fate (n.) Look up fate at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "one's lot or destiny; predetermined course of life;" also "one's guiding spirit," from Old French fatefata (source also of Spanish hado, Portuguese fado, Italian fato), neuter plural of fatum "prophetic declaration of what must be, oracle, prediction," thus the Latin word's usual sense, "that which is ordained, destiny, fate," literally "thing spoken (by the gods)," from neuter past participle of fari "to speak," from PIE *bha- (2) "speak" (see fame (n.)).

From early 15c. as "power that rules destinies, agency which predetermines events; supernatural predetermination;" also "destiny personified." Meaning "that which must be" is from 1660s; sense of "final event" is from 1768. The Latin sense evolution is from "sentence of the Gods" (Greek theosphaton) to "lot, portion" (Greek moira, personified as a goddess in Homer). The sense "one of the three goddesses (Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos) who determined the course of a human life" is in English by 1580s. Often in a bad sense in Latin: "bad luck, ill fortune; mishap, ruin; a pest or plague." The native word in English was wyrd (see weird).
fate (v.) Look up fate at Dictionary.com
"to preordain as if by fate; to be destined by fate," c.1600, from fate (n.). Earlier it meant "to destroy" (c.1400). Related: Fated; fating.
fated (adj.) Look up fated at Dictionary.com
1715, "set apart by fate;" 1721, "doomed, destined," past participle adjective from fate (v.).
fateful (adj.) Look up fateful at Dictionary.com
1710s, "prophetic," from fate (n.) + -ful. Meaning "of momentous consequences" is from c.1800. Related: Fatefully. Sometimes used by 18c.-19c. poets as if it meant "having the power to kill," which usually belongs to fatal. The broad and diverging senses of fate (n.) also yielded adjectives fated "doomed," also "set aside by fate;" fatiferous "deadly, mortal (1650s), from Latin fatifer "death-bringing;" fatific/fatifical (c.1600) "having power to foretell," from Latin fatidicus "prophetic."
father (n.) Look up father at Dictionary.com
Old English fæder "he who begets a child, nearest male ancestor;" also "any lineal male ancestor; the Supreme Being," and by late Old English, "one who exercises parental care over another," from Proto-Germanic *fader (cognates: Old Saxon fadar, Old Frisian feder, Dutch vader, Old Norse faðir, Old High German fatar, German vater; in Gothic usually expressed by atta), from PIE *pəter- "father" (cognates: Sanskrit pitar-, Greek pater, Latin pater, Old Persian pita, Old Irish athir "father"), presumably from baby-speak sound "pa." The ending formerly was regarded as an agent-noun affix.
My heart leaps up when I behold
A rainbow in the sky:
So was it when my life began;
So is it now I am a man;
So be it when I shall grow old,
Or let me die!
The Child is father of the Man;
I could wish my days to be
Bound each to each by natural piety.

