incarceration (n.) Look up incarceration at
early 15c., "retention of pus," from Medieval Latin incarcerationem (nominative incarceratio), noun of action from past participle stem of incarcerare "to imprison," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + carcer "prison, an enclosed space," from Proto-Italic *kar-kr(o)-, of uncertain origin.
It seems best to connect carcer with other IE words for 'circle, round object', such as Latin. curvus, Gr. κιρκος 'ring', OIc. hringr, although not all of these have a good IE etymology. The reduplication in Latin carcer could be iconic; thus, the original meaning would have been 'enclosure'. [de Vaan]
incarnadine Look up incarnadine at
1590s (adj.) "flesh-colored," from French incarnadine, from dialectal Italian incarnadino "flesh-color," from Late Latin incarnatio (see incarnation). The verb properly would mean "to make flesh colored," but the modern meaning "make red," and the entire survival of the verb, is traceable to "Macbeth" II ii. (1605). Its direct root might be the noun incarnadine "blood-red; flesh-color," though this is not attested until 1620s.
incarnate (adj.) Look up incarnate at
late 14c., from Late Latin incarnatus "made flesh," a common word among early Christian writers, past participle of Latin incarnare "to make flesh" (see incarnation).
incarnate (v.) Look up incarnate at
1530s, a back-formation from incarnation, or else from Latin incarnatus, past participle of incarnare (see incarnation). Related: Incarnated; incarnating.
incarnation (n.) Look up incarnation at
c. 1300, "embodiment of God in the person of Christ," from Old French incarnacion (12c.), from Late Latin incarnationem (nominative incarnatio), "act of being made flesh" (used by Church writers especially of God in Christ), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin incarnare "to make flesh," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + caro (genitive carnis) "flesh" (see carnage). Glossed in Old English as inflæscnes, inlichomung.
incautious (adj.) Look up incautious at
1703, from in- (1) + cautious. Related: Incautiously.
incendiarism (n.) Look up incendiarism at
1670s, figurative; 1837, literal; see incendiary + -ism.
incendiary Look up incendiary at
c. 1400 as a noun, "person who sets malicious fires;" mid-15c. as an adjective, "capable of being used to set fires," from Latin incendiarius "causing a fire," from incendium "conflagration," from incendere "set on fire," figuratively, "incite, rouse, enrage," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + *candere "to set alight, cause to glow," related to candere "to shine" (see candle). Figurative sense of "enflaming passions" (adj.) is from 1610s. Military use, of bombs, shells, etc., attested from 1871. The obsolete verb incend is attested from c. 1500.
incense (n.) Look up incense at
late 13c., from Old French encens "sweet-smelling substance," from Late Latin incensum (nominative incensus) "burnt incense," literally "something burnt," neuter past participle of Latin incendere "set on fire" (see incendiary).
incense (v.1) Look up incense at
"make angry," early 15c., from Middle French incenser, from Latin incensare, frequentative of Latin incendere "set on fire" (see incendiary). A figurative use of the word used literally in incense (n.). Related: Incensed.
incense (v.2) Look up incense at
"to offer incense, perfume with incense," c. 1300, from Old French encenser, from encens (see incense (n.)).
incent (v.) Look up incent at
by 1992, U.S. government-speak, back-formation from incentive. Related: Incented; incenting.
incentive (n.) Look up incentive at
early 15c., from Late Latin incentivum, noun use of neuter of Latin adjective incentivus "setting the tune" (in Late Latin "inciting"), from past participle stem of incinere "strike up," from in- "in, into" (see in- (2)) + canere "sing" (see chant (v.)). Sense influenced by association with incendere "to kindle." The adjective use, in reference to a system of rewards meant to encourage harder work, first attested 1943 in jargon of the U.S. war economy; as a noun, in this sense, from 1948.
incentivize (v.) Look up incentivize at
by 1970, from incentive + -ize. Related: Incentivized; incentivizing.
incept (v.) Look up incept at
1560s, from Latin inceptus, past participle of incipere "to begin" (see inception). Related: Incepted.
