indecipherable (adj.) Look up indecipherable at
1802, from in- (1) "not" + decipherable (see decipher (v.)). Related: Indecipherability.
indecision (n.) Look up indecision at
1763, from French indécision (c. 1600), from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + decision (see decision).
indecisive (adj.) Look up indecisive at
1726, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + decisive. Related: Indecisively; indecisiveness.
indeclinable (adj.) Look up indeclinable at
late 14c., originally in grammar, from French indéclinable, from Latin indeclinabilis, from indeclinatus "unchanged, constant," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + declinatus, from declinare (see decline (v.)). Related: Indeclinably.
indecorous (adj.) Look up indecorous at
1670s, from Latin indecorus "unbecoming, unseemly, unsightly," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + decorus "becoming, fitting, seemly, proper" (see decorous). Related: Indecorously; indecorousness.
indeed (adv.) Look up indeed at
early 14c., in dede "in fact, in truth," from Old English dæd (see deed). Written as two words till c. 1600. As an interjection, 1590s; as an expression of surprise or disgust, 1834. Emphatic form in yes (or no) indeedy attested from 1856, American English.
indefatigability (n.) Look up indefatigability at
1630s, from indefatigable + -ity.
indefatigable (adj.) Look up indefatigable at
1580s (implied in indefatigably), from French indefatigable (15c.), from Latin indefatigabilis "that cannot be wearied," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + defatigare "to tire out," from de- "utterly, down, away" + fatigare "to weary" (see fatigue). Blount (1656) has defatigable, which was in use in 17c. Modern use (1948) probably is a jocular back-formation from indefatigable.
indefeasible (adj.) Look up indefeasible at
1530s (implied in indefeasibly), from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + defeasible (see defeasance).
indefensible (adj.) Look up indefensible at
1520s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + defensible. Related: Indefensibly.
indefinability (n.) Look up indefinability at
1814, from indefinable + -ity.
indefinable (adj.) Look up indefinable at
1810, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + definable (see define). Related: Indefinably.
indefinite (adj.) Look up indefinite at
early 15c. (implied in indefinitely), from Latin indefinitus, from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + definitus, past participle of definire (see define).
indefinitely (adv.) Look up indefinitely at
early 15c.; see indefinite + -ly (2).
indelible (adj.) Look up indelible at
1520s, from Latin indelebilis "indelible, imperishable," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + delebilis "able to be destroyed," from delere "destroy, blot out" (see delete). Vowel change from -e- to -i- in English is late 17c. Related: Indelibly.
indelicate (adj.) Look up indelicate at
1742, "offensive to propriety," from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + delicate. Related: Indelicately.
indemnification (n.) Look up indemnification at
1732, noun of action from indemnify.
indemnify (v.) Look up indemnify at
"compensate for loss or expense," 1610s, from Latin indemnis "unhurt" (see indemnity) + -fy. Related: Indemnified; indemnifying.
indemnity (n.) Look up indemnity at
mid-15c., from Middle French indemnité (14c.), from Late Latin indemnitatem (nominative indemnitas) "security for damage," from Latin indemnis "unhurt, undamaged," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + damnum "damage" (see damn).
indent (v.) Look up indent at
early 15c., indenten/endenten "to make notches; to give (something) a toothed or jagged appearance," also "to make a legal indenture," from Old French endenter "to notch or dent, give a serrated edge to," from Medieval Latin indentare "to furnish with teeth," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + Latin dens (genitive dentis) "tooth" (see tooth). Related: Indented; indenting. The printing sense is first attested 1670s. The noun is first recorded 1590s, from the verb. An earlier noun sense of "a written agreement" (late 15c.) is described in Middle English Dictionary as "scribal abbrev. of endenture."
indentation (n.) Look up indentation at
1728, of margins or edges, extended form of indent (n.). Meaning "action of making a dent or impression" is from 1847.
indention (n.) Look up indention at
1763, formed irregularly from indent + -ation. It could be a useful word if it split with indentation the two senses (relating to margins and to dents) of that word, but indention, too, is used in both.
indenture (n.) Look up indenture at
"contract for services," late 14c., from Anglo-French endenture, Old French endenteure "indentation," from endenter (see indent). Such contracts (especially between master craftsmen and apprentices) were written in full identical versions on a sheet of parchment, which was then cut apart in a zigzag, or "notched" line. Each party took one, and the genuineness of a document of indenture could be proved by juxtaposition with its counterpart. As a verb, 1650s, from the noun.
indentured (adj.) Look up indentured at
"bound by indenture," 1757, past participle adjective from indenture (v.).
independence (n.) Look up independence at
1630s; see independent + -ence. Earlier in same sense was independency (1610s). U.S. Independence Day (July 4) recorded under that name by 1791. An Old English word for it was selfdom, with dom "law."
independent (adj.) Look up independent at
1610s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + dependent. French independant is attested from c. 1600; Italian independente from 1590s. Noun meaning "person not acting as part of a political party" is from 1808. Related: Independently.
indescribable (adj.) Look up indescribable at
1794, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + describable (see describe). Related: Indescribably; indescribability. In same sense, Old English had unasecgendlic.
