horse-chestnut (n.) Look up horse-chestnut at
1590s, from horse + chestnut. A tree probably native to Asia, introduced in England c. 1550; the name also was extended to similar North American species such as the buckeye. Said to have been so called because it was food for horses. The nut resembles that of the edible chestnut but is bitter to the taste.
horse-race (n.) Look up horse-race at
also horserace, 1580s, from horse (n.) + race (n.1).
horse-whip (n.) Look up horse-whip at
1690s, from horse (n.) + whip (n.). As a verb from 1768. Related: Horserwhipped; horsewhipping.
horseback (n.) Look up horseback at
late 14c., from horse (n.) + back (n.). The alternative formerly was described in jest as footback [Century Dictionary].
horsefeathers (n.) Look up horsefeathers at
"nonsense," 1928, said to have been coined by U.S. cartoonist Billy De Beck; perhaps a variant of horseshit "nonsense," though the latter is attested only from 1940s.
horsefly (n.) Look up horsefly at
late 14c., from horse (n.) + fly (n.).
horsehair (n.) Look up horsehair at
late 14c., from horse (n.) + hair.
horsehide Look up horsehide at
early 14c., from horse (n.) + hide (n.).
horseman (n.) Look up horseman at
c. 1200, from horse (n.) + man (n.).
horsemanship (n.) Look up horsemanship at
1560s, from horseman + -ship.
horseplay (n.) Look up horseplay at
"rough, excessive play," 1580s, from horse (n.) with its associations of "strong, coarse" + play (n.).
horsepower (n.) Look up horsepower at
1806, from horse (n.) + power (n.); established by Watt as the power needed to lift 33,000 pounds one foot in one minute, which is actually about 1.5 times the power of a strong horse.
horseradish (n.) Look up horseradish at
1590s, Cochlearia armoricia; the common name preserves the once-common figurative sense of horse as "strong, large, coarse" (as in in obsolete horse mushroom, horse parsley, Old English horsminte "horse mint," etc.); also see radish.
horseshoe (n.) Look up horseshoe at
late 14c. (early 13c. as a proper name), from horse (n.) + shoe (n.). Horseshoes as another name for the game of quoits, attested by 1822.
HORSE-SHOES, the game of coits, or quoits--because sometimes actually played with horse-shoes. [John Trotter Brockett, "A Glossary of North Country Words," 1829]
The belief that finding a horseshoe by chance is lucky is attested from late 14c., and the practice of nailing one above a doorway to prevent a witch entering therein was common in London down to c. 1800. Of a type of bend in a river, 1770, American English. As a type of crab, from 1775.
horsetail (n.) Look up horsetail at
c. 1400, from horse (n.) + tail (n.). As a kind of plant, from 1530s.
horsewoman (n.) Look up horsewoman at
1560s, from horse (n.) + woman. See horseman.
horsy (adj.) Look up horsy at
1590s, from horse (n.) + -y (2). Related: Horsiness.
hortative (adj.) Look up hortative at
c. 1600, from Latin hortativus, from past participle stem of hortari “to exhort” (see hortatory).
hortatory (adj.) Look up hortatory at
1580s, from Middle French hortatoire and directly from Late Latin hortatorius "encouraging, cheering," from hortatus, past participle of hortari "exhort, encourage, urge, incite, instigate," intensive of horiri "urge, incite, encourage," from PIE root *gher- (5) "to like, want" (cognates: Old English giernan "to strive, desire, yearn;" Gothic gairnei "desire;" Greek khresthai "to lack, want; use, make use of," kharis "grace, favor," khairein "to rejoice, delight in;" Sanskrit haryati "finds pleasure, likes," harsate "is aroused;" Avestan zara "effort, aim;" Russian zhariti "awake desire, charm").
Hortense Look up Hortense at
fem. proper name, from Latin Hortensia, fem. of Hortensius, a Roman gens name, related to hortus "garden" (see yard (n.1)).
horticultural (adj.) Look up horticultural at
1778, from horticulture + -al (1).
horticulture (n.) Look up horticulture at
1670s, "cultivation of a garden," fabricated from Latin hortus "garden" (see yard (n.1)) + cultura (see culture); probably on model of agriculture. Famously punned upon by Dorothy Parker.
horticulturist (n.) Look up horticulturist at
1818, from horticulture + -ist. Earlier was horticultist (1754).
Horus Look up Horus at
1851, Egyptian hawk-headed god, from Latin Horus, from Egyptian Hor, literally "the high-flying one."
hosanna Look up hosanna at
Old English osanna, via Latin and Greek from Hebrew hosha'na, probably a shortening of hoshi'ah-nna "save, we pray" (see Psalms cxviii:25), from imperative of y-sh- (compare yeshua "salvation, deliverance, welfare") + emphatic particle -na. Originally an appeal for deliverance; used in Christian Church as an ascription of praise, because when Jesus entered Jerusalem this was shouted by Galilean pilgrims in recognition of his messiahhood (Matt. xxi:9, 15, etc.).
hose (v.) Look up hose at
c. 1300, "to furnish with stockings," from hose (n.). Meaning "to water down with a hose" is from 1889. Related: Hosed; hosing.
hose (n.) Look up hose at
late Old English, hosa "covering for the leg," from Proto-Germanic *husan (cognates: Old Saxon, Old Norse hosa, Middle High German hose "covering for the leg," German Hose "trousers"), literally "covering," from PIE *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal" (see hide (n.1)). Old French hose, Old Spanish huesa are of Germanic origin. Sense of "flexible rubber tube for liquid" is first attested late 15c.
