garland (v.) Look up garland at
early 15c., "to make a garland;" 1590s, "to crown with a garland," from garland (n.). Related: Garlanded; garlanding.
garlic (n.) Look up garlic at
Old English garleac (Mercian), garlec (W. Saxon) "garlic," from gar "spear" (in reference to the clove), see gar + leac "leek" (see leek).
garlicky (adj.) Look up garlicky at
1775, from garlic + -y (2).
garment (n.) Look up garment at
c.1400, variant of garnement (early 14c.), from Old French garnement "garment, attire, clothes," from garnir "fit out, provide, adorn" (see garnish (v.)).
garner (v.) Look up garner at
late 15c., from garner (n.). Related: Garnered; garnering.
garner (n.) Look up garner at
late 12c., gerner, from Old French gernier, metathesized variant of grenier "storehouse, loft for grain," from Latin granarium "a store-house" (see granary).
garnet (n.) Look up garnet at
early 14c., metathesized from Old French grenat "garnet," originally an adjective, "of a dark red color," from Medieval Latin granatum, originally an adjective, "of dark red color," perhaps abstracted from pomegranate (q.v.), from the stone's resemblance either to the shape of the seeds or the color of the pulp. But perhaps the word is from Medieval Latin granum "grain," in its sense of "cochineal, red dye."
garnish (v.) Look up garnish at
late 14c., from Old French garniss-, present participle stem of garnir "provide, furnish; fortify, reinforce," from a Germanic stem related to Proto-Germanic *warnejan "be cautious, guard, provide for" (cognates: Old High German warnon "to take heed," Old English warnian "to take warning, beware;" see warn). Sense evolution is from "arm oneself" to "fit out" to "embellish," which was the earliest meaning in English, though the others also were used in Middle English. Culinary sense of "to decorate a dish for the table" predominated after c.1700. Older meaning survives in legal sense of "warning of attachment of funds" (1570s). Related: Garnished; garnishing.
garnish (n.) Look up garnish at
late 14c., "set of tableware" (probably a dozen; usually pewter), from garnish (v.). Sense of "embellishments to food" is from 1670s.
garnishee (n.) Look up garnishee at
1620s, from garnish (v.) + -ee.
garnishment (n.) Look up garnishment at
1520s, from garnish + -ment.
garret (n.) Look up garret at
c.1300, "turret, small tower on the roof of a house or castle," from Old French garite "watchtower, place of refuge," from garir "defend, preserve," from a Germanic source (compare Gothic warjan "forbid," Old High German warjan "to defend"), from Proto-Germanic *warjan, from PIE root *wer- (5) "to cover" (see warrant (n.)). Meaning "room on uppermost floor of a house" is from early 14c. See attic. As the typical wretched abode of a poor poet, by mid-18c.
Garrett Look up Garrett at
surname, from mid-13c., from Gerald or Gerard, with loss of consonant.
garrison (v.) Look up garrison at
1560s, from garrison (n.). Related: Garrisoned; garrisoning.
garrison (n.) Look up garrison at
c.1300, "store, treasure," from Old French garison "defense" (Modern French guérison "cure, recovery, healing") from garir "defend" (see garret). Meaning "fortified stronghold" is from early 15c.; that of "body of troops in a fortress" is from mid-15c., a sense taken over from Middle English garnison "body of armed men" (late 14c.), from Old French garnison "provision, munitions," from garnir "to furnish, provide."
garrot (n.) Look up garrot at
kind of duck, from French garrot, of unknown origin.
garrote (v.) Look up garrote at
"to execute with a garrote," 1851, from garrote (n.); sense of "choke and then rob" is from 1852. Related: Garotted; garotting.
garrote (n.) Look up garrote at
also garrotte, 1620s, "Spanish method of capital punishment by strangulation," from Spanish garrote "stick for twisting cord," of unknown origin, perhaps from Old French guaroc "club, stick, rod, shaft of a crossbow," probably ultimately Celtic, but possibly from Frankish *wrokkan "to twist" (cognate with Middle Dutch wroken "to twist").
I have no hesitation in pronouncing death by the garrot, at once the most manly, and the least offensive to the eye. [Major John Richardson, "British Legion," 1837]
garrulity (n.) Look up garrulity at
1580s, from Middle French garrulité, from Latin garrulitatem (nominative garrulitas) "chattering, loquacity," from garrulus (see garrulous).
garrulous (adj.) Look up garrulous at
1610s, from Latin garrulus "talkative," from garrire "to chatter," from PIE root *gar- "to call, cry," of imitative origin (compare Greek gerys "voice, sound," Ossetic zar "song," Welsh garm, Old Irish gairm "noise, cry"). Related: Garrulously; garrulousness.
garter (n.) Look up garter at
early 14c., from Old North French gartier "band just above or below the knee" (Old French jartier, 14c., Modern French jarretière), from garet "bend of the knee," perhaps from Gaulish (compare Welsh garr "leg"). Garter as the highest order of knighthood (mid-14c.), according to Froissart was established c.1344 by Edward III, though the usual story of how it came about is late (1614) and perhaps apocryphal. The verb is mid-15c., from the noun. Garter snake (U.S.) so called from resemblance to a ribbon. Garter belt first noticed 1913.
garth (n.) Look up garth at
"small piece of enclosed ground," northern and western English dialect word, mid-14c., from Old Norse garðr "yard, courtyard, fence," cognate of Old English geard (see yard (n.1)).