indescript (adj.) Look up indescript at
"undescribed," 1854, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + Latin descriptus, past participle of describere (see describe).
indestructibility (n.) Look up indestructibility at
1670s, see indestructible + -ity.
indestructible (adj.) Look up indestructible at
early 15c., from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + destructible. Related: Indestructibly.
indeterminable (adj.) Look up indeterminable at
late 15c., from Late Latin indeterminabilis "that cannot be defined," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + determinabilis, from determinare (see determine).
indeterminacy (n.) Look up indeterminacy at
1640s, see indeterminate + -acy.
indeterminate (adj.) Look up indeterminate at
late 14c., from Late Latin indeterminatus "undefined," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + determinatus, past participle of determinare (see determine). Related: Indeterminately.
index (n.) Look up index at
late 14c., "the forefinger," from Latin index (genitive indicis) "forefinger, pointer, sign, list," literally "anything which points out," from indicare "point out" (see indication). Meaning "list of a book's contents" is first attested 1570s, from Latin phrases such as Index Nominum "Index of Names," index expurgatorius "specification of passages to be deleted from works otherwise permitted." Scientific sense (refractive index, etc.) is from 1829; economic sense (cost-of-living index, etc.) is from 1870, from the scientific usage, from sense "an indicator." The Church sense of "forbidden books" is from index librorum prohibitorum, first published 1564 by authority of Pius IV.
index (v.) Look up index at
"compile an index," 1720, from index (n.). Related: Indexed; indexing.
indexation (n.) Look up indexation at
1960, noun of action from index (v.).
India Look up India at
Old English, from Latin India, from Greek India "region of the Indus River," later used of the region beyond it, from Indos "Indus River," from Old Persian Hindu, the name for the province of Sind, from Sanskrit sindhu "river." The more common Middle English form was Ynde or Inde, From French (see Indies). India began to prevail 16c., perhaps under Spanish or Portuguese influence.
Indian Look up Indian at
"inhabit of India or South Asia," c. 1300 (noun and adjective); applied to the native inhabitants of the Americas from at least 1553, on the mistaken notion that America was the eastern end of Asia. Red Indian, to distinguish them from inhabitants of India, is first attested 1831 (Carlyle) but was not commonly used in North America. More than 500 modern phrases include Indian, most of them U.S. and most impugning honesty or intelligence, such as Indian giver, first attested 1765 in Indian gift:
An Indian gift is a proverbial expression, signifying a present for which an equivalent return is expected. [Thomas Hutchinson, "History of Massachusetts Bay," 1765]
Meaning "one who gives a gift and then asks for it back" first attested 1892.
Indian Ocean Look up Indian Ocean at
first attested 1515 in Modern Latin (Oceanus Orientalis Indicus), named for India, which projects into it; earlier it was the Eastern Ocean, as opposed to the Western Ocean (Atlantic) before the Pacific was surmised.
Indian summer (n.) Look up Indian summer at
"spell of warm weather after the first frost," first recorded 1778, American English, perhaps so called because it was first noted in regions inhabited by Indians, or because the Indians first described it to the Europeans. No evidence connects it with the color of fall leaves or a season of Indian attacks on settlements. It is the American version of British All-Hallows summer, French été de la Saint-Martin (feast day Nov. 11), etc. Also colloquial was St. Luke's summer (or little summer), period of warm weather occurring about St. Luke's day (Oct. 18).
Indiana Look up Indiana at
named mid-18c. by French explorers or settlers; see Indian + Latin-derived place-name suffix -ana. Organized as a U.S. territory 1800, admitted as a state 1816.
Indianapolis Look up Indianapolis at
city in Indiana, U.S., founded 1821, from Indiana + -polis.
Indic (adj.) Look up Indic at
1877, from Latin Indicus or Greek Indikos "of India;" see India.
indicate (v.) Look up indicate at
1650s, back-formation from indication, or else from Latin indicatus, past participle of indicare "to point out, show, indicate, declare" (see indication). Related: Indicated; indicating.
indication (n.) Look up indication at
early 15c., from Latin indicationem (nominative indicatio) "an indicating; valuation," noun of action from past participle stem of indicare "point out, show," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + dicare "proclaim," from stem of dicere "to speak, to say" (see diction).
indicative (adj.) Look up indicative at
mid-15c., from Old French indicatif (14c.), from Late Latin indicativus, from indicat-, past participle stem of Latin indicare (see indication).
indicator (n.) Look up indicator at
1660s, from Late Latin indicator, agent noun from indicare (see indication). As a finger muscle, from 1690s.
indices (n.) Look up indices at
according to OED, the plural form of index preferable in scientific and mathematical senses of that word.
indicia (n.) Look up indicia at
"indications," Latin plural of indicium "information, disclosure, discovery," from index (genitive indicis); see index.
indict (v.) Look up indict at
c. 1300, from Anglo-French enditer "accuse, indict" (late 13c.), Old French enditer "to dictate or inform," from Late Latin *indictare "to declare, proclaim in writing," from Latin in- "in" (see in- (2)) + dictare "to say, compose in words" (see dictate). Retained its French pronunciation even after the spelling was re-Latinized c. 1600. In classical Latin, indictus meant "not said, unsaid." Related: Indictable; indicted; indicting.