infarct (n.) Look up infarct at
1873, from medical Latin infarctus (Latin infartus), past participle of infarcire "to stuff into," from in- + farcire “to stuff” (see farce).
infarction (n.) Look up infarction at
1680s, noun of action from Latin infarcire (see infarct).
infatigable (adj.) Look up infatigable at
c. 1500, from French infatigable (15c.), from Latin infatigabilis, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + fatigabilis, from fatigare "to weary" (see fatigue).
infatuate (v.) Look up infatuate at
1530s, "turn (something) to foolishness, frustrate," from Latin infatuatus, past participle of infatuare "make a fool of," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + fatuus "foolish." Specific sense of "inspire (in someone) a foolish romantic passion" is from 1620s. Related: Infatuated; infatuating.
infatuation (n.) Look up infatuation at
1640s, noun of action from infatuate, or else from French infatuation or directly from Late Latin infatuationem (nominative infatuatio), from past participle stem of infatuare.
infeasibility (n.) Look up infeasibility at
1650s, from infeasible + -ity.
infeasible (adj.) Look up infeasible at
1530s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + feasible.
infect (v.) Look up infect at
late 14c., from Latin infectus, past participle of inficere "to spoil, stain," literally "to put in to, dip into," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + facere "to make, do, perform" (see factitious). Related: Infected; infecting.
infection (n.) Look up infection at
late 14c., "infectious disease; contaminated condition;" from Old French infeccion "contamination, poisoning" (13c.) and directly from Late Latin infectionem (nominative infectio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin inficere (see infect). Meaning "communication of disease by agency of air or water" (distinguished from contagion, which is body-to-body communication), is from 1540s.
infectious (adj.) Look up infectious at
"catching, having the quality of spreading from person to person," 1540s of diseases, 1610s of emotions, actions, etc.; see infect + -ous.
infective (adj.) Look up infective at
late 14c., from Latin infectivus, from infectus (see infect).
infelicitous (adj.) Look up infelicitous at
1754, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + felicitous. Related: infelicitously.
infelicity (n.) Look up infelicity at
late 14c., from Latin infelicitas "ill luck, misfortune," from infelix (genitive infelicis) "unfruitful, barren; unfortunate, unhappy, causing misfortune, unlucky," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + felix (see felicity).
infer (v.) Look up infer at
1520s, from Latin inferre "bring into, carry in; deduce, infer, conclude, draw an inference; bring against," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + ferre "carry, bear," from PIE *bher- (1) "to bear, to carry, to take" (cognates: Sanskrit bharati "carries;" Avestan baraiti "carries;" Old Persian barantiy "they carry;" Armenian berem "I carry;" Greek pherein "to carry;" Old Irish beru/berim "I catch, I bring forth;" Gothic bairan "to carry;" Old English and Old High German beran, Old Norse bera "barrow;" Old Church Slavonic birati "to take;" Russian brat' "to take," bremya "a burden"). Sense of "draw a conclusion" is first attested 1520s.
inference (n.) Look up inference at
1590s, from Medieval Latin inferentia, from Latin inferentem (nominative inferens), present participle of inferre (see infer).
inferential (adj.) Look up inferential at
1650s, from Medieval Latin inferentia (see inference) + adj. suffix -al (1).
inferior (adj.) Look up inferior at
early 15c., of land, "low, lower," from Latin inferior "lower, further down" (also used figuratively), comparative of inferus (adj.) "that is below or beneath," from infra "below" (see infra-). Meaning "lower in degree, rank, or importance" is from 1530s; also in an absolute sense, "of low quality or rank."
inferior (n.) Look up inferior at
"person inferior to another in rank, etc.," early 15c., from inferior (adj.).
inferiority (n.) Look up inferiority at
1590s, probably from Medieval Latin *inferioritas; see inferior + -ity. Inferiority complex first attested 1922.
