individualize (v.) Look up individualize at
1650s, "to point out individually;" see individual + -ize. From 1837 as "to make individual." Related: Individualized; individualizing.
individually (adv.) Look up individually at
1590s, "indivisibly," from individual + -ly (2). Meaning "as individuals" is from 1640s.
individuate (v.) Look up individuate at
1610s, from Medieval Latin individuatus, past participle of individuare, from Latin individuus (see individual). Related: Individuated; individuating.
individuation (n.) Look up individuation at
1620s, from Medieval Latin individuationem, noun of action from individuare, from individuus (see individual). Psychological sense is from 1909.
indivisibility (n.) Look up indivisibility at
1640s, from indivisible + -ity.
indivisible (adj.) Look up indivisible at
early 15c., from Middle French indivisible and directly from Late Latin indivisibilis, from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + divisibilis (see divisible).
Indo-European Look up Indo-European at
1814, coined by physician, physicist and Egyptologist Thomas Young (1773-1829) and first used in an article in the "Quarterly Review," from Indo-, comb. form of Greek Indos "India" + European. "Common to India and Europe," specifically in reference to the group of related languages and to the race or races characterized by their use. The alternative Indo-Germanic (1835) was coined in German 1823 (indogermanisch), based on the two peoples at the extremes of the geographic area covered by the languages, before Celtic was realized also to be an Indo-European language. After this was proved, many German scholars switched to Indo-European as more accurate, but Indo-Germanic continued in use (popularized by the titles of major works) and the predominance of German scholarship in this field made it the popular term in England, too, through the 19c. See also Aryan.
Indochina Look up Indochina at
1886, from Indo-, comb. form of Greek Indos "India" + China. Name proposed early 19c. by Scottish poet and orientalist John Leyden, who lived and worked in India from 1803 till his death at 35 in 1811.
indoctrinate (v.) Look up indoctrinate at
1620s, "to teach," from in- (2) "in" + Latin doctrina "teaching" (see doctrine). Meaning "to imbue with an idea or opinion" first recorded 1832. Related: Indoctrinated; indoctrinating. The earlier verb was indoctrine (c. 1500).
indoctrination (n.) Look up indoctrination at
1640s, noun of action from indoctrinate.
indolence (n.) Look up indolence at
c. 1600, "insensitivity to pain," from French indolence (16c.), from Latin indolentia "freedom from pain, insensibility," noun of action from indolentem (nominative indolens) "insensitive to pain," used by Jerome to render Greek apelgekos in Ephesians; from Latin in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + dolentem (nominative dolens) "grieving," present participle of dolere "suffer pain, grieve." Sense of "laziness" (1710) is from notion of "avoiding trouble" (compare taking pains).
indolent (adj.) Look up indolent at
1660s, "painless," from Late Latin indolentem (see indolence). Sense of "living easily" is 1710, from French indolent. Related: Indolently.
indomitable (adj.) Look up indomitable at
1630s, from Late Latin indomitabilis "untameable," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + *domitabilis, from Latin domitare, frequentative of domare "to tame" (see tame). Related: Indomitably.
Indonesian Look up Indonesian at
1850, from Indonesia, from Indo-, comb. form of Greek Indos "India" (see India) + nesos "island" (see Chersonese). Formerly called Indian Archipelago or East Indies Islands (see Indies).
indoor (adj.) Look up indoor at
1711, from within door (opposed to outdoor); the form indoors is first attested 1799 in George Washington's writings.
indorsement (n.) Look up indorsement at
see endorsement.
indrawn (adj.) Look up indrawn at
also in-drawn, 1751, from in (adv.) + past tense of draw (v.). Middle English had indrawing "action of drawing in" (late 14c.). The plain verb indraw is rare, late 19c., and might be a back-formation.
indri (n.) Look up indri at
1839, European name for the babakoto, a lemur-like arboreal primate of Madagascar (Indris Lichanotus); the common story since late 19c. is that the name was given in error by French naturalist Pierre Sonnerat (1748-1814), c. 1780, from mistaken use of Malagasy indry! "look! See!" Evidently this was what his native guides said when they spotted the creature and called his attention to it.
