guide (v.) Look up guide at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "to lead, direct, conduct," from Old French guider "to guide, lead, conduct" (14c.), earlier guier, from Frankish *witan "show the way" or a similar Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *wit- "to know" (cognates: German weisen "to show, point out," Old English witan "to see"), from PIE *weid- "to see" (see vision). The form of the French word influenced by Old Provençal guidar (n.) "guide, leader," or Italian guidare, both from the same source. Related: Guided; guiding.
guide (n.) Look up guide at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "one who shows the way," from Old French guide, 14c. (alteration of earlier guie), verbal noun from guider (see guide (v.)). In book titles from 1610s; meaning "book of information on local sites" is from 1759. In 18c. France, a "for Dummies" or "Idiot's Guide to" book would have been a guid' âne, literally "guide-ass."
guideline (n.) Look up guideline at Dictionary.com
1785, "line marked on a surface before cutting," from guide + line (n.). Meaning "rope for steering a hot-air balloon" is from 1846. In figurative use by 1948. Related: Guidelines.
guidepost (n.) Look up guidepost at Dictionary.com
also guide-post, 1761, from guide (v.) + post (n.1).
Guido Look up Guido at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, Italian, literally "leader," of Germanic origin (see guide (v.)). As a type of gaudy machoism often associated with Italian-Americans, 1980s, teen slang, from the name of character in Hollywood film "Risky Business" (1983).
guidon (n.) Look up guidon at Dictionary.com
"small flag," 1540s, from Middle French guidon (16c.), from Italian guidone "battle standard," from guidare "to direct, guide," from Old Provençal guidar (see guide (v.)).
guild (n.) Look up guild at Dictionary.com
early 13c., yilde (spelling later influenced by Old Norse gildi "guild, brotherhood"), a semantic fusion of Old English gegyld "guild" and gild, gyld "payment, tribute, compensation," from Proto-Germanic *gelth- "pay" (cognates: Old Frisian geld "money," Old Saxon geld "payment, sacrifice, reward," Old High German gelt "payment, tribute;" see yield (v.)).

The connecting sense is of a tribute or payment to join a protective or trade society. But some see the root in its alternative sense of "sacrifice," as if in worship, and see the word as meaning a combination for religious purposes, either Christian or pagan. The Anglo-Saxon guilds had a strong religious component; they were burial societies that paid for masses for the souls of deceased members as well as paying fines in cases of justified crime. The continental custom of guilds of merchants arrived after the Conquest, with incorporated societies of merchants in each town or city holding exclusive rights of doing business there. In many cases they became the governing body of a town (compare Guildhall, which came to be the London city hall). Trade guilds arose 14c., as craftsmen united to protect their common interest.
guilder (n.) Look up guilder at Dictionary.com
Dutch coin, late 15c., probably from a mispronunciation of Middle Dutch gulden, literally "golden," in gulden (florijn) or some similar name for a golden coin (see golden).
guile (n.) Look up guile at Dictionary.com
mid-12c., from Old French guile "deceit, wile, fraud, ruse, trickery," from Frankish *wigila "trick, ruse" or a related Germanic source (cognates: Old Frisian wigila "sorcery, witchcraft," Old English wil "trick;" see wile).
guileful (adj.) Look up guileful at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, from guile + -ful. Nowadays only in poems and dictionaries. Related: Guilefully; guilefulness.
guileless (adj.) Look up guileless at Dictionary.com
1727, from guile + -less. Related: Guilelessly; guilelessness.
guillotine (n.) Look up guillotine at Dictionary.com
"The name of the machine in which the axe descends in grooves from a considerable height so that the stroke is certain and the head instantly severed from the body." ["Universal Magazine of Knowledge and Pleasure," January 1793], 1791, from French guillotine, named in recognition of French physician Joseph Guillotin (1738-1814), who as deputy to the National Assembly (1789) proposed, for humanitarian and efficiency reasons, that capital punishment be carried out by beheading quickly and cleanly on a machine, which was built in 1791 and first used the next year. The verb is first attested 1794. Related: Guillotined; guillotining.