Gary Look up Gary at
masc. proper name, also a surname, from Norman form of Old Norse geiri, Old Danish geri "spear" (see gar).
gas (n.) Look up gas at
1650s, from Dutch gas, probably from Greek khaos "empty space" (see chaos). The sound of Dutch "g" is roughly equivalent to that of Greek "kh." First used by Flemish chemist J.B. van Helmont (1577-1644), probably influenced by Paracelsus, who used khaos in an occult sense of "proper elements of spirits" or "ultra-rarified water," which was van Helmont's definition of gas.

Modern scientific sense began 1779, with later specialization to "combustible mix of vapors" (1794, originally coal gas); "anesthetic" (1894, originally nitrous oxide); and "poison gas" (1900). Meaning "intestinal vapors" is from 1882. "The success of this artificial word is unique" [Weekley]. Slang sense of "empty talk" is from 1847; slang meaning "something exciting or excellent" first attested 1953, from earlier hepster slang gasser in the same sense (1944). Gas also meant "fun, a joke" in Anglo-Irish and was used so by Joyce (1914). As short for gasoline, it is American English, first recorded 1905.
gas (v.) Look up gas at
1886, "to supply with gas," from gas (n.). Sense of "poison with gas" is from 1889 as an accidental thing, from 1915 as a military attack. Related: Gassed; gassing; gasses.
gas-guzzler (n.) Look up gas-guzzler at
car with low fuel-efficiency, 1973, American English, from gas (short for gasoline) + guzzler.
Gascon Look up Gascon at
"native of Gascony," late 14c., from Middle French Gascon, from Vulgar Latin *Wasco, from Latin Vasco, singular of Vascones, the name of the ancient inhabitants of the Pyrénées (see Basque). Proverbially a boastful people, hence gasconade (n.), "bragging talk."
gasconade Look up gasconade at
1709 (n.); 1727 (v.), from French gasconade (see Gascon + -ade); from gasconner (16c.) "to boast, brag," literally "to talk like a Gascon."
gaselier (n.) Look up gaselier at
"gas-burning chandelier," 1849, from gas (n.) + chandelier.
gaseous (adj.) Look up gaseous at
1799, from gas (n.) + -ous.
gash (v.) Look up gash at
1560s, alteration of garsen (late 14c.), from Old North French garser "to cut, slash" (see gash (n.)). Related: Gashed; gashing.
gash (n.) Look up gash at
1540s, from Middle English garce (early 13c.), from Old North French garser "to scarify, cut, slash" (Old French *garse), apparently from Vulgar Latin *charassare, from Greek kharassein "engrave," from PIE *gher- "to scrape, scratch" (see character). Loss of -r- is characteristic (see ass (n.2)). Slang use for "vulva" dates to mid-1700s.
gashouse (n.) Look up gashouse at
1880 as a power-generating station, from gas (n.) + house (n.). By 1926, emblematic of a run-down district of a U.S. city, a typical abode of gangsters.
gasket (n.) Look up gasket at
1620s, caskette "small rope or plaited coil used to secure a furled sail," of uncertain origin, perhaps from French garcette "little girl, maidservant," diminutive of Old French garce (13c.) "young woman, young girl; whore, harlot, concubine," fem. of garçon (see garcon). Sense of "packing (originally of braided hemp) to seal metal joints" first recorded 1829.
gasohol (n.) Look up gasohol at
gasoline and ethanol mixture, 1975, from gasoline + (ethyl) alcohol.
gasoline (n.) Look up gasoline at
1864 (alternative spelling gasolene is from 1865), from gas + -ol (probably here representing Latin oleum "oil") + chemical suffix -ine (2). Shortened form gas was in common use in U.S. by 1897. Gas station as a fuel filling station for automobiles recorded by 1924.
gasometer (n.) Look up gasometer at
1790, from gas + -meter. Related: Gasometric.
gasp (n.) Look up gasp at
1570s, from gasp (v.).
gasp (v.) Look up gasp at
late 14c., gaspen, of uncertain origin, perhaps from Old Norse geispa "to yawn," or its Danish derivative gispe "gasp," which probably are related to Old Norse gapa (see gape). Related: Gasped; gasping.
gassy (adj.) Look up gassy at
1757, from gas + -y (2).
gast (adj.) Look up gast at
“animal which does not produce in season,” 1729, an East Anglian dialect word, perhaps from Middle Dutch gast “barren soil.”
gastrectomy (n.) Look up gastrectomy at
1886, from gastro- + -ectomy.
gastric (adj.) Look up gastric at
1650s, with -ic + Greek gaster (genitive gastros) "stomach," by dissimilation from *graster, literally "eater, devourer," from gran "to gnaw, eat," from PIE root *gras- "to devour" (cognates: Greek grastis "green fodder," Latin gramen "fodder, grass," Old English cærse "cress").
gastritis (n.) Look up gastritis at
1806, medical Latin, from gastro- + -itis. Coined by French pathologist François-Boissier de la Croix de Sauvages (1706-1767).
gastro- Look up gastro- at
scientific word-forming element meaning "stomach," before vowels gastr-, from Greek gastro-, comb. form of gaster (genitive gastros) "belly, paunch" (see gastric).
gastrocnemius (n.) Look up gastrocnemius at
1670s, from Latinized form of Greek gastroknemia "calf of the leg," from gaster "belly" (see gastric) + kneme "leg." So called for its form. Related: Gastrocnemical.
gastroenteritis (n.) Look up gastroenteritis at
1820s, from gastro- + enteritis.
gastroenterology (n.) Look up gastroenterology at
1904, from gastro- + enterology. Related: Gastroenterologist.
gastrointestinal (adj.) Look up gastrointestinal at
1831, from gastro- + intestinal.
gastrolator (n.) Look up gastrolator at
"belly-worshipper," 1690s, from gastro- + Greek -latros "serving" (see -latry).