grossly (adv.) Look up grossly at Dictionary.com
1520s, from gross + -ly (2).
grossness (n.) Look up grossness at Dictionary.com
"size," early 15c., from gross + -ness.
grot (n.) Look up grot at Dictionary.com
short for grotto, c.1500; perhaps from or influenced by French grotte.
grotesque (adj.) Look up grotesque at Dictionary.com
c.1600s, originally a noun (1560s), from Middle French crotesque (16c., Modern French grotesque), from Italian grottesco, literally "of a cave," from grotta (see grotto). The usual explanation is that the word first was used of paintings found on the walls of basements of Roman ruins (Italian pittura grottesca), which OED finds "intrinsically plausible." Originally "fanciful, fantastic," sense became pejorative after mid-18c. Related: Grotesquely; grotesqueness.
grotto (n.) Look up grotto at Dictionary.com
1610s, from Italian grotta, ultimately from Latin crypta "vault, cavern," from Greek krypte "hidden place" (see crypt). Terminal -o may be from its being spelled that way in many translations of Dante's "Divine Comedy."
grotty (n.) Look up grotty at Dictionary.com
slang shortening of grotesque, it had a brief vogue 1964 as part of the argot popularized by The Beatles in "A Hard Day's Night." It unconsciously echoes Middle English groti "muddy, slimy," from Old English grotig "earthy," from grot "particle."
grouch (n.) Look up grouch at Dictionary.com
"ill-tempered person," 1896, earlier "state of irritable glumness" (1890, in expressions such as to have a grouch on), U.S. college student slang, of uncertain origin, possibly from grutching "complaint, grumbling" (see grutch).
The Grouch, on the other Hand, gave a correct Imitation of a Bear with a Sore Toe. His Conversation was largely made up of Grunts. He carried a Facial Expression that frightened little Children in Street Cars and took all the Starch out of sentimental Young Ladies. He seemed perpetually to carry the Hoof-Marks of a horrible Nightmare. [George Ade, "People You Know," 1902]
The verb is 1916, from the noun. Related: Grouched; grouching. Grouch bag "purse for carrying hidden money" (1908) is the source of the nickname of U.S. comedian Julius "Groucho" Marx (1890-1977), who supposedly carried his money in one to poker games.
grouchy (adj.) Look up grouchy at Dictionary.com
1895, U.S. college student slang, from grouch + -y (2). Related: Grouchily; grouchiness.
ground (v.) Look up ground at Dictionary.com
mid-13c., "to put on the ground, to strike down to the ground," from ground (n.). Of ships, "to run into the ground," from mid-15c. Meaning "to base" (an argument, sermon, etc.) is late 14c. Meaning "deny privileges" is 1940s, originally a punishment meted out to pilots (in which sense it is attested from 1930). Related: Grounded; grounding.
ground (n.) Look up ground at Dictionary.com
Old English grund "bottom, foundation, ground, surface of the earth," especially "bottom of the sea" (a sense preserved in run aground), from Proto-Germanic *grundus, which seems to have meant "deep place" (cognates: Old Frisian, Old Saxon, Danish, Swedish grund, Dutch grond, Old High German grunt, German Grund "ground, soil, bottom;" Old Norse grunn "a shallow place," grund "field, plain," grunnr "bottom"). No known cognates outside Germanic. Sense of "reason, motive" first attested c.1200; electrical sense is from 1870.
ground (adj.) Look up ground at Dictionary.com
"reduced to fine particles by grinding," 1765, past participle adjective from grind.
ground floor (n.) Look up ground floor at Dictionary.com
also ground-floor, c.1600, from ground (n.) + floor (n.); figurative use is from 1864.
ground zero (n.) Look up ground zero at Dictionary.com
1946, originally with reference to atomic blasts. In reference to the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attack on New York, it was in use by Sept. 13.
groundbreaking (adj.) Look up groundbreaking at Dictionary.com
1907 as a figurative adjective, from expression to break ground, either for planting or for building; see ground (n.) + break (v.).
grounded (adj.) Look up grounded at Dictionary.com
"learned," late 14c.; "firmly fixed or established," 1540s, past participle adjective from ground (v.). Electrical sense is from 1889. Meaning "having been denied privileges" is from 1940s. Dickens had room-ridden "confined to one's room."
