gofer (n.2) Look up gofer at Dictionary.com
"errand-runner," 1956, American English coinage from verbal phrase go for (coffee, spare parts, etc.), with a pun on gopher. Gopher also was late 19c. slang for a young thief, especially one who breaks in through small openings.
gofer (n.1) Look up gofer at Dictionary.com
"thin cake or waffle with a honeycomb pattern," 1769, from French gaufre, literally "honeycomb" (see wafer (n.)).
goggle (v.) Look up goggle at Dictionary.com
1530s, from Middle English gogelen "to roll (the eyes) about" (late 14c.), influenced by Middle English gogel-eyed "squint-eyed," also, due to being used incorrectly in a translation from Latin, "one-eyed" (late 14c.), of uncertain origin. It has been suggested that it is a frequentative verb from Celtic (compare Irish and Gaelic gog "a nod, a slight motion," Irish gogaim "I nod, gesticulate," but some consider these to be from English. Perhaps somehow imitative. As a surname (Robert le Gogel) from c. 1300. Related: Goggled; goggling. As a noun, 1650s, "goggling look;" earlier "person who goggles" (1610s).
goggle-eyed (adj.) Look up goggle-eyed at Dictionary.com
late 14c.; see goggle (v.).
goggles (n.) Look up goggles at Dictionary.com
"spectacles, protective eyeglasses," 1715; see goggle.
Goidelic (adj.) Look up Goidelic at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to the branch of Celtic languages that includes Irish, Gaelic, and Manx," 1875, from Old Irish Goidel "Gael" (see Gael).
going (n.) Look up going at Dictionary.com
"a moving" in any way, c. 1300, verbal noun from go (v.). The Old English verbal noun was gang "a going, journey; passage, course" (see gang (n.)). Meaning "condition of a road or route for travel" is from 1848, American English; hence to go while the going is good (1907). Going to "be about to" is from late 15c. Goings-on "(questionable) proceedings" attested from 1775.
going-over (n.) Look up going-over at Dictionary.com
1872 as "scolding;" 1919 as "inspection;" from verbal phrase; see going + over (adv.).
goiter (n.) Look up goiter at Dictionary.com
"morbid enlargement of the thyroid gland," 1620s, from French goitre (16c.), from Rhône dialect, from Old Provençal goitron "throat, gullet," from Vulgar Latin *gutturiosum or *gutturionem, from Latin guttur "throat" (see guttural). Related: Goitrous.
goitre (n.) Look up goitre at Dictionary.com
alternative spelling of goiter.
gold (n.) Look up gold at Dictionary.com
"precious metal noted for its color, luster, malleability, and freedom from rust or tarnish," Old English gold, from Proto-Germanic *ghl-to- (cognates: Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old High German gold, German Gold, Middle Dutch gout, Dutch goud, Old Norse gull, Danish guld, Gothic gulþ), from PIE root *ghel- (2) "to shine," with derivatives referring to bright materials, yellow colors, bile, and gold (compare Old Church Slavonic zlato, Russian zoloto, Sanskrit hiranyam, Old Persian daraniya-, Avestan zaranya- "gold;" see glass (n.)). Finnish kulta is from German; Hungarian izlot is from Slavic.
gold (adj.) Look up gold at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, from gold (n.); compare golden. In reference to the color of the metal, it is recorded from c. 1400. Gold rush is attested from 1859, originally in an Australian context. Gold medal as first prize is from 1757. Gold record, a framed, gold phonograph record to commemorate a certain level of sales, is from 1948.
Joe Grady and Ed Hurst, WPEN disk jockey team, will be given a gold record by Mercury of the one-millionth copy of Frankie Lane's waxing of That's My Desire, January 10, for having done so much to plug the platter in these parts [Philadelphia]" [Billboard, Jan. 10, 1948]
gold-brick (n.) Look up gold-brick at Dictionary.com
"gold in the form of a brick," 1853, from gold (adj.) + brick (n.). Meaning "shirker" is from 1914, World War I armed forces slang, from earlier verb meaning "to swindle, cheat" (1902) from the old con game of selling spurious "gold" bricks (attested by 1881).
gold-digger (n.) Look up gold-digger at Dictionary.com
1816, "one who seeks gold in the ground or a stream bed," from gold (n.) + digger. As "woman who pursues men for their money," first recorded 1915.
gold-dust (n.) Look up gold-dust at Dictionary.com
1703, from gold (n.) + dust (n.).
gold-leaf (n.) Look up gold-leaf at Dictionary.com
1727, from gold (n.) + leaf (n.).
gold-mine (n.) Look up gold-mine at Dictionary.com
late 15c., "place where gold is dug out of the earth," from gold (n.) + mine (n.). Figurative use "anything productive of great wealth" is by 1882.
goldarn (adj.) Look up goldarn at Dictionary.com
1832, American English, euphemistic deformation of God-damn.
golden (adj.) Look up golden at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, "made of gold," from gold (n.) + -en (2); replacing Middle English gilden, from Old English gyldan. Gold is one of the few Modern English nouns that form adjectives meaning "made of ______" by adding -en (as in wooden, leaden, waxen, olden); those that survive often do so in specialized senses. Old English also had silfren "made of silver," stænen "made of stone," etc.