The surrender of life is nothing to sinking down into acknowledgment of inferiority. [John C. Calhoun]
infernal (adj.) Look up infernal at
late 14c., in reference to the underworld, from Old French enfernal, infernal (12c.), from Late Latin infernalis "of the lower regions," from infernus "hell" (Ambrose), literally "the lower (world)," noun use of Latin infernus "lower, lying beneath," from infra "below" (see infra-). Meaning "devilish, hateful" is from early 15c. For the name of the place, or things which resemble it, the Italian form inferno has been used in English since 1834, from Dante. Related: Infernally.
inferno (n.) Look up inferno at
1834, from Italian inferno, from Latin infernus (see infernal).
infertile (adj.) Look up infertile at
1590s, from French infertile (late 15c.), from Late Latin infertilis "unfruitful," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + fertilis (see fertile).
infertility (n.) Look up infertility at
c. 1600, from Late Latin infertilitatem (nominative infertilitas), from infertilis (see infertile).
infest (v.) Look up infest at
late 15c., "to attack, assail, hurt, distress, annoy," from Middle French infester, from Latin infestare "to attack, disturb, trouble," from infestus "hostile, dangerous," originally "inexorable, not able to be handled," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + -festus "(able to be) seized." Sense of "swarm over in large numbers" first recorded c. 1600. Related: Infested; infesting.
infestation (n.) Look up infestation at
early 15c., from Late Latin infestationem (nominative infestatio) "a troubling, disturbing, molesting," noun of action from past participle stem of infestare (see infest).
infibulate (v.) Look up infibulate at
1620s, from Latin infibulatus, past participle of infibulare "to close with a clasp," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + fibula "a clasp, pin" (see fibula). Related: Infibulated.
infibulation (n.) Look up infibulation at
1640s, noun of action from infibulate.
infidel Look up infidel at
mid-15c. (adjective and noun), from Middle French infidèle, from Latin infidelis "unfaithful, not to be trusted," later "unbelieving," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + fidelis "faithful" (see fidelity). In 15c. "a non-Christian" (especially a Saracen); later "one who does not believe in religion" (1520s). Also used to translate Arabic qafir, which is from a root meaning "to disbelieve, to deny," strictly referring to all non-Muslims but virtually synonymous with "Christian;" hence, from a Muslim or Jewish point of view, "a Christian" (1530s; see kaffir).
infidelity (n.) Look up infidelity at
c. 1400, "want of faith, unbelief in religion; false belief, paganism;" also (early 15c.) "unfaithfulness or disloyalty to a person" (originally to a sovereign, by 16c. to a lover or spouse), from French infidélité, from Latin infidelitatem (nominative infidelitas) "unfaithfulness, faithlessness," noun of quality from infidelis (see infidel).
infield (n.) Look up infield at
1733, "the land of a farm which lies nearest the homestead," from in + field. Baseball diamond sense first attested 1867. Related: Infielder.
infiltrate (v.) Look up infiltrate at
1758, of fluids, from in- (2) "in" + filtrate. Related: Infiltrated; infiltrating. Military sense of "penetrate enemy lines" attested from 1934.
infiltration (n.) Look up infiltration at
early 15c., "a knitting together," noun of action from infiltrate. In physics, from 1796. Figurative sense of "a passing into" (anything immaterial) is from 1840; military sense of "stealthy penetration of enemy lines" dates from 1930.
infinite (adj.) Look up infinite at
late 14c., "eternal, limitless," also "extremely great in number," from Old French infinit "endless, boundless," and directly from Latin infinitus "unbounded, unlimited," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + finitus "defining, definite," from finis "end" (see finish (v.)). The noun meaning "that which is infinite" is from 1580s.
infinitely (adv.) Look up infinitely at
early 15c., from infinite + -ly (2).
infinitesimal (adj.) Look up infinitesimal at
1710 (1650s as a noun), "infinitely small," from Modern Latin infinitesimus, from Latin infinitus "infinite" (see infinite) + -esimus, as in centesimus "hundredth." Related: Infinitesimally.
infinitive (n.) Look up infinitive at
"simple, uninflected form of a verb," 1510s (mid-15c. as an adjective), from Late Latin infinitivus "unlimited, indefinite," from Latin infinitus (see infinite). "Indefinite" because not having definite person or number.