Hosea Look up Hosea at
masc. proper name, from Hebrew Hoshea, literally "salvation," from stem y-sh- "to save."
hoser (n.) Look up hoser at
"contemptible person," also hose-head, by 1982, a term popularized by the Canadian parody comic sketch "Great White North" with the fictional McKenzie Brothers on SCTV.
hosier (n.) Look up hosier at
late 14c., hosyere "hose-maker" (attested as a surname from late 12c.), from hose (n.) + -ier, French-influenced agent noun suffix.
hosiery (n.) Look up hosiery at
stocking collectively, 1775, from hosier + -y (1). As "factory where hose is made," from 1803.
hospice (n.) Look up hospice at
1818, "rest house for travelers," from French hospice (13c.), from Latin hospitium "guest house, hospitality," from hospes (genitive hospitis) "guest, host" (see host (n.1)). Sense of "home for the aged and terminally ill " is from 1893; hospice movement first attested 1979.
hospitable (adj.) Look up hospitable at
1560s, from Middle French hospitable, from Latin hospitari "be a guest," from hospes (genitive hospitis) "guest" (see host (n.1)). Related: Hospitably.
hospital (n.) Look up hospital at
mid-13c., "shelter for the needy," from Old French hospital, ospital "hostel" (Modern French hôpital), from Late Latin hospitale "guest-house, inn," neuter of Latin adjective hospitalis "of a guest or host," from hospes (genitive hospitis); see host (n.1). Later "charitable institution to house and maintain the needy" (early 15c.); sense of "institution for sick people" is first recorded 1540s.
hospitality (n.) Look up hospitality at
late 14c., "act of being hospitable," from Old French hospitalité, from Latin hospitalitem (nominative hospitalitas) "friendliness to guests," from hospes (genitive hospitis) "guest" (see host (n.1)).
hospitalization (n.) Look up hospitalization at
1873, noun of action from hospitalize.
hospitalize (v.) Look up hospitalize at
1873, from hospital + -ize. "Freq[uently] commented on as an unhappy formation" [OED]. Related: hospitalized; hospitalizing.
hoss (n.) Look up hoss at
1815, representing U.S. dialectal variant pronunciation of horse, especially as applied to (large or coarse) persons.
host (n.1) Look up host at
"person who receives guests," late 13c., from Old French hoste "guest, host, hostess, landlord" (12c., Modern French hôte), from Latin hospitem (nominative hospes) "guest, host," literally "lord of strangers," from PIE *ghostis- "stranger" (cognates: Old Church Slavonic gosti "guest, friend," gospodi "lord, master;" see guest). The biological sense of "animal or plant having a parasite" is from 1857.
host (n.2) Look up host at
"multitude" mid-13c., from Old French host "army" (10c.), from Medieval Latin hostis "army, war-like expedition," from Latin hostis "enemy, foreigner, stranger," from the same root as host (n.1). Replaced Old English here, and in turn has been largely superseded by army. The generalized meaning of "large number" is first attested 1610s.
host (n.3) Look up host at
"body of Christ, consecrated bread," c. 1300, from Latin hostia "sacrifice," also "the animal sacrificed," applied in Church Latin to Christ; probably ultimately related to host (n.1) in its root sense of "stranger, enemy."
host (v.) Look up host at
"to serve as a host," early 15c., from host (n.1). Related: Hosted; hosting.
hosta (n.) Look up hosta at
1828, plant genus of the lily family, coined 1812 in Modern Latin for Austrian physician and botanist Nicolaus Thomas Host (1761-1834).
hostage (n.) Look up hostage at
late 13c., from Old French hostage "person given as security or hostage" (12c., Modern French ôtage), either from hoste "guest" (see host (n.1)) via notion of "a lodger held by a landlord as security," or from Late Latin obsidanus "condition of being held as security," from obses "hostage," from ob- "before" + base of sedere "to sit" [OED]. Modern political/terrorism sense is from 1970.
hostel (n.) Look up hostel at
early 13c., from Old French hostel "inn, lodgings, shelter" (11c., Modern French hôtel), from Medieval Latin hospitale "inn, large house" (see hospital). Obsolete after 16c., revived 1808, along with hostelry (Middle English hostelrie) by Sir Walter Scott. The sense in youth hostel is recorded by 1931.
hostelry (n.) Look up hostelry at
late 14c. (as a surname from early 14c.), from Old French hostelerie "house, guest-house; kitchen; hospice, almshouse" (12c., Modern French hôtellerie), from hostel (see host). Lost, then revived 19c.
hostess (n.) Look up hostess at
late 13c., "woman who keeps an inn or public hotel," from host (n.1) + -ess, or from Old French hostesse (Modern French hôtesse). Meaning "woman who presides at a dinner party, etc." recorded by 1822. Also used mid-20c. in sense "female who entertains customers in nightclubs," with overtones of prostitution.
hostile (adj.) Look up hostile at
late 15c., from Middle French hostile "of or belonging to an enemy" or directly from Latin hostilis "of an enemy," from hostis "enemy" (see guest). The noun meaning "hostile person" is recorded from 1838, American English, a word from the Indian wars.
hostility (n.) Look up hostility at
early 15c., from Middle French hostilité "enmity" (15c.), or directly from Late Latin hostilitatem (nominative hostilitas) "enmity," from Latin hostilis, from hostis "enemy" (see guest). Hostilities in the sense of "warfare" attested from 1610s.
hostler (n.) Look up hostler at
late 14c., "one who tends to horses at an inn," also, occasionally, "innkeeper," from Anglo-French hostiler, Old French hostelier "innkeeper, steward" (12c., Modern French hôtelier), from Medieval Latin hostilarius "the monk who entertains guests at a monastery," from hospitale "inn" (see hospital). See also ostler.