garter (v.) Look up garter at
mid-15c., from garter (n.). Related: Gartered; gartering.
garth (n.) Look up garth at
"small piece of enclosed ground," a northern and western English dialect word, mid-14c., from Old Norse garðr "yard, courtyard, fence," cognate of Old English geard (see yard (n.1)).
Gary Look up Gary at
masc. proper name, also a surname, from Norman form of Old Norse geiri, Old Danish geri "spear" (see gar).
gas (n.1) Look up gas at
1650s, from Dutch gas, probably from Greek khaos "empty space" (see chaos). The sound of Dutch "g" is roughly equivalent to that of Greek "kh." First used by Flemish chemist J.B. van Helmont (1577-1644), probably influenced by Paracelsus, who used khaos in an occult sense of "proper elements of spirits" or "ultra-rarified water," which was van Helmont's definition of gas.
Hunc spiritum, incognitum hactenus, novo nomine gas voco ("This vapor, hitherto unknown, I call by a new name, 'gas.'" [Helmont, Ortus Medicinae]
Modern scientific sense began 1779, with later secondary specialization to "combustible mix of vapors" (1794, originally coal gas); "anesthetic" (1894, originally nitrous oxide); and "poison gas" (1900). Meaning "intestinal vapors" is from 1882. "The success of this artificial word is unique" [Weekley]. Slang sense of "empty talk" is from 1847; slang meaning "something exciting or excellent" first attested 1953, from earlier hepster slang gasser in the same sense (1944). Gas also meant "fun, a joke" in Anglo-Irish and was used so by Joyce (1914). Gas-works is by 1817. Gas-oven is from 1851 as a kitchen appliance; gas-stove from 1848.
gas (v.) Look up gas at
1886, "to supply with (illuminating) gas," from gas (n.1). Sense of "poison with gas" is from 1889 as an accidental thing, from 1915 as a military attack. In old slang also "talk nonsense, lie to." Related: Gassed; gassing; gasses.
gas (n.2) Look up gas at
short for gasoline, American English, by 1905. Gas-pump is from 1925; gas-pedal "automobile accelerator" is by 1908; gas-station "fueling station for an automobile" is from 1916.
gas-guzzler (n.) Look up gas-guzzler at
car with low fuel-efficiency, 1973, American English, from gas (short for gasoline) + guzzler.
gas-house (n.) Look up gas-house at
also gashouse, 1880 as a power-generating station, from gas (n.1) + house (n.). By 1926, emblematic of a run-down district of a U.S. city, a typical abode of criminals and gangsters.
gas-light (n.) Look up gas-light at
1808, from (illuminating) gas (n.1) + light (n.).
gas-mask (n.) Look up gas-mask at
1915, from (poison) gas (n.1) + mask (n.).
Gascon Look up Gascon at
"native of Gascony," late 14c., from Middle French Gascon, from Vulgar Latin *Wasco, from Latin Vasco, singular of Vascones, the name of the ancient inhabitants of the Pyrénées (see Basque). Among the French, proverbially a boastful people, hence gasconade (n.), "bragging talk" (1709).
gasconade (n.) Look up gasconade at
"a boast, boastful talk, bluster," 1709, from French gasconade (see Gascon + -ade); from gasconner (16c.) "to boast, brag," literally "to talk like a Gascon." As a verb in English from 1727.
gaselier (n.) Look up gaselier at
"gas-burning chandelier," 1849, from gas (n.1) on model of chandelier.
gaseous (adj.) Look up gaseous at
"in the form of a gas," 1799, from gas (n.) + -ous. Related: Gaseousness.
gash (v.) Look up gash at
1560s, alteration of older garsh, from Middle English garsen (late 14c.), from Old North French garser "to cut, slash" (see gash (n.)). For loss of -r-, see ass (n.2). Related: Gashed; gashing.
gash (n.) Look up gash at
1540s, alteration of Middle English garce "a gash, cut, wound, incision" (early 13c.), from Old North French garser "to scarify, cut, slash" (Old French *garse), apparently from Vulgar Latin *charassare, from Greek kharassein "engrave, sharpen, carve, cut," from PIE *gher- (4) "to scrape, scratch" (see character). Loss of -r- is characteristic (see ass (n.2)). Slang use for "vulva" dates to mid-1700s. Provincial English has a set of words (gashly, gashful, etc.) with forms from gash but senses from gast- "dreadful, frightful."