inception (n.) Look up inception at
early 15c., "beginning, starting," from Middle French incepcion and directly from Latin inceptionem (nominative inceptio) "a beginning, undertaking," noun of action from past participle stem of incipere "begin, take in hand," from in- "in, on" (see in- (2)) + cipere comb. form of capere "take, seize" (see capable).
inceptive (adj.) Look up inceptive at
1650s, from French inceptif (16c.), from Latin incept-, past participle stem of incipere "to begin" (see inception).
incertitude (n.) Look up incertitude at
mid-15c., "variability," from Middle French incertitude (14c.), from Late Latin incertitudinem (nominative incertitudo); see certitude. Incertain "uncertain" and incertainty "uncertainty" also were living words in Middle English.
incessancy (n.) Look up incessancy at
1610s; see incessant + -cy.
incessant (adj.) Look up incessant at
mid-15c., from Old French incessant (mid-14c.), from Late Latin incessantem (nominative incessans) "unceasing," from Latin in- "not" (see in- (1)) + cessantem (nominative cessans), present participle of cessare "cease" (see cease). Related: Incessantly (early 15c.).
incest (n.) Look up incest at
c. 1200, "the crime of sexual intercourse between near kindred," from Old French inceste and directly from Latin incestum "unchastity, impious unchastity," also specifically "sex between close relatives," noun use of neuter adjective incestus "unchaste, impure," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + castus "pure" (see caste). In early use also in reference to sexual relations or marriage with one under a vow of chastity (sometimes distinguished as spiritual incest). Old English had sibleger "incest," literally "kin-lying."
incestuous (adj.) Look up incestuous at
1530s, from Latin incestuosus "incestuous," from incestus "unchaste" (see incest). Figurative use is from 1744. Related: Incestuously; incestuousness.
inch (n.1) Look up inch at
"linear measure, one-twelfth of a foot," late Old English ynce, Middle English unche (current spelling c. 1300), from Latin uncia "a twelfth part," from root of unus "one" (see one). An early borrowing from Latin, not found in any other Germanic language. Transferred and figurative sense of "a very small amount" is attested from mid-14c. For phrase give him an inch ... see ell.
inch (n.2) Look up inch at
"small Scottish island," early 15c., from Gaelic innis (genitive innse) "island, land by a river," from Celtic *inissi (cognates: Old Irish inis, Welsh ynys, Breton enez).
inch (v.) Look up inch at
"move little by little," 1590s, from inch (n.1). Related: Inched; inching.
inchoate (adj.) Look up inchoate at
1530s, from Latin inchoatus, past participle of inchoare, alteration of incohare "to begin," originally "to hitch up," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + cohum "strap fastened to the oxen's yoke." Related: Inchoative.
inchworm (n.) Look up inchworm at
1844, American English, from inch (v.) + worm (n.). Other old names for it included loaper caterpiller and surveyor, all from its mode of progress.
incidence (n.) Look up incidence at
early 15c., "incidental matter," from Middle French incidence (15c.), from Late Latin incidentia (see incident (n.)). Meaning "act of coming into contact with" is from 1650s; sense in physics is from 1620s.
incident (n.) Look up incident at
early 15c., "something which occurs casually in connection with something else," from Middle French incident and directly from Latin incidentem (nominative incidens), present participle of incidere "happen, befall," from in- "on" + -cidere, comb. form of cadere "to fall" (see case (n.1)). Sense of "an occurrence viewed as a separate circumstance" is from mid-15c. Meaning "event that might trigger a crisis or political unrest" first attested 1913.
incident (adj.) Look up incident at
"conducive (to), contributing (to)," early 15c., from Middle French incident (adj.) or directly from Latin incidens, present participle of incidere (see incident (n.)).
incidental (adj.) Look up incidental at
"casual, occasional," 1610s, from Medieval Latin incidentalis, from incidens (see incident (n.)). Incidentals (n.) "'occasional' expenses, etc.," is attested by 1707.
incidentally (adv.) Look up incidentally at
1520s, "by the way, casually;" see incidental + -ly (2). Sense of "as a new but related point" attested by 1925.