However, as Hacking (1981) pointed out, Sonnerat was far too familiar with indris -- he described and figured them in detail, and apparently kept at least one in captivity -- for this story to be plausible. Furthermore, endrina is actually recorded as a native name for the indri (Cousins, 1885), and indri could easily be a variant of this name. Although the word endrina is first recorded in Malagasy only in 1835, there is no evidence that it could be a back-formation from the French indri (Hacking, 1981), and it seems implausible that the Malagasy would adopt an erroneous French name for an animal they were them selves familiar with. [Dunkel, Alexander R., et al., "Giant rabbits, marmosets, and British comedies: etymology of lemur names, part 1," in "Lemur News," vol. 16, 2011-2012, p.67]
indubitable (adj.) Look up indubitable at
mid-15c., from Latin indubitabilis "that cannot be doubted," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + dubitabilis "doubtful," from dubitare "hesitate, doubt" (see doubt).
indubitably (adv.) Look up indubitably at
late 15c., from indubitable + -ly (2).
induce (v.) Look up induce at
late 14c., "to lead by persuasions or other influences," from Latin inducere "lead into, bring in, introduce, conduct, persuade," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + ducere "to lead" (see duke (n.)). Meaning "to bring about," of concrete situations, etc., is from early 15c.; sense of "to infer by reasoning" is from 1560s. Electro-magnetic sense first recorded 1777. Related: Induced; inducing.
inducement (n.) Look up inducement at
1590s, "that which induces," from induce + -ment.
inducive (adj.) Look up inducive at
1610s, from induce + -ive.
induct (v.) Look up induct at
late 14c., from Latin inductus, past participle of inducere "to lead" (see induce). Originally of church offices; sense of "bring into military service" is 1934 in American English. Related: Inducted; inducting.
inductance (n.) Look up inductance at
1886, from induct + -ance.
inductee (n.) Look up inductee at
1941, American English, from induct + -ee.
induction (n.) Look up induction at
late 14c., "advancement toward the grace of God;" also (c. 1400) "formal installation of a clergyman," from Old French induction (14c.) or directly from Latin inductionem (nominative inductio) "a leading in, introduction," noun of action from past participle stem of inducere "to lead" (see induce).

As a term in logic (early 15c.) it is from Cicero's use of inductio to translate Greek epagoge "leading to" in Aristotle. Induction starts with known instances and arrives at generalizations; deduction starts from the general principle and arrives at some individual fact. As a term of science, c. 1800; military service sense is from 1934, American English.
inductive (adj.) Look up inductive at
early 15c., from Old French inductif or directly from Late Latin inductivus, from induct-, past participle stem of inducere (see induce). As a term in logic, from 1764.
inductor (n.) Look up inductor at
1650s, from Latin inductor, agent noun from past participle stem of inducere (see induce). Electromagnetic sense begins in 1837.
indulge (v.) Look up indulge at
1630s, "to grant as a favor;" 1650s, of both persons and desires, "to treat with unearned favor;" a back-formation from indulgence, or else from Latin indulgere "to be complaisant." Related: Indulged; indulging.
indulgence (n.) Look up indulgence at
mid-14c., "freeing from temporal punishment for sin," from Old French indulgence or directly from Latin indulgentia "complaisance, fondness, remission," from indulgentem (nominative indulgens) "indulgent, kind, tender, fond," present participle of indulgere "be kind, yield," of unknown origin; perhaps from in- "in" + derivative of PIE root *dlegh- "to engage oneself."

