grapeshot (n.) Look up grapeshot at Dictionary.com
also grape-shot, 1747, from grape + shot (n.). So called for its appearance. The whiff of grapeshot popularized in English from 1837, from Carlyle's history of the French Revolution (in which it was a chapter title).
grapevine (n.) Look up grapevine at Dictionary.com
1736, from grape + vine. Meaning "rumor source" is 1862, U.S. Civil War slang for "telegraph wires."
graph (n.) Look up graph at Dictionary.com
1878, shortening of graphic formula (see graphic). The verb meaning "charted on a graph" is from 1889. Related: Graphed; graphing.
grapheme (n.) Look up grapheme at Dictionary.com
1937, American English, from graph "letter, symbol" (see -graphy) + -eme "unit of language structure."
graphic (adj.) Look up graphic at Dictionary.com
"vivid," 1570s (implied in graphically), from Latin graphicus "picturesque," from Greek graphikos "of or for writing, belonging to drawing, picturesque," from graphe "writing, drawing," from graphein "to write" (see -graphy). Meaning "of or pertaining to drawing" is from 1756. Related: Graphically. Graphic design is attested by 1956. Graphic equalizer is from 1969.
graphics (n.) Look up graphics at Dictionary.com
1889, in reference to the use of diagrams, from graphic; also see -ics. Layout and typography sense attested from 1960; of computers by 1966.
graphite (n.) Look up graphite at Dictionary.com
1796, from German Graphit "black lead," coined 1789 by German mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner (1750-1817) from Greek graphein "write" (see -graphy) + mineral suffix -ite. So called because it was used in pencils. Related: Graphitic.
graphology (n.) Look up graphology at Dictionary.com
"study of handwriting," 1882, from French graphologie, coined 1868 by Abbé Jean-Hippolyte Michon (1806-1881) from comb. form of Greek graphein "to write" (see -graphy) + logos "a speaking, a dealing with" (see logos). Especially, "character study based on handwriting" (1886).
graphomania (n.) Look up graphomania at Dictionary.com
"morbid desire for writing," 1840; see -graphy + mania. Related: Graphomaniac (1827).
grapnel (n.) Look up grapnel at Dictionary.com
"small hook," late 14c., Anglo-French diminutive of grapon, from Old French grapil, grapin "hook," diminutive of grape "hook" (see grape). Earlier form was grapel (see grapple).
grappa (n.) Look up grappa at Dictionary.com
"brandy distilled from the residue of wine-making," 1893, from Italian grappa, literally "grapes" (see grape).
grapple (n.) Look up grapple at Dictionary.com
late 13c., from Old French grapil "hook" (see grapnel). The verb is 1520s, "seize and hold fast," from the noun. Sense of "battle, struggle (with)" is from 1590s. Related: Grappled; grappling.
grappler (n.) Look up grappler at Dictionary.com
1620s, agent noun from grapple (v.).
graptolite (n.) Look up graptolite at Dictionary.com
1838, from Modern Latin graptolithus, literally "written-stone," from Greek graptos "engraved, written, painted" (verbal adjective of graphein; see -graphy) + lithos "stone" (see litho-). So called because the fossils resemble writing.
grasp (v.) Look up grasp at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "to reach for, feel around," possibly a metathesis of grapsen, from Old English *græpsan "to touch, feel," from Proto-Germanic *grap-, *grab- (cognates: East Frisian grapsen "to grasp," Middle Dutch grapen "to seize, grasp," Old English grapian "to touch, feel, grope"), from PIE root *ghrebh- (1) "to seize, reach" (see grab (v.)). Sense of "seize" first recorded mid-16c. Figurative use from c.1600; of intellectual matters from 1680s. Related: Grasped; grasping. The noun is from 1560s.
grasping (adj.) Look up grasping at Dictionary.com
"greedy, acquisitive," late 14c., present participle adjective from grasp (v.).
grass (n.) Look up grass at Dictionary.com
Old English græs, gærs "herb, plant, grass," from Proto-Germanic grasan (cognates: Old Norse, Old Saxon, Dutch, Old High German, German, Gothic gras, Swedish gräs), from PIE *ghros- "young shoot, sprout," from root *ghre- "to grow, become green" (related to grow and green).

As a color name (especially grass-green, Old English græsgrene) by c.1300. Sense of "marijuana" is first recorded 1938, American English. Hawaiian grass skirt attested from 1937; keep off the grass by 1850.
grass roots (n.) Look up grass roots at Dictionary.com
1766, literally; figurative use from 1901 in sense "fundamental level;" U.S. political sense of "the rank and file of the electorate" is attested from 1912; also grassroots.
grass widow (n.) Look up grass widow at Dictionary.com
1520s, originally "discarded mistress" (compare German Strohwitwe, literally "straw-widow"), probably in reference to casual bedding. Sense of "married woman whose husband is absent" is from 1846.