incinerate (v.) Look up incinerate at
1550s, from Medieval Latin incineratus "reduced to ashes," pp. of incinerare, from Latin in- "into" (see in- (2)) + cinis (genitive cineris) "ashes," from PIE root *keni- "dust, ashes" (cognates: Greek konis "dust"). Used earlier in English as a past participle adjective meaning "reduced to ashes" (early 15c.). Related: Incinerated; incinerating.
incineration (n.) Look up incineration at
1520s, from Middle French incinération (14c.), from Medieval Latin incinerationem (nominative incineratio), noun of action from past participle stem of incinerare (see incinerate).
incinerator (n.) Look up incinerator at
1883, American English, originally in the terminology of cremation, from incinerate + Latinate agent noun suffix -or. Meaning "device for waste disposal by burning" is from 1889.
incipience (n.) Look up incipience at
1864; see incipient + -ence. Incipiency is from 1817.
incipient (adj.) Look up incipient at
1660s, from Latin incipientem (nominative incipiens), present participle of incipere "begin, take up," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + -cipere, comb. form of capere "to take" (see capable).
incipit Look up incipit at
opening word of a Latin book or manuscript, Latin, literally "(here) begins," third person singular present indicative of incipere (see incipient).
incise (v.) Look up incise at
1540s, from French inciser (15c.), from Old French enciser (12c.), from Latin incisus, past participle of incidere "to cut into, cut through" (see incision). Related: Incised; incising.
incision (n.) Look up incision at
late 14c., "a cutting made in surgery," from Old French incision (13c.) and directly from Latin incisionem (nominative incisio) "a cutting into," noun of action from past participle stem of incidere "to cut in," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + -cidere, comb. form of caedere "to cut" (see -cide). Meaning "act of cutting into" is from early 15c.
incisive (adj.) Look up incisive at
early 15c., inscisif, "slashing, cutting with a sharp edge," from Middle French incisif and directly from Medieval Latin incisivus, from Latin incis-, past participle stem of incidere (see incision). Originally literal; figurative sense of "mentally acute" first recorded 1850 as a borrowing from French. Related: Incisively; incisiveness.
incisor (n.) Look up incisor at
"cutting tooth," 1670s, from Medieval Latin incisor "a cutting tooth," literally "that which cuts into," from Latin incisus, past participle of incidere (see incision). Inscisours as the name of a cutting tool is attested from early 15c.
incite (v.) Look up incite at
mid-15c., from Middle French enciter (14c.), from Latin incitare "to put into rapid motion," figuratively "rouse, urge, encourage, stimulate," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (see in- (2)) + citare "move, excite" (see cite). Related: Incited; inciting.
incitement (n.) Look up incitement at
1590s, from incite + -ment.
incitive (adj.) Look up incitive at
1888; see incite + -ive.
incivility (n.) Look up incivility at
1580s, "want of civilized behavior, rudeness," from French incivilité (early 15c.), from Late Latin incivilitatem (nominative incivilitas), from incivilis "not civil," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + civilis "relating to a citizen, relating to public life, befitting a citizen; popular, affable, courteous" (see civil). Meaning "an act of rudeness" is from 1650s. Incivil "not conducive to common good" is from mid-15c.
inclemency (n.) Look up inclemency at
1550s, from Middle French inclémence and directly from Latin inclementia "rigor, harshness, roughness," from inclemens (see inclement).
inclement (adj.) Look up inclement at
1660s, from French inclément and directly from Latin inclementem (nominative inclemens) "harsh, unmerciful," from in- "not, opposite of, without" (see in- (1)) + clementem "mild, placid." "Limitation to weather is curious" [Weekley].
inclinable (adj.) Look up inclinable at
"amenable, disposed," mid-15c., from Old French enclinable and directly from Latin inclinabilis, from inclinare (see incline).
inclination (n.) Look up inclination at
"condition of being mentally disposed" (to do something), late 14c., from Middle French inclination (14c.) and directly from Latin inclinationem (nominative inclinatio) "a leaning, bending," figuratively "tendency, bias, favor," noun of action from past participle stem of inclinare (see incline). Meaning "action of bending toward" (something) is from early 15c. That of "amount of a slope" is from 1799.