hypercritical (adj.)
c.1600, from hyper- + critical.
hyperdrive (n.)
by 1955, an invented word of science fiction writers to describe anything that can power a space craft faster than the speed of light. See hyper- + drive (n.).
hyperextend (v.)
1863, from hyper- + extend. Related: Hyperextended; hyperextending.
hyperglycemia (n.)
1875, Latinized form of Greek elements hyper- "over" (see hyper-) + glykys "sweet" (see glucose) + haima "blood" (see -emia).
hyperinflation (n.)
1930 in the economic sense, from hyper- + inflation. Earlier as a medical term in treatment of lung diseases.
Hyperion
a Titan, son of Uranus and Gaea, later identified with Apollo, from Greek, literally "he who looks from above."
hyperkinetic (adj.)
1880, from hyper- + kinetic. Perhaps immediately from French hyperkinetic (1874). Related: Hyperkinesis.
hyperlink (n.)
by 1987, from hyper- + link (n.).
hyperopia (n.)
1884, Modern Latin, from hyper- + Greek ops "eye" (see eye).
hyperplasia (n.)
1861, from Modern Latin hyperplasia, from hyper- + -plasia.
hypersensitive (adj.)
1827, a hybrid from hyper- + sensitive. Related: Hypersensitivity.
hyperspace (n.)
"space of more than three dimensions," 1867, from hyper- + space (n.). A hybrid; correctly formed it would be superspace.
hypertension (n.)
1863, from hyper- + tension. Originally in medical use; of emotions or nerves, from 1936.
hypertext (n.)
1969, from hyper- + text (n.).
hyperthermia (n.)
1878, medical Latin, from hyper- + Greek therme "heat" (see thermal).
hyperthyroidism (n.)
1895, from hyper- + thyroid + -ism.
hypertonic
1855, from hyper- + tonic. Related: Hypertonia; hypertonicity.
hypertrophy (n.)
1821, from hyper- + Greek -trophe "nourishment" (see -trophy). Related: Hypertrophic.
hyperventilate (v.)
"breathe deeply and rapidly," 1931, from hyper- + ventilate. Related: Hyperventilated; hyperventilating.
hyperventilation (n.)
1907, from hyper- + ventilation. Earlier as a type of treatment for lung diseases.
hypervigilance (n.)
1917, from hyper- + vigilance. Related: Hypervigilant.
hypha (n.)
1866, from Modern Latin plural hyphae (1810), from Greek hyphe (singular) "web."
hyphen (n.)
1620s, from Late Latin hyphen, from Greek hyphen "mark joining two syllables or words," probably indicating how they were to be sung, noun use of an adverb meaning "together, in one," literally "under one," from hypo "under" (see sub-) + hen, neuter of heis "one."
hyphenate (v.)
1881, from hyphen + -ate (2). The earlier verb was simply hyphen (1814). Related: Hyphenated; hyphenating. Hyphenated American is attested from 1889.
hyphenation (n.)
1881, from hyphen + -ation. Hyphenization is attested from 1851.
hypnagogic (adj.)
1868, from French hypnagogique, from Greek hypnos "sleep" (see somnolence) + agogos "leading" (see act). Etymologically, "inducing sleep," but used mostly with a sense "pertaining to the state of consciousness when falling asleep."
hypno-
word-forming element meaning "sleep," from Greek hypno-, comb. form of hypnos "sleep" (see somnolence).
hypnopedia (n.)
also hypnopaedia, "sleep-learning," 1932, from Greek hypnos "sleep" (see somnolence) + paideia "education" (see pedo-).
hypnopompic (adj.)
pertaining to the state of consciousness when awaking from sleep, 1901, from hypno- "sleep" + Greek pompe "sending away," from pempein "to send."
hypnosis (n.)
1869, "the coming on of sleep," coined (as an alternative to hypnotism) from Greek hypnos "sleep" (see somnolence) + -osis "condition." Of an artificially induced condition, from 1880.
hypnotherapy (n.)
1897, from hypno- + therapy. Related: Hypnotherapist.
hypnotic (adj.)