[Wordsworth, 1802]
The classic example of Grimm's Law, where PIE "p-" becomes Germanic "f-." Spelling with -th- (15c.) reflects widespread phonetic shift in Middle English that turned -der to -ther in many words, perhaps reinforced in this case by Old Norse forms; spelling caught up to pronunciation in 1500s (compare burden, murder, mother, weather). As a title of various Church dignitaries from c.1300; meaning "creator, inventor, author" is from mid-14c.; that of "anything that gives rise to something else" is from late 14c. As a respectful title for an older man, recorded from 1550s. Father-figure is from 1954. Fathers "leading men, elders" is from 1580s.
father (v.) Look up father at Dictionary.com
c.1400, from father (n.). Related: Fathered; fathering.
Father's Day Look up Father's Day at Dictionary.com
1910, begun in Spokane, Washington, U.S., but not widespread until 1940s; an imitation of Mother's Day.
father-in-law (n.) Look up father-in-law at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from father (n.) + in-law.
fatherhood (n.) Look up fatherhood at Dictionary.com
early 14c., faderhade; see father (n.) + -hood.
fatherland (n.) Look up fatherland at Dictionary.com
"one's native country," 1620s, from father (n.) + land (n.). In modern use often a loan-translation of German Vaterland, itself a loan-translation of Latin patria (terra), literally "father's land." Similar formation in Dutch vaderland, Danish fædreland, Swedish fädernesland. Late Old English/Middle English fæderland (c.1100) meant "parental land, inheritance."
fatherless (adj.) Look up fatherless at Dictionary.com
Old English fæderleas; see father (n.) + -less. Similar formation in Dutch vaderloos, German vaterlos, Danish faderlös.
fatherly (adj.) Look up fatherly at Dictionary.com
Old English fæderlic "fatherly, paternal; ancestral;" see father (n.) + -ly (1). Similar formation in Dutch vaderlijk, German väterlich. Related: Fatherliness.
fathom (n.) Look up fathom at Dictionary.com
Old English fæðm "length of the outstretched arm" (a measure of about six feet), also "arms, grasp, embrace," and, figuratively "power," from Proto-Germanic *fathmaz "embrace" (cognates: Old Norse faðmr "embrace, bosom," Old Saxon fathmos "the outstretched arms," Dutch vadem "a measure of six feet"), from PIE *pot(ə)-mo-, from root *petə- "to spread, stretch out" (see pace (n.)). It has apparent cognates in Old Frisian fethem, German faden "thread," which OED explains by reference to "spreading out." As a unit of measure, in an early gloss it appears for Latin passus, which was about 5 feet.
fathom (v.) Look up fathom at Dictionary.com
Old English fæðmian "to embrace, surround, envelop," from a Proto-Germanic verb derived from the source of fathom (n.); cognates: Old High German fademon, Old Norse faþma. The meaning "take soundings" is from c.1600; its figurative sense of "get to the bottom of, penetrate with the mind, understand" is from 1620s. Related: Fathomed; fathoming.
fathomable (adj.) Look up fathomable at Dictionary.com
1630s, figurative; 1690s, literal; from fathom (v.) + -able.
fathomless (adj.) Look up fathomless at Dictionary.com
1630s, literal ("bottomless"); 1640s, figurative ("not to be comprehended"); from fathom + -less.
fatigue (n.) Look up fatigue at Dictionary.com
1660s, "that which causes weariness," from French fatigue "weariness," from fatiguer "to tire" (15c.), from Latin fatigare "to weary, to tire out," originally "to cause to break down," from pre-Latin adjective *fati-agos "driving to the point of breakdown," with first half from Old Latin *fatis, which is of unknown origin but apparently related to affatim (adv.) "sufficiently" and to fatisci "crack, split." The second half is the root of agere "to drive" (see act (n.)).