From late 14c. as "of the color of gold." Figurative sense of "excellent, precious, best, most valuable" is from late 14c.; that of "favorable, auspicious" is from c. 1600. Golden mean "avoidance of excess" translates Latin aurea mediocritas (Horace). Golden age "period of past perfection" is from 1550s, from a concept found in Greek and Latin writers; in sense of "old age" it is recorded from 1961. San Francisco Bay's entrance channel was called the Golden Gate by John C. Fremont (1866). The moralistic golden rule earlier was the golden law (1670s).
Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them [Matt. vii:12]

Do not do unto others as you would that they should do unto you. Their tastes may not be the same. [George Bernard Shaw, 1898]
goldenrod (n.) Look up goldenrod at Dictionary.com
1560s, from golden + rod (n.). So called for its yellow heads.
goldfinch (n.) Look up goldfinch at Dictionary.com
Old English goldfinc; see gold (adj.) + finch. So called for its yellow wing markings. Compare German Goldfink.
goldfish (n.) Look up goldfish at Dictionary.com
1690s, from gold (adj.) + fish (n.). The fish were introduced into England from China, where they are native. A type of carp, they are naturally a dull olive color; the rich colors (also red, black, silver) are obtained by selective breeding. Goldfish bowl, figurative of a situation of no privacy, was in use by 1935.
Goldilocks (n.) Look up Goldilocks at Dictionary.com
name for a person with bright yellow hair, 1540s, from goldy (adj.) "of a golden color" (mid-15c., from gold (n.)) + plural of lock (n.2). The story of the Three Bears first was printed in Robert Southey's miscellany "The Doctor" (1837), but the central figure there was a bad-tempered old woman. Southey did not claim to have invented the story, and older versions have been traced, either involving an old woman or a "silver-haired" girl (though in at least one version it is a fox who enters the house). The identification of the girl as Goldilocks is attested from c. 1875. Goldylocks also is attested from 1570s as a name for the buttercup.
goldsmith (n.) Look up goldsmith at Dictionary.com
"artisan who works in gold," Old English goldsmið, from gold (n.) + smith (n.). Similar formation in Dutch goudsmid, German Goldschmeid, Danish guldsmed.
Goldwynism (n.) Look up Goldwynism at Dictionary.com
1937, in reference to the many humorous malaprop remarks credited to U.S. film producer Samuel G. Goldwyn (1882-1974); the best-known, arguably, being "include me out." Goldwyn is perhaps less popular as the originator of such phrases in American English than baseball player Lawrence Peter "Yogi" Berra (1925-2015), but there doesn't seem to be a noun form based on Berra's name in popular use. The surname typically is Old English goldwyn, literally "gold-friend."
golem (n.) Look up golem at Dictionary.com
"artificial man, automaton," 1897, from Hebrew golem [Psalm cxxxix:16] "shapeless mass, embryo," from galam "he wrapped up, folded."
golf (n.) Look up golf at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., Scottish gouf, usually taken as an alteration of Middle Dutch colf, colve "stick, club, bat," from Proto-Germanic *kulth- (cognates: Old Norse kolfr "clapper of a bell," German Kolben "mace, club, butt-end of a gun"). The game is from 14c., the word is first mentioned (along with fut-bol) in a 1457 Scottish statute on forbidden games (a later ordinance decrees, "That in na place of the realme thair be vsit fut-ballis, golf, or vther sic unprofitabill sportis" [Acts James IV, 1491, c.53]). Despite what you read on the Internet, "golf" is not an acronym (this story seems to date back no earlier than 1997). Golf ball attested from 1540s; the motorized golf-cart from 1951. Golf widow is from 1890.
Oh! who a golfer's bride would be,
Fast mated with a laddie
Who every day goes out to tee
And with him takes the caddie.

["The Golf Widow's Lament," in "Golf," Oct. 31, 1890]
golf (v.) Look up golf at Dictionary.com
c. 1800, from golf (n.). Related: Golfed; golfing.
golfer (n.) Look up golfer at Dictionary.com
1721, agent noun from golf.
Golgotha Look up Golgotha at Dictionary.com
hill near Jerusalem where Christ was crucified, via Latin and Greek, from Aramaic gulgulta, literally "(place of the) skull," cognate with Hebrew gulgoleth "skull." The hill so called for its shape (see Calvary).
goliath (n.) Look up goliath at Dictionary.com
"a giant," 1590s, from Late Latin Goliath, from Hebrew Golyath, name of the Philistine giant slain by David [I Sam. xvii]. As a type of beetle from 1826.
golliwog (n.) Look up golliwog at Dictionary.com
type of grotesque blackface doll, 1895, coined by English children's book author and illustrator Florence K. Upton (1873-1922), perhaps from golly + polliwog.
golly (interj.) Look up golly at Dictionary.com
euphemism for God, by 1775, in Gilbert White's journal; he refers to it as "a sort of jolly kind of oath, or asseveration much in use among our carters, & the lowest people."