1620s, "inducing sleep," originally used of drugs, from French hypnotique (16c.) "inclined to sleep, soporific," from Late Latin hypnoticus, from Greek hypnotikos "inclined to sleep, putting to sleep, sleepy," from hypnoun "put to sleep," from hypnos "sleep" (see somnolence). Modern sense of "pertaining to an induced trance" first recorded in English 1843, along with hypnotist, hypnotize, both coined by Dr. James Braid. Related: Hypnotical; hypnotically.
hypnotise (v.)
alternative spelling of hypnotize; for suffix, see -ize. Related: Hypnotised; hypnotising.
hypnotism (n.)
1843, short for neuro-hypnotism (1842), coined by Dr. James Braid of Manchester, England, from hypnotic + -ism. In the same work (1843) Braid coined the verb hypnotize.
hypnotist (n.)
1843; see hypnotic + -ist.
hypnotize (v.)
1843, see hypnotic + -ize. Related: Hypnotized; hypnotizing.
hypo (n.)
1711, "depression," short for hypochondria; 1904 as short for hypodermic needle.
hypo-
word-forming element meaning "under, beneath" (in chemistry, indicating a lesser oxidation), from hypo-, comb. form of Greek hypo (prep. and adverb) "under," from PIE *upo- "under, up from under, over" (see sub-).
hypoallergenic
1950, from hypo- + allergen + -ic.
hypochondria (n.)
1839, "illness without a specific cause," earlier (1660s) "depression or melancholy without real cause," earlier still (late 14c.) ipocondrie "upper abdomen," from Late Latin hypochondria "the abdomen," from Greek hypokhondria (neuter plural of hypokhondrios), from hypo- "under" (see sub-) + khondros "cartilage" (of the breastbone); see grind (v.). Reflecting ancient belief that the viscera of the hypochondria were the seat of melancholy and the source of the vapors that caused such feelings.
hypochondriac (adj.)
1590s, "pertaining to the hypochondria," also "afflicted with melancholy," from French hypocondriaque (16c.), from Medieval Latin hypochondriacus, from Greek hypokhondriakos "pertaining to the upper abdomen," from hypokhondria (see hypochondria). The noun is from 1630s, "melancholy person;" in the modern sense from 1888.
hypochondriasis (n.)
1766, from hypochondria + an unusual use of -osis.
hypocrisy (n.)
c.1200, ipocrisie, from Old French ypocrisie, from Late Latin hypocrisis, from Greek hypokrisis "acting on the stage, pretense," from hypokrinesthai "play a part, pretend," also "answer," from hypo- "under" (see sub-) + middle voice of krinein "to sift, decide" (see crisis). The sense evolution in Attic Greek is from "separate gradually" to "answer" to "answer a fellow actor on stage" to "play a part." The h- was restored in English 16c.
Hypocrisy is the art of affecting qualities for the purpose of pretending to an undeserved virtue. Because individuals and institutions and societies most often live down to the suspicions about them, hypocrisy and its accompanying equivocations underpin the conduct of life. Imagine how frightful truth unvarnished would be. [Benjamin F. Martin, "France in 1938," 2005]
hypocrite (n.)
c.1200, ypocrite, from Old French ypocrite (12c., Modern French hypocrite), from Church Latin hypocrita, from Greek hypokrites "stage actor, pretender, dissembler," from hypokrinesthai (see hypocrisy).
hypocritic (adj.)
1530s, from Greek hypokritikos “acting a part, pretending” (see hypocrisy).
hypocritical (adj.)
1540s (implied in hypocritically), from hypocritic, which was used in the same sense, + -al (1). Middle English used simple hypocrite as the adjective (c.1400) as well as the noun.
hypodermic (adj.)
1830, from hypo- "under" + derma "skin" + -ic.
hypoglycemia (n.)
1893, from Latinized form of Greek elements hypo- "under" (see hypo-) + glykys "sweet" (see glucose) + haima "blood" (see -emia).
hypomania (n.)
1843 (as a clinical word from 1882, from German hypomanie); see hypo- + mania. Related: Hypomaniac; hypomanic.
hypotenuse (n.)
1570s, from Late Latin hypotenusa, from Greek hypoteinousa "stretching under" (the right angle), fem. present participle of hypoteinein, from hypo- "under" (see sub-) + teinein "to stretch" (see tenet). Formerly often erroneously hypothenuse.