Especially "the labors of military persons" (1776). Meaning "a feeling of weariness from exertion" is from 1719. Of metals or other materials under strain, from 1877.
fatigue (v.) Look up fatigue at Dictionary.com
1690s, from French fatiguer "to tire" (15c.), from fatigue (see fatigue (n.)). Earlier in same sense was fatigate (1530s), from Latin fatigatus, past participle of fatigare. Related: Fatigued; fatiguing; fatigation (c.1500).
fatigues (n.) Look up fatigues at Dictionary.com
1776, "extra duties of a soldier," from fatigue (n.). As a military clothing outfit, from 1836, short for fatigue dress (1833); fatigue cap is from 1824.
Fatimid Look up Fatimid at Dictionary.com
also Fatimite, in reference to the Arab dynasty that ruled 908-1171 in North Africa and sometimes Egypt and Syria, is from Fatima, daughter of Muhammad by his first wife, Khadija; Fatima married Ali, and from them the dynasty claimed descent.
fatling (n.) Look up fatling at Dictionary.com
"lamb, kid, or other young animal fattened for slaughter," 1520s, from fat (n.) + -ling.
fatness (n.) Look up fatness at Dictionary.com
Old English fætnesse; see fat (adj.) + -ness.
Fatso Look up Fatso at Dictionary.com
nickname for a fat person, by 1944, elaboration of Fats, from fat (adj.).
fatten (v.) Look up fatten at Dictionary.com
1550s, "to make fat," from fat + -en (1). Intransitive sense from 1630s. Related: Fattened; fattener. The earlier verb was simply fat (v.).
fattening (adj.) Look up fattening at Dictionary.com
"that makes fat," 1690s, present participle adjective from fatten. Earlier word was fatting (1530s).
fatty (adj.) Look up fatty at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from fat + -y (2). As a name for a fat person, attested by 1797 (with -y (3)).
fatuity (n.) Look up fatuity at Dictionary.com
1640s, from Middle French fatuité (14c.), from Latin fatuitatem (nominative fatuitas) "foolishness, folly," from fatuus "foolish, insipid" (see fatuous).
fatuous (adj.) Look up fatuous at Dictionary.com
"foolish, stupid," 1530s, from Latin fatuus "foolish, insipid, silly;" of uncertain origin (Buck suggests originally "stricken" in the head). Related: Fatuously; fatuousness.
fatwa (n.) Look up fatwa at Dictionary.com
1620s, from Arabic fetwa "a decision given by a mufti," related to fata "to instruct by a legal decision." Popularized in English 1989 when Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran issued a ruling sentencing author Salman Rushdie to death for publishing "The Satanic Verses" (1988). This was lifted 1998.
faubourg (n.) Look up faubourg at Dictionary.com
"suburb," late 15c., from Middle French faux bourg, said by French authorities to be from Old French forsbourc (12c.) "suburbs, outskirts," literally "that which is outside the town," from fors "outside" (from Latin foris; see foreign) + bourc "town" (a word of Frankish origin cognate with English borough), and altered in Middle French by folk-etymology to faux bourg "false town" (suburbs were seen as inauthentic).
fauces (n.) Look up fauces at Dictionary.com
"throat, gullet," 1540s, from Latin fauces "throat, gullet." Related: Faucal; faucial.
faucet (n.) Look up faucet at Dictionary.com
c.1400, from Old French fausset (14c.) "breach, spigot, stopper, peg (of a barrel)," of unknown origin; perhaps diminutive of Latin faux, fauces "upper part of the throat, pharynx, gullet." Not in Watkins, but Barnhart, Gamillscheg, and others suggest the Old French word is from fausser "to damage, break into," from Late Latin falsare (see false).

Spigot and faucet was the name of an old type of tap for a barrel or cask, consisting of a hollow, tapering tube, which was driven at the narrow end into a barrel, and a screw into the tube which regulated the flow of the liquid. Properly, it seems, the spigot was the tube, the faucet the screw, but the senses have merged or reversed over time. OED reports that faucet is now the common word in American English for the whole apparatus.
faugh (interj.) Look up faugh at Dictionary.com
exclamation of disgust, by 1540s.
fault (n.) Look up fault at Dictionary.com
late 13c., faute, "deficiency," from Old French faute, earlier falte, "opening, gap; failure, flaw, blemish; lack, deficiency" (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *fallita "a shortcoming, falling," from Latin falsus "deceptive, feigned, spurious," past participle of fallere "deceive, disappoint" (see fail (v.)).

The -l- was restored 16c., probably in imitation of Latin, but the letter was silent until 18c. Sense of "physical defect" is from early 14c.; that of "moral culpability" is first recorded late 14c. Geological sense is from 1796. The use in tennis (c.1600) is closer to the etymological sense.
fault (v.) Look up fault at Dictionary.com
"find fault with," mid-15c. from fault (n.). Earlier it was used in an intransitive sense of "be deficient" (late 14c., Scottish). Related: Faulted; faulter; faulting.
fault-finding (n.) Look up fault-finding at Dictionary.com
1620s, from verbal phrase find fault (with) (late 14c.); see fault (n.) + find (v.). Related: Fault-finder (1560s).
faultless (adj.) Look up faultless at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "having no blemishes or imperfections," from fault (n.) + -less. Meaning "having no blame, culpability, or guilt" is from 1570s. Related: Faultlessly; faultlessness.
faulty (adj.) Look up faulty at Dictionary.com
"containing faults, errors, or defects," late 14c., from fault (n.) + -y (2). Related: Faultily; faultiness.
faun (n.) Look up faun at Dictionary.com
"rustic woodland spirit or demigod part human, part goat," late 14c., from Latin Faunus, a word of unknown origin, the name of a god of the countryside, worshipped especially by farmers and shepherds, equivalent of Greek Pan. The faunalia were held in his honor. Formerly somewhat assimilated to satyrs, but they have diverged again lately.
The faun is now regarded rather as the type of unsophisticated & the satyr of unpurified man; the first is man still in intimate communion with Nature, the second is man still swayed by bestial passions. [Fowler]
The plural is fauni.
fauna (n.) Look up fauna at Dictionary.com
1771, "the total of the animal life of a certain region or time, from Late Latin Fauna, a Roman fertility goddess who was wife, sister, or daughter (or some combination) of Faunus (see faun).