Gomorrah Look up Gomorrah at Dictionary.com
Biblical site, from Hebrew 'omer "sheaf" (of corn, etc.), probably a reference to the fertility of the region. Related: Gomorrean.
gonad (n.) Look up gonad at Dictionary.com
1880, from Modern Latin gonas (plural gonades), coined from Greek gone, gonos "child, offspring; seed, that which engenders; birth, childbirth; race, stock, family," related to gignesthai "be born," genos "race, birth, descent," from PIE *gon-o-, suffixed form of root *gen- "to give birth, beget" (see genus). Related: gonads; gonadal.
Gondal Look up Gondal at Dictionary.com
imaginary land invented by the Brontë sisters, also the name of its inhabitants.
gondola (n.) Look up gondola at Dictionary.com
1540s, "long, narrow flat-bottomed boat used in Venice," from Italian (Venetian) gondola, earlier in English as goundel, from Old Italian gondula, of unknown origin; according to Barnhart, perhaps a diminutive of gonda, a name of a kind of boat. Used of flat, open railway cars by 1871. Meaning "cabin of an airship" is from 1896, though it was used hypothetically in 1881 in a futurism piece titled "300 Years Hence." Of ski-lifts from 1957.
gondolier (n.) Look up gondolier at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from French gondolier and directly from Italian gondoliere, agent noun from gondola (see gondola).
Gondwana Look up Gondwana at Dictionary.com
name of a region in north central India, from Sanskrit gondavana, from vana "forest" + Gonda, Sanskrit name of a Dravidian people, said to mean literally "fleshy navel, outie belly-button." The name was extended by geologists to a series of sedimentary rocks found there (1873), then to identical rocks in other places. Because the fossils found in this series were used by geologists to reconstruct the map of the supercontinent which broke up into the modern southern continents of the globe about 180 million years ago, this was called Gondwanaland (1896), from German, where it was coined by German geologist Eduard Suess (1831-1914) in 1885.
gone (adj.) Look up gone at Dictionary.com
"hopeless, beyond recovery," 1590s, past participle adjective from go (v.). In jazz slang as a superlative from 1946.
goner (n.) Look up goner at Dictionary.com
"something dead or about to die, person past recovery, one who is done for in any way," 1836, American English colloquial, from gone + -er (1). From earlier expressions such as gone goose (1830), gone coon, etc.
gonfalon (n.) Look up gonfalon at Dictionary.com
1590s, variant of Middle English gonfanon (c. 1300), from Old French gonfanon "knight's pennon" (12c., Modern French gonfalon), from Frankish *gundfano or Old High German guntfano "battle flag," from a Proto-Germanic compound of *gunthjo "war, battle" (from PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill;" see bane) + *fano "banner" (compare Gothic fana "cloth;" see fane). Cognate with Old English guþfana, Old Norse gunnfani. Change of -n- to -l- by dissimilation.
gong (n.) Look up gong at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from Malay gong, which is probably imitative of its sound when struck. As a verb by 1853. Related: Gonged; gonging.
goniometer (n.) Look up goniometer at Dictionary.com
instrument for measuring solid angles, 1766, from Greek gonia "corner, angle," from PIE root *genu- (1) "knee; angle" (see knee (n.)) + -meter. Related: Goniometry.
gonna Look up gonna at Dictionary.com
attempt to represent the casual pronunciation of going to. In Scottish dialect, ganna, gaunna recorded from 1806.
gono- Look up gono- at Dictionary.com
before vowels gon-, word-forming element from Greek gonos "seed, that which engenders," from PIE *gon-o-, suffixed form of root *gen- "to give birth, beget" (see genus).
gonoph (n.) Look up gonoph at Dictionary.com
also gonof, "thief, pickpocket," London slang, 1852, said to have been introduced by German Jews, from Hebrew gannabh "thief," with form altered in English as if from gone off.
gonorrhea (n.) Look up gonorrhea at Dictionary.com
also gonorrhoea, 1520s, from Late Latin gonorrhoia, from Greek gonos "seed" (see gonad) + rhoe "flow," from rhein "to flow" (see rheum). Mucus discharge was mistaken for semen. In early records often Gomoria, etc., from folk etymology association with biblical Gomorrah. Related: Gonorrheal; gonorrhoeal.
gony (n.) Look up gony at Dictionary.com
1580s, "simpleton, stupid person," of unknown origin. Applied by sailors to the albatross and similar big, clumsy birds (1839). Related: Gony-bird.
gonzo (adj.) Look up gonzo at Dictionary.com
1971, American English, in Hunter S. Thompson's phrase gonzo journalism. Thompson in 1972 said he got it from editor Bill Cardosa and explained it as "some Boston word for weird, bizarre." Probably from Italian (Neapolitan) gonzo "rude, sottish," a word of unknown origin, perhaps from Spanish ganso and ultimately from the Germanic word for "goose" (see goose (n.)).