infinitude (n.) Look up infinitude at
1640s, from Medieval Latin *infinitudo, from Latin infinitus on model of multitudo, magnitudo; see infinite. Perhaps modeled on French infinitude (1610s).
infinity (n.) Look up infinity at
late 14c., from Old French infinité "infinity; large number or quantity" (13c.), from Latin infinitatem (nominative infinitas) "boundlessness, endlessness," from infinitus boundless, unlimited" (see infinite). Infinitas was used as a loan-translation of Greek apeiria "infinity," from apeiros "endless."
infirm (adj.) Look up infirm at
late 14c., "weak, unsound" (of things), from Latin infirmus "weak, frail, feeble" (figuratively "superstitious, pusillanimous, inconstant"), from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + firmus (see firm (adj.)). Of persons, "not strong, unhealthy," first recorded c. 1600. As a noun from 1711.
infirmary (n.) Look up infirmary at
mid-15c., "sick bay in a monastery," from Medieval Latin infirmaria "a place for the infirm," from Latin infirmus "weak, frail," (see infirm). The common name for a public hospital in 18c. England.
infirmity (n.) Look up infirmity at
late 14c., "disease, sickness; lack of capability, weakness," from Latin infirmitatem (nominative infirmitas) "want of strength, weakness, feebleness," noun of quality from infirmus (see infirm). Perhaps in part from Middle French infirmité, Old French enfermete.
inflame (v.) Look up inflame at
mid-14c., "make (someone) ardent; set (the spirit, etc.) on fire" with a passion or religious virtue, a figurative sense, from Old French enflamer, from Latin inflammare "to set on fire, kindle," figuratively "to rouse, excite," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + flammare "to flame," from flamma "a flame" (see flame (n.)). Literal sense of "to cause to burn" first recorded in English late 14c. Meaning "to heat, make hot, cause inflammation" is from 1520s. Related: Enflamed; enflaming. Also enflame, but since 16c. the spelling with in- has predominated. Related: Inflamed; Inflaming.
inflammable (adj.) Look up inflammable at
early 15c., in medicine, "liable to inflammation," from Middle French inflammable and directly from Medieval Latin inflammabilis, from Latin inflammare (see inflame). As "able to be set alight," c. 1600. Related: Inflammability.
inflammation (n.) Look up inflammation at
"excessive redness or swelling in a body part," early 15c., from Middle French inflammation and directly from Latin inflammationem (nominative inflammatio) "a setting on fire," noun of action from past participle stem of inflammare (see inflame). Literal sense in English from 1560s.
inflammatory (adj.) Look up inflammatory at
1680s (n.), from Latin inflammat-, past participle stem of inflammare (see inflame) + -ory. As an adjective, "tending to rouse passions or desires," 1711; from 1732 in pathology.
inflate (v.) Look up inflate at
early 15c., "cause to swell," from Latin inflatus, past participle of inflare "to blow into, inflate" (see inflation). Economics sense from 1844. In some senses a back-formation from inflation. Related: Inflatable; inflated; inflating.
inflation (n.) Look up inflation at
mid-14c., "swelling caused by gathering of 'wind' in the body; flatulence;" figuratively, "outbursts of pride," from Latin inflationem (nominative inflatio) "a puffing up; flatulence," noun of action from past participle stem of inflare "blow into, puff up," from in- "into" (see in- (2)) + flare "to blow" (see blow (v.1)). Monetary sense of "enlargement of prices" (originally by an increase in the amount of money in circulation) first recorded 1838 in American English.
inflationary (adj.) Look up inflationary at
1916, from inflation + -ary.
inflect (v.) Look up inflect at
early 15c., "to bend inward," from Latin inflectere (past participle inflexus) "to bend in, bow, curve," figuratively, "to change," from in- "in" (see in- (1)) + flectere "to bend" (see flexible). Grammatical sense is attested 1660s; pronunciation sense (in inflection) is c. 1600. Related: Inflected; inflecting.
inflection (n.) Look up inflection at
early 15c., from Middle French inflexion and directly from Latin inflexionem (nominative inflexio) "a bending, inflection, modification," noun of action from past participle stem of inflectere (see inflect). For spelling, see connection. Grammatical sense is from 1660s.