Ganges
from Sanskrit ganga "current, river."
gangland (n.)
1912, from gang (n.) + land (n.).
ganglia (n.)
Latin plural of ganglion.
gangling (adj.)
by 1812, a frequentative of gang in some sense involving looseness.
GANGLING. Tall, slender, delicate, generally applied to plants. Warw. [James O. Halliwell, "A Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words," 1846]
ganglion (n.)
1680s, from Greek ganglion "tumor," used by Galen for "nerve bundle." Of unknown origin; according to Galen, the proper sense of the word was "anything gathered into a ball."
gangly (adj.)
1872, American English alteration of gangling.
gangplank (n.)
1846, American English, from gang + plank. Replacing earlier gang-board.
gangrene (n.)
1540s, from Latin gangraena, from Greek gangraina "an eating or gnawing sore," literally "that which eats away," reduplicated form of gran- "to gnaw," from PIE root *gras- (see gastric).
gangrenous (adj.)
1610s, from gangrene + -ous.
gangsta
rap style generally credited to West Philly hip hop artist Schoolly D, but his "Gangster Boogie" (1984) used the conventional spelling; NWA was spelling it gangsta by 1988.
gangster (n.)
1896, American English, from gang in its criminal sense + -ster.
gangway (n.)
Old English gangweg "road, passage, thoroughfare;" see gang (n.) in its original sense + way (n.). As a command to clear way, attested by 1912, American English.
ganja (n.)
powerful preparation of cannabis sativa, 1800, from Hindi ganjha.
gank (v.)
by 2000 as the verb to describe a situation of many players or NPCs attacking one; gamer slang, perhaps borrowed from hip-hop and drug-abuse slang (where it is attested by 1995 in the sense of "to rob, to rip off"); perhaps by 1990 in sports jargon. Of unknown origin; perhaps ultimately based on gang. Related: Ganked; ganking.
gannet (n.)
Old English ganot "gannet, sea-bird, water fowl," from Proto-Germanic *ganito (cognates: Dutch gent, Middle High German ganiz, Old High German ganazzo), from PIE *ghans- (see goose (n.)). Old French gante is from Germanic.
gantlet
see gauntlet (n.1).
gantry (n.)
1570s, originally "four-footed stand for a barrel," probably from Old North French gantier (Old French chantier, 13c., "store-room, stock-room"), from Latin cantherius "rafter, frame," also "a gelding," from Greek kanthelios "pack ass," related to kanthelion "rafter," of unknown origin. The connecting notion in all this seems to be framework for carrying things. Meaning "frame for a crane, etc." is from 1810. Railway signal sense attested by 1889.
Ganymede
Trojan youth whom Zeus made his cup-bearer, from Greek Ganymedes, literally "rejoicing in his virility," from ganymai "I rejoice, am glad" + medea (plural) "counsels, plans, cunning" (see Medea), but here taken by many to mean "genitals." Used figuratively of serving-boys (c.1600) and catamites (1590s).
gaol
see jail, you tea-sodden football hooligan.
gaoler (n.)
chiefly British English spelling of jailer.
gap (n.)
early 14c. (mid-13c. in place names), from Old Norse gap "chasm," related to gapa "to gape," from PIE *ghai- "to yawn, gape" (see yawn (v.)). Originally "hole in a wall or hedge;" broader sense is 16c. In U.S., common in place names in reference to a break or pass in a long mountain chain (especially one that water flows through). As a verb from 1847.
gape (v.)
early 13c., from an unrecorded Old English word or else from Old Norse gapa "to open the mouth, gape," common Proto-Germanic (cognates: Middle Dutch, Dutch gapen, German gaffen "to gape, stare," Swedish gapa, Danish gabe), from PIE *ghai- (see gap). Related: Gaped; gaping. As a noun, from 1530s.
gaper (n.)
1630s, agent noun from gape (v.). Gaper delay in traffic control parlance attested by 1995.
gaping
1570s (implied in gapingly), present participle adj. from gape (v.).
gar (n.)
"pike-like fish," 1765, American English, shortening of garfish (mid-15c.), from Old English gar "spear," from Proto-Germanic *gaizo- (cognates: Old Norse geirr, Old Saxon, Old High German ger, German Ger "spear"), from PIE *ghaiso- "stick, spear" (see goad (n.)).
garage (v.)
1906, from garage (n.). Related: Garaged; garaging.
garage (n.)
1902, from French garage "shelter for a vehicle," originally "a place for storing something," from verb garer "to shelter," from Middle French garer "to shelter, dock ships," from Frankish *waron "to guard" or some other Germanic source (compare Old High German waron "take care"), from Proto-Germanic *war-, from PIE root *wer- (5) "to cover" (see warrant (n.)).
Influenced no doubt by the success of the recent Club run, and by the fact that more than 100 of its members are automobile owners, the N.Y.A.C. has decided to build a "garage," the French term for an automobile stable, at Travers Island, that will be of novel design, entirely different from any station in the country. [New York Athletic Club Journal, May 1902]
Garage sale first attested 1966.