guilt (n.) Look up guilt at Dictionary.com
Old English gylt "crime, sin, fault, fine," of unknown origin, though some suspect a connection to Old English gieldan "to pay for, debt," but OED editors find this "inadmissible phonologically." The mistaken use for "sense of guilt" is first recorded 1680s. Guilt by association recorded by 1919.
guilt (v.) Look up guilt at Dictionary.com
"to influence someone by appealing to his sense of guiltiness," by 1995, from guilt (n.). Related: Guilted; guilting. Old English also had a verbal form, gyltan "to commit an offense."
guiltiness (n.) Look up guiltiness at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from guilty + -ness.
guiltless (adj.) Look up guiltless at Dictionary.com
late Old English gyltleas; see guilt (n.) + -less. Related: Guiltlessly; guiltlessness.
guilty (adj.) Look up guilty at Dictionary.com
Old English gyltig, from gylt (see guilt (n.)). Of conscience, feelings, etc., 1590s. Meaning "person who is guilty" is from 1540s. To plead not guilty is from 15c.; to plead guilty is 19c., though, as OED notes, "Guilty is technically not a plea, but a confession."
guinea (n.) Look up guinea at Dictionary.com
former British coin, 1660s, from Guinea, region along the west coast of Africa, presumably from an African word (perhaps Tuareg aginaw "black people"); the 20-shilling coins so called because they were first minted for British trade with Guinea (but soon in domestic use) and with gold from Africa. The original guinea (in use from 1663 to 1813) was based on the value of gold and by 1695 it was worth 30 shillings. William III then fixed its value at 21 shillings, 6 pence in 1698. The extra 6 pence were lopped off in December 1717.

The Guinea hen (1570s) is a domestic fowl imported from there. Guinea "derogatory term for Italian" (1896) was originally Guinea Negro (1740s) and meant "black person, person of mixed ancestry." It was applied to Italians c.1890 probably because of their dark complexions relative to northern Europeans, and after 1911 was occasionally applied to Hispanics and Pacific Islanders as well. New Guinea was so named 1546 by Spanish explorer Inigo Ortiz de Retes in reference to the natives' dark skin and tightly curled hair.
guinea pig Look up guinea pig at Dictionary.com
1660s, native to South America and perhaps so called either because it was first brought back to Britain aboard Guinea-men, ships that plied the triangle trade between England, Guinea, and South America [Barnhart, Klein]; or from confusion of Guinea (q.v.) with the South American region of Guyana (but OED is against this). In the extended sense of "one subjected to an experiment" it is first recorded 1920, because they were commonly used in vivisection experiments.
Guinevere Look up Guinevere at Dictionary.com
fem. proper name, from Welsh Gwenhwyvar, literally "white-cheeked."
Guinness Look up Guinness at Dictionary.com
Irish brewery, founded 1759 by Arthur Guinness (1725-1803) in Dublin.
guise (n.) Look up guise at Dictionary.com
late 13c., "style or fashion of attire," from Old French guise "manner, fashion, way," from Frankish *wisa or some similar Germanic source (cognate with Old High German wisa "manner, wise;" see wise (n.)). Sense of "assumed appearance" is from 1660s, from earlier meaning "mask, disguise" (c. 1500).
guiser (n.) Look up guiser at Dictionary.com
"masquerader, mummer," late 15c., agent noun from guise.
guitar (n.) Look up guitar at Dictionary.com
1620s, ultimately from Greek kithara "cithara," a stringed musical instrument related to the lyre, perhaps from Persian sihtar (see sitar); the name reached English several times, including early 14c. giterne, from Old French, in reference to various stringed, guitar-like instruments; the modern word is directly from Spanish guitarra (14c.), which ultimately is from the Greek. The Arabic word is perhaps from Spanish or Greek, though often the relationship is said to be the reverse.
guitarist (n.) Look up guitarist at Dictionary.com
1770, from guitar + -ist.