Popularized by Linnaeus, who adopted it as a companion word to flora and used it in the title of his 1746 catalogue of the animals of Sweden, "Fauna Suecica." First used in English Gilbert White (1720-1793) the parson-naturalist.
faunal (adj.) Look up faunal at Dictionary.com
"of or pertaining to a fauna," 1840, from fauna + -al (1).
Fauntleroy Look up Fauntleroy at Dictionary.com
in various usages, from the gentle boy hero of Frances Hodgson Burnett's popular novel "Little Lord Fauntleroy" (1885). The family name is recorded from mid-13c., literally "son of the king" (Anglo-French Le Enfant le Roy), from faunt, a Middle English variant of enfaunt (see infant). Middle English also had fauntekin "a little child" (late 14c.).
Faustian (adj.) Look up Faustian at Dictionary.com
1870, in reference to Johann Faust (c.1485-1541), German wandering astrologer and wizard, who was reputed to have sold his soul to the Devil. Fantastic tales of his life were told as early as the late 16c., and he was the hero of dramas by Marlowe and Goethe. The Latinized form of his name, faustus, means "of favorable omen."
Fauvist Look up Fauvist at Dictionary.com
movement in painting associated with Henri Matisse, 1915, from French fauve, "wild beast," a term applied in contempt to these painters by French art critic Louis Vauxcelles at Autumn Salon of 1905. The movement was a reaction against impressionism, featuring vivid use of colors. French fauve (12c.) in Old French meant "fawn-colored horse, dark-colored thing, dull," and is from Frankish *falw- or some other Germanic source, cognate with German falb "dun, pale yellowish-brown" and English fallow "brownish-yellow." Related: Fauvism (1912).
faux (adj.) Look up faux at Dictionary.com
from French faux "false" (12c., see false). Used with English words at least since 1676 (Etheredge, faux-prude). Used by itself, with French pronunciation, from 1980s to mean "fake."
faux pas (n.) Look up faux pas at Dictionary.com
"breech of good manners, any act that compromises one's reputation," 1670s, French, literally "false step." See false and pace (n.).
fave (n.) Look up fave at Dictionary.com
1938, perhaps a "Variety" coinage, slang shortening of favorite (n.). Later also as an adjective.
Favonius Look up Favonius at Dictionary.com
personification of the west wind in Roman mythology, from Latin Favonius, which OED says is from Latin favere "to show kindness to" (see favor (v.)); but Klein says by dissimilation from *fovonius, literally "the warming wind," from fovere "to warm" (see fever). The Latin word is the source (via Old High German phonno, 10c., via Vulgar Latin contraction *faonius) of German Föhn "warm, dry wind blowing down Alpine valleys." Related: Favonian.
favor (n.) Look up favor at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "attractiveness, beauty, charm" (archaic), from Old French favor "a favor; approval, praise; applause; partiality" (13c., Modern French faveur), from Latin favorem (nominative favor) "good will, inclination, partiality, support," coined by Cicero from stem of favere "to show kindness to," from PIE *ghow-e- "to honor, revere, worship" (cognate: Old Norse ga "to heed").

Meaning "good will, kind regard" is from mid-14c. in English; sense of "act of kindness, a kindness done" is from late 14c. Meaning "bias, partiality" is from late 14c. Meaning "thing given as a mark of favor" is from late 15c. Phrase in favor of recorded from 1560s.
favor (v.) Look up favor at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "to regard with favor, indulge, treat with partiality," from Old French favorer, from favor "a favor, partiality" (see favor (n.)). Meaning "to resemble, look somewhat like" is from c.1600. Related: Favored; favoring.