Garamond
typeface, named for 16c. French typefounder Claude Garamond.
garb (n.)
1590s, "elegance, stylishness," from Middle French garbe "graceful outline" (Modern French galbe), from Italian garbo "grace, elegance," perhaps from Germanic (compare Old High German gar(a)wi "dress, equipment, preparation;" see gear). Sense of "fashion of dress" is first attested 1620s.
garb (v.)
1836, from garb (n.). Related: Garbed; garbing.
garbage (n.)
early 15c., "giblets of a fowl, waste parts of an animal," later confused with garble in its sense of "siftings, refuse." Perhaps some senses derive from Old French garbe "a bundle of sheaves, entrails," from Proto-Germanic *garba- (cognates: Dutch garf, German garbe "sheaf"), from PIE *ghrebh- (1) "to seize, reach" (see grab (v.)). Sense of "refuse, filth" is first attested 1580s; used figuratively for "worthless stuff" from 1590s. Garbology "study of waste as a social science" is from 1976.
garbanzo (n.)
"chick-pea," 1759, from Spanish garbanzo, said to be ultimately from Greek or Basque.
garble (v.)
early 15c., "to inspect and remove refuse from (spices)," from Anglo-French garbeler "to sift" (late 14c.), from Medieval Latin and Italian garbellare, from Arabic gharbala "to sift and select spices," related to kirbal "sieve," perhaps from Late Latin cribellum, diminutive of Latin cribrum "sieve" (see crisis). Apparently a widespread word among Mediterranean traders (compare Italian garbellare, Spanish garbillo); sense of "mix up, confuse, distort language" (by selecting some things and omitting others) first recorded 1680s. Related: Garbled; garbling.
garcon (n.)
"boy," c.1300, from Old French garçun (11c.; Modern French garçon) "menial, servant-boy, page; man of base condition," originally objective case of gars, perhaps from Frankish *wrakjo-, from Proto-Germanic *wrakjon- (cognates: Old High German recko, Old Saxon wrekkio "a banished person, exile;" English wretch). Meaning "waiter" (especially one in a French restaurant) is from 1788.
garden (n.)
c.1300, from Old North French gardin (13c., Modern French jardin), from Vulgar Latin hortus gardinus "enclosed garden," via Frankish *gardo, from Proto-Germanic *gardaz- (cognates: Old Frisian garda, Old Saxon gardo, Old High German garto, German Garten "garden," Old English geard "enclosure," see yard (n.1)). Italian giardino, Spanish jardin are from French.

Garden-party is by 1843. Garden variety in figurative sense first recorded 1928. To lead someone up the garden path "entice, deceive" is attested by 1925.
garden (v.)
1570s, from garden (n.). Related: Gardened; gardening.
gardener (n.)
c.1300 (early 12c. as a surname), from Old North French *gardinier (12c., Modern French jardinier), from gardin (see garden). Compare German Gärtner. An Old English word for it was wyrtweard, literally "plant-guard."
gardenia
1757, Modern Latin, named for Scottish-born American naturalist Dr. Alexander Garden (1730-1791), Vice President of the Royal Society.
gardening (n.)
1570s, verbal noun from garden (v.).
garderobe
early 14c., from Old French garderobe (Old North French warderobe; see wardrobe).
gare (n.)
French for "train station," 1840, from earlier sense "river port, pier" (17c.), from garer (see garage).
garfish (n.)
see gar + fish (n.).
gargantuan (adj.)
1590s, from Gargantua, large-mouthed giant in Rabelais' novels, supposedly from Spanish/Portuguese garganta "gullet, throat," which is from the same imitative root as gargle.
gargle (v.)
1520s, from Middle French gargouiller "to gurgle, bubble" (14c.), from Old French gargole "throat, waterspout," perhaps from garg-, imitative of throat sounds, + *goule, dialect word for "mouth," from Latin gula "throat." Related: Gargled; gargling. The earlier, native, form of the word was Middle English gargarize (early 15c.).
gargle (n.)
1650s, from gargle (v.).
gargoyle (n.)
"grotesque carved waterspout," late 13c., gargurl, from Old French gargole "throat, waterspout" (see gargle).
Garibaldi
1862, blouse worn by women in imitation of red shirts worn by followers of Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882), liberator of Italy.
garish (adj.)
1540s, possibly from obsolete Middle English gawren "to stare" (c.1200), which is of uncertain origin (perhaps from Old Norse gaurr "rough fellow") + -ish. Related: Garishness.
garishly (adv.)
1590s, from garish + -ly (2).
garland (n.)
"wreath of flowers," c.1300 (mid-13c. in Anglo-Latin), from Old French garlande, perhaps from Frankish *weron "adorn, bedeck" (cognate with Middle High German wieren "adorn, bedeck"), from PIE *wei- "to turn, twist" (see wire (n.)).