gulag (n.) Look up gulag at Dictionary.com
system of prisons and labor camps, especially for political detainees, in the former Soviet Union; rough acronym from Russian Glavnoe upravlenie ispravitel'no-trudovykh lagerei "Chief Administration of Corrective Labor Camps," set up in 1931.
gulch (n.) Look up gulch at Dictionary.com
"deep ravine," 1832, American English, perhaps from obsolete or dialectal verb gulsh "sink in" (of land), "gush out" (of water), from Middle English gulchen "to gush forth; to drink greedily" (c. 1200). Compare gulche-cuppe "a greedy drinker" (mid-13c.).
gules Look up gules at Dictionary.com
"red," in heraldic descriptions, c. 1300, from Old French goules "neckpiece of (red) fur," plural of gole, guele "throat," from Latin gula "throat" (see gullet).
gulf (n.) Look up gulf at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "profound depth;" geographic sense is c. 1400; from Old French golf "a gulf, whirlpool," from Italian golfo "a gulf, a bay," from Late Latin colfos, from Greek kolpos "bay, gulf," earlier "trough between waves, fold of a garment," originally "bosom," the common notion being "curved shape," from PIE *kwelp- "to arch, to vault" (compare Old English hwealf, a-hwielfan "to overwhelm"). Latin sinus underwent the same development, being used first for "bosom," later for "gulf." Replaced Old English sæ-earm. Figurative sense of "a wide interval" is from 1550s. The Gulf Stream (1775) takes its name from the Gulf of Mexico.
gull (n.1) Look up gull at Dictionary.com
shore bird, early 15c. (in a cook book), probably from Brythonic Celtic, compare Welsh gwylan "gull," Cornish guilan, Breton goelann; all from Old Celtic *voilenno-. Replaced Old English mæw (see mew (n.1)).
gull (n.2) Look up gull at Dictionary.com
cant term for "dupe, sucker, credulous person," 1590s, of uncertain origin. Perhaps from verb meaning "to dupe, cheat" (1540s), earlier "to swallow" (1520s), ultimately from gull "throat, gullet" (early 15c.); see gullet. Or it is perhaps from (or influenced by) the bird (see gull (n.1)); in either case with a sense of "someone who will swallow anything thrown at him." Another possibility is Middle English dialectal gull "newly hatched bird" (late 14c.), which is perhaps from Old Norse golr "yellow," from the hue of its down.
Gullah Look up Gullah at Dictionary.com
"of or pertaining to blacks on the sea-islands of Georgia and South Carolina," 1739 (first attested as a male slave's proper name), of uncertain origin. Early 19c. folk etymology made it a shortening of Angola (homeland of many slaves) or traced it to a W. African tribal group called the Golas.
gullet (n.) Look up gullet at Dictionary.com
c. 1300 (as a surname), from Old French golet "neck (of a bottle); gutter; bay, creek," diminutive of gole "throat, neck" (Modern French gueule), from Latin gula "throat," also "appetite," from PIE root *gwele- (3) "to swallow" (cognates: Latin gluttire "to gulp down, devour," glutto "a glutton;" Old English ceole "throat;" Old Church Slavonic glutu "gullet," Russian glot "draught, gulp;" Old Irish gelim "I devour").
gullibility (n.) Look up gullibility at Dictionary.com
1793, earlier cullibility (1728), probably from gull (n.2) "dupe, sucker" + -ability.
gullible (adj.) Look up gullible at Dictionary.com
1825, apparently a back-formation from gullibility. Gullable is attested from 1818.