[G]rasse wydowes ... be yet as seuerall as a barbours chayre and neuer take but one at onys. [More, 1528]
grasshopper (n.) Look up grasshopper at Dictionary.com
mid-14c. (late 13c. as a surname), earlier greshoppe (c.1200), from Old English gærshoppa; see grass + hop. Similar formation in Middle Swedish gräshoppare, German Grashüpfer. As a term of reproach, from Eccl. xii:5. Also recorded c.1300 as a name for the hare.
grassland (n.) Look up grassland at Dictionary.com
1680s, from grass + land (n.).
grassy (adj.) Look up grassy at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from grass + -y (2).
grate (n.) Look up grate at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "grill for cooking;" early 15c., "iron bars or cagework across a door or windows," from Anglo-Latin (mid-14c.), from Old French grate or directly from Medieval Latin grata "lattice," from Latin cratis "wickerwork, hurdle" (see hurdle). As a verb meaning "to fit with a grate," from mid-15c. Related: Grated; grating.
grate (v.) Look up grate at Dictionary.com
"to scrape, rub," late 14c. (implied in grated), from Old French grater "to scrape" (Modern French gratter), from Frankish *kratton, from Proto-Germanic *krattojan (cognates: Old High German krazzon "to scratch, scrape," German kratzen "to scratch," Swedish kratta, Danish kratte "to rake"), probably of imitative origin. Senses of "sound harshly," and "annoy" are mid-16c. Italian grattare also is from Germanic. Related: Grated; grating.
grateful (adj.) Look up grateful at Dictionary.com
1550s, "pleasing to the mind," also "full of gratitude," from obsolete adj. grate "agreeable, thankful," from Latin gratus "pleasing" (see grace (n.)). "A most unusual formation" [Weekley]. Hard to think of another case where English uses -ful to make an adjective from an adjective. Related: Gratefully; gratefulness.
Grateful Dead Look up Grateful Dead at Dictionary.com
San Francisco rock band, 1965, the name taken, according to founder Jerry Garcia, from a dictionary entry he saw about the folk tale motif of a wanderer who gives his last penny to pay for a corpse's burial, then is magically aided by the spirit of the dead person. A different version of the concept is found in the Egyptian Book of the Dead.
grater (n.) Look up grater at Dictionary.com
instrument for scraping (bread, ginger, etc.), late 14c., from Old French grateor, agent noun from grater (see grate (v.)).
gratification (n.) Look up gratification at Dictionary.com
1590s, from Middle French gratification or directly from Latin gratificationem (nominative gratificatio) "obligingness, complaisance," noun of action from past participle stem of gratificari (see gratify).
gratify (v.) Look up gratify at Dictionary.com
c.1400, "to bestow grace upon;" 1530s, "to show gratitude to," from French gratifier (16c.) or directly from Latin gratificari "to do favor to, oblige, gratify," from gratus "pleasing" (see grace (n.)) + root of facere "make, do, perform" (see factitious). Meaning "to give pleasure to" is from 1560s. Related: Gratified; gratifying.
gratin (n.) Look up gratin at Dictionary.com
light crust over a dish, 1806 (in au gratin), from French gratin "crust" (16c.), from gratter "to scrape, scratch" (see grate (v.)).
grating (adj.) Look up grating at Dictionary.com
"annoying, irritating," 1560s, figurative use of present participle adjective from grate (v.).
gratis Look up gratis at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "for nothing, freely," from Latin gratis, contraction of gratiis "for thanks," hence, "without recompense," ablative of gratiae "thanks," plural of gratia "favor" (see grace). Meaning "free of charge" is 1540s.
gratitude (n.) Look up gratitude at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "good will," from Middle French gratitude (15c.) or directly from Medieval Latin gratitudinem (nominative gratitudo) "thankfulness," from Latin gratus "thankful, pleasing" (see grace (n.)). Meaning "thankfulness" is from 1560s.
gratuitous (adj.) Look up gratuitous at Dictionary.com
1650s, "freely bestowed," from Latin gratuitus "done without pay, spontaneous, voluntary," from gratus "pleasing, agreeable," from gratia "favor" (see grace (n.)). Sense of "uncalled for, done without good reason" is first recorded 1690s.
gratuitously (adv.) Look up gratuitously at Dictionary.com
1690s, from gratuitous + -ly (2).
