finance (n.) Look up finance at Dictionary.com
c.1400, "an end, settlement, retribution," from Middle French finance "ending, settlement of a debt" (13c.), noun of action from finer "to end, settle a dispute or debt," from fin (see fine (n.)). Compare Medieval Latin finis "a payment in settlement, fine or tax."

The notion is of "ending" (by satisfying) something that is due (compare Greek telos "end;" plural tele "services due, dues exacted by the state, financial means"). The French senses gradually were brought into English: "ransom" (mid-15c.), "taxation" (late 15c.); the sense of "management of money" first recorded in English 1770.
finance (v.) Look up finance at Dictionary.com
late 15c., "to ransom;" see finance (n.). Sense of "to manage money" is recorded from 1827; that of "to furnish with money" is from 1866. Related: Financed; financing.
finances (n.) Look up finances at Dictionary.com
"pecuniary resources," 1730, modeled on the French cognate, from plural of finance (n.).
financial (adj.) Look up financial at Dictionary.com
1769, from finance (n.) + -al (1). Related: Financially.
financier (n.) Look up financier at Dictionary.com
1610s, "one concerned with finances" (especially public), from French financier (16c.), agent noun from finance (see finance (n.)). Sense of "capitalist" is first recorded 1867.
finch (n.) Look up finch at Dictionary.com
Old English finc, from Proto-Germanic *finkiz, *finkjon (cognates: Middle Low German and Middle Dutch vinke, Dutch vink, Old High German finco, German Fink), perhaps imitative of the bird's note (compare Breton pint "chaffinch," Russian penka "wren").
find (v.) Look up find at Dictionary.com
Old English findan "come upon, meet with, discover; obtain by search or study" (class III strong verb; past tense fand, past participle funden), from Proto-Germanic *finthan "to come upon, discover" (cognates: Old Saxon findan, Old Frisian finda, Old Norse finna, Middle Dutch vinden, Old High German findan, German finden, Gothic finþan), originally "to come upon."

The Germanic word is from PIE root *pent- "to tread, go" (cognates: Old High German fendeo "pedestrian;" Sanskrit panthah "path, way;" Avestan panta "way;" Greek pontos "open sea," patein "to tread, walk;" Latin pons (genitive pontis) "bridge;" Old Church Slavonic poti "path," peta "heel;" Russian put' "path, way"). To find out "to discover by scrutiny" is from 1550s (Middle English had a verb, outfinden, c.1300).
find (n.) Look up find at Dictionary.com
"person or thing discovered," 1825, from find (v.).
finding (n.) Look up finding at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "an abandoned child," verbal noun from find (v.). See foundling. Later, "a discovery; that which is found out" (1590s). Meaning "result of a judicial examination" is from 1859. Related: Findings.
fine (adj.) Look up fine at Dictionary.com
mid-13c., "unblemished, refined, pure; of superior quality," from Old French fin "perfected, of highest quality" (12c.), from Latin finis "end, limit" (see finish (v.)); hence "acme, peak, height," as in finis boni "the highest good."

In French, the main meaning remains "delicate, intricately skillful;" in English since mid-15c. fine is also a general expression of admiration or approval, the equivalent of French beau (as in fine arts, 1767, translating French beaux-arts). Finer; finest. Fine print is from 1861 as "type small and close-set;" by 1934 as "qualifications and limitations of a deal."
fine (n.) Look up fine at Dictionary.com
c.1200, "termination," from Old French fin "end, limit, boundary; death; fee, payment, finance, money" (10c.), from Medieval Latin finis "a payment in settlement, fine or tax," from Latin finis "end" (see finish (v.)).