gasket (n.) Look up gasket at
1620s, caskette, originally nautical, "small rope or plaited coil" used to secure a furled sail, of uncertain origin, perhaps from French garcette "a gasket," literally "little girl, maidservant," diminutive of Old French garce "young woman, young girl; whore, harlot, concubine" (13c.), fem. of garçon (see garcon). Century Dictionary notes Spanish garcette "a gasket," also "hair which falls in locks." Machinery sense of "packing (originally of braided hemp) to seal metal joints and pistons" first recorded 1829.
gasohol (n.) Look up gasohol at
gasoline and ethanol mixture, 1975, from gasoline + (ethyl) alcohol.
gasoline (n.) Look up gasoline at
"lightest volatile liquid obtained from distillation of petroleum," 1864 (alternative spelling gasolene is from 1865), from gas (n.) + -ol (probably here representing Latin oleum "oil") + chemical suffix -ine (2). Shortened form gas was in common use in U.S. by 1897. Gas station as a fuel filling station for automobiles recorded by 1924.
gasometer (n.) Look up gasometer at
1790, from gas (n.1) + -meter. Originally an instrument for measuring gasses; as this also involves collecting and storing them, it came also to be used for "a storehouse for gas." Related: Gasometric; gasometry.
gasp (n.) Look up gasp at
1570s, from gasp (v.). Earliest attested use is in the phrase last gasp "final breath before dying." To gasp up the ghost "die" is attested from 1530s.
gasp (v.) Look up gasp at
late 14c., gaspen, "open the mouth wide; exhale," of uncertain origin, perhaps from Old Norse geispa "to yawn," or its Danish cognate gispe "gasp," which probably are related to Old Norse gapa "open the mouth wide" (see gap (n.)). Related: Gasped; gasping.
gassy (adj.) Look up gassy at
1757, from gas (n.1) + -y (2). Related: Gassily; gassiness.
gast (adj.) Look up gast at
"animal which does not produce in season," 1729, an East Anglian dialect word, perhaps from or related to Middle Dutch gast "barren soil."
gastrectomy (n.) Look up gastrectomy at
1881, from gastro- "stomach" + -ectomy "a cutting out."
gastric (adj.) Look up gastric at
1650s, from Modern Latin gastricus, from Greek gaster (genitive gastros) "stomach, paunch, belly," often figurative of gluttony or greed, also "womb, uterus; sausage," by dissimilation from *graster, literally "eater, devourer," from gran "to gnaw, eat," from PIE root *gras- "to devour" (cognates: Greek grastis "green fodder," Latin gramen "fodder, grass," Old English cærse "cress").
gastritis (n.) Look up gastritis at
1806, medical Latin, from gastro- "stomach" + -itis "inflammation." Coined by French pathologist François-Boissier de la Croix de Sauvages (1706-1767).
gastro- Look up gastro- at
also gastero-, scientific word-forming element meaning "stomach," before vowels gastr-, from Greek gastro-, comb. form of gaster (genitive gastros) "belly, paunch; womb" (see gastric). Also used in compounds in ancient Greek, as gastrobarys "heavy with child."
gastro-enteritis (n.) Look up gastro-enteritis at
also gastroenteritis, 1823, from gastro- + enteritis. Related: Gastro-enteric.
gastro-enterology (n.) Look up gastro-enterology at
also gastroenterology, 1904, from gastro- + enterology, from Greek enteron "an intestine, piece of gut" (see enteric). Related: Gastroenterologist.
gastro-intestinal (adj.) Look up gastro-intestinal at
also gastrointestinal, 1821, from gastro- + intestinal.
gastrocnemius (n.) Look up gastrocnemius at
1670s, from Latinized form of Greek gastroknemia "calf of the leg," from gaster "belly" (see gastric) + kneme "calf of the leg," from PIE *kone-mo- "shin, leg-bone" (see ham (n.1)). So called for its form (the "protuberant" part of the calf of the leg). Related: Gastrocnemical.
gastrolator (n.) Look up gastrolator at
"belly-worshipper; one whose god is his own belly," 1690s, from gastro- + Greek -latros "serving" (see -latry). Perhaps modeled on French gastrolatre. Related: Gastrolatrous.