gratuity (n.) Look up gratuity at Dictionary.com
1520s, "graciousness," from French gratuité (14c.) or directly from Medieval Latin gratuitatem (nominative gratuitas) "free gift," probably from Latin gratuitus "free, freely given" (see gratuitous). Meaning "money given for favor or services" is first attested 1530s.
gratulate (v.) Look up gratulate at Dictionary.com
archaic, 1550s, from Latin gratulatus, past participle of gratulari (see gratulation).
gratulation (n.) Look up gratulation at Dictionary.com
late 15c., gratulacyon "expression of thanks," from Latin gratulationem (nominative gratulatio) "a manifestation of joy, wishing joy, rejoicing," from past participle stem of gratulari "give thanks, show joy," from gratus "agreeable" (see grace (n.)).
gravamen (n.) Look up gravamen at Dictionary.com
"grievance," 1640s, from Late Latin gravamen "trouble, physical inconvenience" (in Medieval Latin, "a grievance"), from gravare "to burden, aggravate," from gravis "heavy" (see grave (adj.)).
grave (n.) Look up grave at Dictionary.com
Old English græf "grave, ditch, cave," from Proto-Germanic *graban (cognates: Old Saxon graf, Old Frisian gref, Old High German grab "grave, tomb;" Old Norse gröf "cave," Gothic graba "ditch"), from PIE root *ghrebh- (2) "to dig, to scratch, to scrape" (source also of Old Church Slavonic grobu "grave, tomb"); related to Old English grafan "to dig" (see grave (v.)).
"The normal mod. representation of OE. græf would be graff; the ME. disyllable grave, from which the standard mod. form descends, was prob. due to the especially frequent occurrence of the word in the dat. (locative) case. [OED]
From Middle Ages to 17c., they were temporary, crudely marked repositories from which the bones were removed to ossuaries after some years and the grave used for a fresh burial. "Perpetual graves" became common from c.1650. To make (someone) turn in his grave "behave in some way that would have offended the dead person" is first recorded 1888.
grave (adj.) Look up grave at Dictionary.com
1540s, from Middle French grave (14c.), from Latin gravis "weighty, serious, heavy, grievous, oppressive," from PIE root *gwere- (2) "heavy" (cognates: Sanskrit guruh "heavy, weighty, venerable;" Greek baros "weight," barys "heavy in weight," often with the notion of "strength, force;" Old English cweorn "quern;" Gothic kaurus "heavy;" Lettish gruts "heavy"). Greek barys (opposed to kouphos) also was used figuratively, of suffering, sorrow, sobbing, and could mean "oppressive, burdensome, grave, dignified, impressive." The noun meaning "accent mark over a vowel" is c.1600, from French.
grave (v.) Look up grave at Dictionary.com
"to engrave," Old English grafan (medial -f- pronounced as "v" in Old English; past tense grof, past participle grafen) "to dig, carve, dig up," from Proto-Germanic *grabanan (cognates: Old Norse grafa, Old Frisian greva, Dutch graven, Old High German graban, German graben, Gothic graban "to dig, carve"), from the same source as grave (n.). Its Middle English strong past participle, graven, is the only part still active, the rest of the word supplanted by its derivative, engrave.
gravedigger (n.) Look up gravedigger at Dictionary.com
also grave-digger, 1590s, from grave (n.) + agent noun from dig (v.).
gravel (n.) Look up gravel at Dictionary.com
early 13c., from Old French gravele "sand, gravel," diminutive of grave "sand, seashore" (Modern French grève), possibly from Celtic *gravo- (compare Welsh gro "coarse gravel," Breton grouan, Cornish grow "gravel"), perhaps ultimately from PIE *ghreu- "to rub, grind."
gravelly (adj.) Look up gravelly at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "covered with gravel or sand," from gravel + -y (2). Of voices, by 1944.
gravely (adv.) Look up gravely at Dictionary.com
1550s, "solemnly," from grave (adj.) + -ly (2).
graven (adj.) Look up graven at Dictionary.com
past participle adjective, late 14c., from grave (v.) + -en (1).
Gravenstein Look up Gravenstein at Dictionary.com
apple variety, 1821, from Gravenstein, German form of the name of a village (Danish Graasten) in Schleswig-Holstein.
Graves' disease Look up Graves' disease at Dictionary.com
1868, named for Irish physician Robert James Graves (1796-1853), who first recognized the disease in 1835.
gravestone (n.) Look up gravestone at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "stone over a grave;" c.1200, "stone coffin," from grave (n.) + stone (n.).