grounder (n.) Look up grounder at Dictionary.com
"one who establishes," c.1400, agent noun from ground (v.). Baseball sense attested by 1867; earlier in cricket.
groundhog (n.) Look up groundhog at Dictionary.com
1784, from ground (n.) + hog (n.). Also known colloquially as a whistlepig, and compare aardvark. Ground Hog Day first recorded 1871, American English.
groundless (adj.) Look up groundless at Dictionary.com
Old English grundleas "bottomless, unfathomable, vast;" see ground (n.) + -less. Figurative sense of "unfathomable" is from early 14c. Related: Groundlessly; groundlessness.
groundling (n.) Look up groundling at Dictionary.com
"theater patron in the pit," c.1600, from ground (n.) in an Elizabethan sense of "pit of a theater" + -ling. From the beginning emblematic of bad or unsophisticated taste. Old English grundling was a type of fish.
grounds (n.) Look up grounds at Dictionary.com
"residue at the bottom of a liquid," mid-14c., perhaps from past tense of grind (v.); for other senses, see ground (n.).
groundswell (n.) Look up groundswell at Dictionary.com
1818, from ground (n.) + swell (n.). Figurative sense is attested from 1817.
groundwater (n.) Look up groundwater at Dictionary.com
"water in the ground," also ground water, 1890, from ground (n.) + water (n.1). Attested from mid-15c. in sense "water at the bottom of a stream."
groundwork (n.) Look up groundwork at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from ground (n.) + work (n.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch grontwerck, Dutch grondwerk, German grundwerk. Originally "the solid base on which a structure is built;" figurative sense is from 1550s.
group (n.) Look up group at Dictionary.com
1690s, originally an art criticism term, "assemblage of figures or objects in a painting or design," from French groupe "cluster, group" (17c.), from Italian gruppo "group, knot," perhaps ultimately from Proto-Germanic *kruppaz "round mass, lump," and related to crop. Extended to "any assemblage" by 1736. Meaning "pop music combo" is from 1958.
group (v.) Look up group at Dictionary.com
1718 (transitive), 1801 (intransitive), from group (n.). Related: Grouped; grouping.
grouper (n.) Look up grouper at Dictionary.com
type of fish, 1690s, from Portuguese garupa, of unknown origin, probably of South American Indian origin, perhaps from a word in Tupi.
groupie (n.) Look up groupie at Dictionary.com
"girl who follows pop groups," 1967, from group (n.) in the pop music sense + -ie.
groupthink (n.) Look up groupthink at Dictionary.com
1959, from group (n.) + think.
grouse (n.) Look up grouse at Dictionary.com
type of game bird, 1530s, grows (plural, used collectively), of unknown origin, possibly from Latin or Welsh.
grouse (v.) Look up grouse at Dictionary.com
"complain," 1885 (implied in grouser), British Army slang, of uncertain origin but perhaps from Norman French dialectal groucer, from Old French groucier "to murmur, grumble," of imitative origin (compare Greek gru "a grunt," gruzein "to grumble"). Related: Groused; grousing. As a noun from 1918, from the verb.
grout (n.) Look up grout at Dictionary.com
1580s, "thin, fluid mortar," originally "coarse porridge," perhaps from Old English gruta (plural) "coarse meal," related to Old English grytta (see grits). As a verb from 1838. Related: grouted; grouting.
grove (n.) Look up grove at Dictionary.com
Old English graf "grove, copse" (akin to græafa "thicket"), from Proto-Germanic *graibo-, but not certainly found in other Germanic languages and with no known cognates anywhere else.
grovel (v.) Look up grovel at Dictionary.com
1590s, Shakespearian back-formation of groveling (Middle English), regarded as a present participle but really an adverb, from Old Norse grufe "prone" + obsolete adverbial suffix -ling (which survives also as the -long in headlong, sidelong); first element from Old Norse a grufu "on proneness." Perhaps related to creep. Related: Groveled; grovelled; groveling; grovelling.
grow (v.) Look up grow at Dictionary.com
Old English growan (of plants) "to grow, flourish, increase, develop, get bigger" (class VII strong verb; past tense greow, past participle growen), from Proto-Germanic *gro- (cognates: Old Norse groa, Old Frisian groia, Dutch groeien, Old High German gruoen), from PIE root *ghre- (see grass). Applied in Middle English to human beings (c.1300) and animals (early 15c.) and their parts, supplanting Old English weaxan (see wax (v.)).