gastrolith (n.) Look up gastrolith at
1854, from German Gastrolith (by 1843) or Modern Latin gastrolithus, from gastro- "stomach" + -lith "stone."
gastrology (n.) Look up gastrology at
"cooking, good eating," 1810, from gastro- "stomach" + -logy. Compare gastronomy. Gastrologia was the title of a lost work by Archestratus.
gastronome (n.) Look up gastronome at
"a judge of the arts of cookery," 1823, from French gastronome, a back-formation from gastronomie (see gastronomy). Alternative gastronomer is recorded from 1820.
gastronomic (adj.) Look up gastronomic at
1817, from French gastronomique, from gastronomie (see gastronomy). Related: Gastronomical; gastronomically.
gastronomy (n.) Look up gastronomy at
1814, from French gastronomie, coined 1800 by Joseph de Berchoux (1762-1838) as title of poem on good living, after Gastrologia, title of a now-lost poem of antiquity, quoted by Athenaeus (see gastrology). Berchoux's word is from gaster + nomos "arranging, regulating" (from nemein "manage;" see numismatic). Related: Gastronomer.
gastropod (n.) Look up gastropod at
1826, gasteropod (spelling without -e- by 1854), from Modern Latin Gasteropoda, name of a class of mollusks, from Greek gaster (genitive gastros) "stomach" (see gastric) + pous (genitive podos) "foot," from PIE root *ped- (1) "a foot" (see foot (n.)). From the ventral position of the mollusk's "foot."
gastrula (n.) Look up gastrula at
1874, a Modern Latin coinage (Haeckel), from Latin gaster, from Greek gaster (genitive gastros) "stomach" (see gastric) + Latin -ula, diminutive suffix. Related: Gastrular; gastrulation.
gat (n.) Look up gat at
"revolver," 1904, slang shortening of Gatling (gun); by 1880, gatlin was slang for a gun of any sort.
gate (n.) Look up gate at
"opening, entrance," Old English geat (plural geatu) "gate, door, opening, passage, hinged framework barrier," from Proto-Germanic *gatan (cognates: Old Norse gat "opening, passage," Old Saxon gat "eye of a needle, hole," Old Frisian gat "hole, opening," Dutch gat "gap, hole, breach," German Gasse "street"), of unknown origin. Meaning "money collected from selling tickets" dates from 1896 (short for gate money, 1820). Gate-crasher is from 1926 as "uninvited party guest;" 1925 in reference to motorists who run railway gates. Finnish katu, Lettish gatua "street" are Germanic loan-words.
gate (v.) Look up gate at
"provide with a gate," 1906, from gate (n.). Originally of moulds. Related: Gated (1620s). Gated community recorded by 1989 (earliest reference to Emerald Bay, Laguna Beach, Calif.).
gate-house (n.) Look up gate-house at
also gatehouse, "house for a gatekeeper," late 14c., from gate (n.) + house (n.).
gate-keeper (n.) Look up gate-keeper at
also gatekeeper, 1570s, from gate (n.) + keeper. Figurative use by 1872.
gateau (n.) Look up gateau at
1845, from French gâteau "cake," from Old French gastel, from Frankish *wastil "cake," from Proto-Germanic *was-tilaz, from PIE *wes- (5) "to eat, consume."
gateway (n.) Look up gateway at
"passage, entrance," 1707, from gate (n.) + way (n.). Figurative use from 1842.
gather (v.) Look up gather at
Old English gadrian, gædrian "unite, agree, assemble; gather, collect, store up" (transitive and intransitive), used of flowers, thoughts, persons; from Proto-Germanic *gaduron "come or bring together, unite" (cognates: Old English gæd "fellowship, companionship," gædeling "companion;" Middle Low German gadderen; Old Frisian gaderia; Dutch gaderen "to gather," gade "spouse;" German Gatte "husband;" Gothic gadiliggs), from PIE *ghedh- "to unite, join" (see good (adj.)). Change of spelling from -d- to -th- is 1500s, reflecting earlier change in pronunciation (as in mother, weather, father). Related: Gathered; gathering.
gather (n.) Look up gather at
"plait or fold in cloth," 1660s, from gather (v.).
gatherer (n.) Look up gatherer at
c. 1200, agent noun from gather.