Sense of "gratification of another's desire or humor" is attested from late 14c. That of "yielding to one's inclinations" (technically self-indulgence) is from 1640s. In British history, Indulgence also refers to grants of certain liberties to Nonconformists under Charles II and James II, as special favors rather than legal rights; specifically the Declarations of Indulgence of 1672, 1687, and 1688 in England and 1669, 1672, and 1687 in Scotland.
indulgent (adj.) Look up indulgent at
c. 1500, from Latin indulgentem (nominative indulgens), present participle of indulgere (see indulgence). Related: Indulgently.
indurate (v.) Look up indurate at
1530s, from Latin induratus, past participle of indurare "to make hard, harden" (see endure). Related: Indurated.
induration (n.) Look up induration at
late 14c., from Old French induracion "hardness, obstinacy" (14c.) or directly from Medieval Latin indurationem (nominative induratio) "hardness (especially of the heart)," noun of action from indurare (see endure).
Indus Look up Indus at
river in Asia, from Sanskrit sindhu "river." The southern constellation, created 1603 by Bayer, represents "an Indian," not the river.
industrial (adj.) Look up industrial at
1774, from French industriel, from Medieval Latin industrialis, from Latin industria (see industry). Earlier the word had been used in English in a sense "resulting from labor" (1580s); the modern use is considered a reborrowing. Meaning "suitable for industrial use" is from 1904. As a style of dance music, attested from 1988. Industrial revolution was in use by 1840 to refer to recent developments and changes in England and elsewhere.
industrialisation (n.) Look up industrialisation at
chiefly British English spelling of industrialization (q.v.); for spelling, see -ize.
industrialism (n.) Look up industrialism at
1831, from industrial + -ism. Compare French industrialisme (Saint-Simon, 1823).
industrialist (n.) Look up industrialist at
1846, from industrial + -ist. Perhaps modeled on French industrialiste (Saint-Simon, 1823). Earlier "one who makes a living by productive industry" (1837).
industrialization (n.) Look up industrialization at
1883, from industrialize + -ation.
industrialize (v.) Look up industrialize at
1852, from industrial + -ize, or else from French industrialiser (1842), from Medieval Latin industrialis. Related: Industrialized; industrializing.
industrious (adj.) Look up industrious at
"characterized by energy, effort, and attention," 1520s (implied in industriously), from Middle French industrieux and directly from Late Latin industriosus, from Latin industria (see industry). Retains the etymological sense. Related: Industriousness.
industry (n.) Look up industry at
late 15c., "cleverness, skill," from Old French industrie "activity; aptitude" (14c.) or directly from Latin industria "diligence, activity, zeal," fem. of industrius "industrious, diligent," used as a noun, from early Latin indostruus "diligent," from indu "in, within" + stem of struere "to build" (see structure (n.)). Sense of "diligence, effort" is from 1530s; meaning "trade or manufacture" first recorded 1560s; that of "systematic work" is 1610s.
indwelling (n.) Look up indwelling at
"act of residing," late 14c. (Wyclif's translation of Latin inhabitatio), present participle of obsolete indwell, from in (adv.) + dwell (v.). He also used indweller for Latin inhabitans.
inebriate (v.) Look up inebriate at
late 15c., from Latin inebriatus, past participle of inebriare "to make drunk," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + ebriare "make drunk," from ebrius "drunk," of unknown origin. Related: Inebriated; inebriating. Also inebriacy; inebriant (n. and adj.); inebriety; and inebrious.
inebriated (adj.) Look up inebriated at
"drunken," c. 1600, past participle adjective from inebriate.
inebriation (n.) Look up inebriation at
1520s, from Late Latin inebriationem (nominative inebriatio), noun of action from past participle stem of inebriare (see inebriate).
inedible (adj.) Look up inedible at
"unfit to eat," 1822, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + edible. Related: Inedibly; inedibility.
ineducable (adj.) Look up ineducable at
1884, from in- (1) "not" + educable. Related: Ineducability.
ineffability (n.) Look up ineffability at
1620s; see ineffable + -ity.