Have you ever heard anything about God, Topsy? ... Do you know who made you?" "Nobody, as I knows on," said the child. ... "I spect I grow'd. Don't think nobody never made me." [Harriet B. Stowe, "Uncle Tom's Cabin," 1851]
grow up (v.) Look up grow up at Dictionary.com
"advance toward maturity," 1530s, from grow (v.) + up (adv.). As a command to be sensible, from 1951. Grown-up (adj.) "mature" is from late 14c.; the noun meaning "adult person" is from 1813.
grower (n.) Look up grower at Dictionary.com
"one who produces," mid-15c., agent noun from grow.
growing (adj.) Look up growing at Dictionary.com
Old English, present participle adjective from grow (v.). Growing season is attested from 1729; growing pains by 1752.
growing (n.) Look up growing at Dictionary.com
late 14c., verbal noun from grow (v.).
growl (v.) Look up growl at Dictionary.com
1660s, from Middle English grollen "to rumble, growl" (early 15c.), from Old French grouler "to rumble," said to be from Frankish; probably ultimately of imitative origin. Related: Growled; growling. The noun is 1727, from the verb.
growler (n.) Look up growler at Dictionary.com
pitcher or other vessel for beer, 1885, American English, of uncertain origin; apparently an agent noun from growl (v.). It owes its popularity to laws prohibiting sale of liquor on Sundays and thus the tippler's need to stock up. Also in early use in the expression work the growler "go on a spree." Also late 19c. slang for a four-wheeled cab.
grown (adj.) Look up grown at Dictionary.com
late 14c., past participle adjective from grow (v.).
growse Look up growse at Dictionary.com
obsolete spelling of grouse.
growth (n.) Look up growth at Dictionary.com
1550s, from grow + -th (2), on model of health, stealth, etc. Compare Old Norse groði, from groa "to grow." In this sense, Old English used grownes.
groyne (n.) Look up groyne at Dictionary.com
"strong, low sea wall," 1580s, perhaps from obsolete groin "pig's snout" (c.1300; the wall so called because it was thought to look like one), from Old French groin, from Latin grunnire "grunt."
grub (v.) Look up grub at Dictionary.com
c.1300, from hypothetical Old English *grubbian, from West Germanic *grubbjan (cognates: Middle Dutch grobben, Old High German grubilon "to dig, search," German grübeln "to meditate, ponder"), from Proto-Germanic *grub- "to dig," base of Old English grafan (see grave (v.)).
grub (n.) Look up grub at Dictionary.com
"larva," early 15c., perhaps from grub (v.) on the notion of "digging insect," or from the possibly unrelated Middle English grub "dwarfish fellow" (c.1400). Meaning "dull drudge" is 1650s. The slang sense of "food" is first recorded 1650s, said to be from birds eating grubs, but also often linked with bub "drink."
grubber (n.) Look up grubber at Dictionary.com
"digger," late 13c. as a surname, agent noun from grub (v.). Meaning "one who gets wealth contemptibly" is from 1570s.
grubby (adj.) Look up grubby at Dictionary.com
"dirty," by 1845, from grub (n.) in a sense of "dirty child" (who presumably got that way from digging in earth) + -y (2). Earlier it was used in a sense of "stunted, dwarfish" (1610s) and "infested with grubs" (1725). Related: Grubbily; grubbiness.
grubelsucht (n.) Look up grubelsucht at Dictionary.com
1876, from German Grübelsucht, psychiatric term for "a form of obsession in which even the simplest facts are compulsively queried," from grübeln "to brood" (see grub (v.)) + sucht "mania."
grubstake (n.) Look up grubstake at Dictionary.com
"material, provisions, etc. supplied to an enterprise (originally a prospector) in return for a share in the profits," by 1876, American English, from grub + stake (v.).