin indulgentia "complaisance, a yielding; fondness, tenderness, affection; remission," from indulgentem (nominative indulgens) "indulgent, kind, tender, fond," present participle of indulgere "be kind; yield, concede, be complaisant; give oneself up to, be addicted," a word of uncertain origin; perhaps from in- "in" + a derivative of PIE root *dlegh- "to engage oneself," the source of play (v.) and plight (v.).

Sense of "leniency, forbearance of restraint or control of another, gratification of desire or humor" is attested from late 14c. That of "yielding to one's inclinations" (technically self-indulgence) in English is from 1630s. In British history, Indulgence also refers to grants of certain liberties to Nonconformists under Charles II and James II, as special favors rather than legal rights. The sale of indulgences in the original Church sense was done at times merely to raise money and was widely considered corrupt; the one in 1517 helped to spark the Protestant revolt in Germany.
indulgent (adj.) Look up indulgent at
"lenient, willing to overlook faults," often in a bad sense, "too lenient," c. 1500, from Latin indulgentem (nominative indulgens) "kind, tender, fond," present participle of indulgere "be kind, be complaisant, yield" (see indulgence). Related: Indulgently.
indurate (v.) Look up indurate at
1590s (transitive) "make hard;" 1620s (intransitive) "grow harder," from Latin induratus, past participle of indurare "to make hard, harden" (see endure). Related: Indurated.
indurate (adj.) Look up indurate at
"hardened, made hard," early 15c., from Latin induratus, past participle of indurare "to make hard, harden" (see endure).
induration (n.) Look up induration at
late 14c., "a hardening or congealing" (of body parts, alchemical materials), from Old French induracion "hardness, obstinacy" (14c.) or directly from Medieval Latin indurationem (nominative induratio) "hardness (especially of the heart)," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin indurare "to make hard, harden" (see endure).
Indus Look up Indus at
river in Asia, from Sanskrit sindhu "river." The southern constellation, created 1603 by Bayer, represents "an Indian," not the river.
industrial (adj.) Look up industrial at
1774, "resulting from labor," from French industriel, from Medieval Latin industrialis, from Latin industria "diligence, activity" (see industry). There is an isolated earlier used in the same sense from 1580s, from Latin industria.

The main modern meaning "pertaining to the manufacture of commodities, connected with the application of industry to manufactures" is from 1830, from a sense in French.

Meaning "suitable for industrial use" is from 1904. As a style of dance music, attested from 1988. Industrial revolution was in use by 1840 to refer to what were then recent developments and changes in England and elsewhere.
industrialisation (n.) Look up industrialisation at
chiefly British English spelling of industrialization (q.v.); for spelling, see -ize.
industrialism (n.) Look up industrialism at
1831, from industrial + -ism. Probably modeled on French industrialisme (Saint-Simon, 1823).
industrialist (n.) Look up industrialist at
1846, from industrial + -ist. Perhaps modeled on French industrialiste (Saint-Simon, 1823). Earlier "one who makes a living by productive industry" (1837).
industrialization (n.) Look up industrialization at
1883, noun of action from industrialize (q.v.).
industrialize (v.) Look up industrialize at
1852, from industrial + -ize. Probably modeled on French industrialiser (1842). Related: Industrialized; industrializing.
industrious (adj.) Look up industrious at
1550s, "characterized by energy, effort, and attention; marked by industry," from Middle French industrieux (c. 1500) and directly from Late Latin industriosus, from Latin industria "diligence, activity" (see industry). Of persons, "given to industry, working diligently," 1590s. It retains the etymological sense of the Latin word while industrial serves in the modern senses. Related: Industriously; industriousness.
industry (n.) Look up industry at
late 15c., "cleverness, skill," from Old French industrie "activity; aptitude, experience" (14c.) or directly from Latin industria "diligence, activity, zeal," noun use of fem. of industrius "active, diligent," from early Latin indostruus "diligent," from indu "in, within" (see indigenous) + stem of struere "to build" (see structure (n.)). The meaning "habitual diligence, effort" is from 1530s; that of "systematic work" is from 1610s. The sense "a particular trade or manufacture" is first recorded 1560s.
indwelling (n.) Look up indwelling at
"act of residing," late 14c. (Wyclif's translation of Latin inhabitatio), present participle of obsolete indwell, from in (adv.) + dwell (v.). He also used indweller for Latin inhabitans and indwell (v.) for inhabitare.
inebriate (v.) Look up inebriate at
late 15c., from Latin inebriatus, past participle of inebriare "to make drunk," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + ebriare "make drunk," from ebrius "drunk," probably from PIE root *hegwh- "to drink." Related: Inebriated; inebriating. Also used in 19c. English were inebriacy (1876); inebriant, noun (1819) and adjective (1828); inebriety (1801); and inebrious (1837).
inebriated (adj.) Look up inebriated at
"drunken," c. 1600, past participle adjective from inebriate. The earlier adjective was inebriate (late 15c.).
inebriation (n.) Look up inebriation at
1520s, from Late Latin inebriationem (nominative inebriatio) "drunkenness," noun of action from past participle stem of inebriare "make drunk" (see inebriate).
ineconomy (n.) Look up ineconomy at
"waste of resources," 1881, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + economy (n.).
inedible (adj.) Look up inedible at
"unfit to eat," 1774, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + edible. Related: Inedibly; inedibility (1879).
inedita (n.) Look up inedita at
"unpublished writings," Modern Latin noun use of neuter plural of Latin ineditus, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + editus, past participle of edere "to bring forth, produce" (see edition).