Gulliver Look up Gulliver at Dictionary.com
male proper name, from Old French goulafre "glutton," a very common name, found as a surname in Domesday Book (William Gulafra).
gully (n.) Look up gully at Dictionary.com
"channel made by running water," 1650s, possibly a variant of Middle English golet "water channel" (see gullet). Gully-washer, American English colloquial for "heavy rainstorm," attested by 1887.
gulp (v.) Look up gulp at Dictionary.com
late 14c., a native coinage or else from Flemish gulpe or Dutch gulpen "to gush, pour forth, guzzle, swallow," in any case possibly of imitative origin (compare Swedish dialectal glapa "to gulp down"). Related: Gulped; gulping.
gulp (n.) Look up gulp at Dictionary.com
1560s, from gulp (v.), or else from Flemish gulpe, Dutch gulp "stream of water, large draught."
gum (n.1) Look up gum at Dictionary.com
"resin," c. 1300, from Old French gome "(medicinal) gum, resin," from Late Latin gumma, from Latin gummi, from Greek kommi "gum," from Egyptian kemai. As a shortened form of chewing gum, first attested 1842 in American English. The gum tree (1670s) was so called for the resin it exudes.
gum (n.2) Look up gum at Dictionary.com
"membranes of the mouth," Old English goma "palate, side of the mouth" (single or plural), from a Germanic source represented by Old Norse gomi "palate," Old High German goumo; related to Lithuanian gomurys "palate," and perhaps from PIE *gheu- "to yawn" (source also of Greek khaos; see chaos).
gum (v.) Look up gum at Dictionary.com
early 14c., gommen, "treat with (medicinal or aromatic) gums," from gum (n.1). In the transferred or figurative sense of "spoil, ruin" (usually with up), it is first recorded 1901, probably from the notion of machinery becoming clogged. Of infants, etc., "to chew or gnaw (something) with the gums," by 1907, from gum (n.2). Related: Gummed; gumming.
gumbo Look up gumbo at Dictionary.com
1805, from Louisiana French, probably ultimately from Central Bantu dialect (compare Mbundu ngombo "okra").
gummy Look up gummy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from gum (n.1) + -y (2). Related: Gumminess.
gump (n.) Look up gump at Dictionary.com
"dolt, numskull," 1825; meaning "chicken" is from 1914, U.S. thieves' slang.
gumption (n.) Look up gumption at Dictionary.com
1719, originally Scottish, "common sense, shrewdness," also "drive, initiative," possibly connected with Middle English gome "attention, heed," from Old Norse gaumr "heed, attention." Sense of "initiative" is first recorded 1812.
gumshoe (n.) Look up gumshoe at Dictionary.com
"plainclothes detective," 1906, from the rubber-soled shoes they wore (which were so called from 1863); from gum (n.1) + shoe (n.).
gun (n.) Look up gun at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., gunne "an engine of war that throws rocks, arrows or other missiles," probably a shortening of woman's name Gunilda, found in Middle English gonnilde "cannon" and in an Anglo-Latin reference to a specific gun from a 1330 munitions inventory of Windsor Castle ("...una magna balista de cornu quae Domina Gunilda ..."), from Old Norse Gunnhildr, woman's name, from gunnr + hildr, both meaning "war, battle." First element from PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill" (see bane); for second, see Hilda.

The identification of women with powerful weapons is common historically (such as Big Bertha, Brown Bess, Mons Meg, etc.); meaning shifted with technology, from cannons to firearms as they developed 15c. Great guns (cannon, etc.) distinguished from small guns (such as muskets) from c. 1400. Applied to pistols and revolvers after 1744. Meaning "thief, rascal" is from 1858. For son of a gun, see son. To jump the gun (1912, American English) is from track and field. Guns "a woman's breasts" (especially if prominent) attested by 2006.
gun (v.) Look up gun at Dictionary.com
"shoot with a gun," 1620s, from gun (n.). Related: Gunned; gunning. The sense of "accelerate an engine" is from 1930, from earlier phrase give (her) the gun (1917), which appears to have originated in pilots' jargon in World War I; perhaps from the old military expression give a gun "order a gun to be fired" (c. 1600).
gun moll Look up gun moll at Dictionary.com
1908, "female criminal," second element from nickname of Mary, used of disreputable females since early 1600s; first element from slang gonif "thief" (1885), from Yiddish, from Hebrew gannabh "thief" (compare gonoph).