Modern meaning is via sense of "sum of money paid for exemption from punishment or to compensate for injury" (mid-14c., from the same sense in Anglo-French, late 13c.) and from phrases such as to make fine "make one's peace, settle a matter" (c.1300). Meaning "sum of money imposed as penalty for some offense" is first recorded 1520s.
fine (v.) Look up fine at Dictionary.com
late 13c., "pay as a ransom or penalty," from fine (n.). Inverted meaning "to punish by a fine" is from 1550s. Related: Fined; fining.
fine tune (v.) Look up fine tune at Dictionary.com
also fine-tune, 1969, a back-formation from fine-tuning (1924), originally in reference to radio receivers. From fine (adj.) + tune (v.). Related: Fine-tuning.
finely (adv.) Look up finely at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "perfectly, completely," from fine (adj.) + -ly (1). Meaning "delicately, minutely" is from 1540s; that of "excellently" is from 1680s.
finery (n.) Look up finery at Dictionary.com
1670s, "showy dress," from fine (adj.) + -ery. Literally, "something that is fine."
finesse (n.) Look up finesse at Dictionary.com
1520s, from Middle French finesse "fineness, subtlety," from Old French fin "subtle, delicate" (see fine (adj.)).
finesse (v.) Look up finesse at Dictionary.com
1746, originally as a term in whist; see finesse (n.). Related: Finessed; finessing.
finger (n.) Look up finger at Dictionary.com
Old English fingor, from Proto-Germanic *fingraz (cognates: Old Saxon fingar, Old Frisian finger, Old Norse fingr, Dutch vinger, German Finger, Gothic figgrs), with no cognates outside Germanic; perhaps connected with PIE *penkwe-, the root meaning "five."

As a unit of measure (Middle English) it represents the breadth of a finger, about three-quarters of an inch. They generally are numbered from the thumb, and named index finger, fool's finger, leech- or physic-finger, and ear-finger.
finger (v.) Look up finger at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "to touch or point to with the finger" (but see fingering from late 14c.), from finger (n.). Sense of "play upon a musical instrument" is from 1510s. The meaning "identify a criminal" is underworld slang first recorded 1930. Related: Fingered; fingering.
fingering (n.1) Look up fingering at Dictionary.com
"action of using the fingers in playing a musical instrument," late 14c., fyngerynge, from finger (n.).
fingering (n.2) Look up fingering at Dictionary.com
"fine woolen yarn," from fingram, from French fin grain, literally "fine grain."
fingerless (adj.) Look up fingerless at Dictionary.com
1838, of gloves, from finger (n.) + -less.
fingernail (n.) Look up fingernail at Dictionary.com
early 13c., from finger (n.) + nail (n.).
fingerprint (n.) Look up fingerprint at Dictionary.com
1834, from finger (n.) + print (n.). Proposed as a means of identification from c.1892. Admissibility as evidence as valid proof of guilt in murder trials in U.S. upheld in 1912. From 1905 as a verb. Related: Fingerprinted; fingerprinting.
fingertip (n.) Look up fingertip at Dictionary.com
1824, from finger (n.) + tip (n.). Related: Fingertips.
finial (n.) Look up finial at Dictionary.com
"ornament at the top of a spire, gable, etc.," mid-15c., from fyniall "putting an end to, binding" (early 15c.), a variant of final.
finical (adj.) Look up finical at Dictionary.com
1590s; see finicky.
finicky (adj.) Look up finicky at Dictionary.com
1825, "dainty, mincing," from finical "too particular" (1590s), perhaps from fine (adj.) + -ical as in cynical, ironical. The -k- between the final -c- and a suffix beginning in -i, -y, or -e is an orthographic rule to mark the pronunciation of -c- as "k" (compare picnicking, trafficking, panicky, shellacked).
finis (n.) Look up finis at Dictionary.com
Latin, literally "the end" (see finish (v.)).
finish (v.) Look up finish at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "to bring to an end;" mid-15c., "to come to an end," from Old French finiss-, present participle stem of fenir (13c.) "stop, finish, come to an end, die," from Latin finire "to limit, set bounds, put an end to, come to an end," from finis "boundary, limit, border, end," of unknown origin, perhaps related to figere "to fasten, fix" (see fix (v.)). Meaning "to kill" is from 1755. Related: Finished; finishing. Finishing school is from 1836.
finish (n.) Look up finish at Dictionary.com
1779, "that which finishes or gives completion," from finish (v.). Meaning "the end" is from 1790. Finish line attested from 1873.
finite (adj.) Look up finite at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin finitus, past participle of finire "to limit, set bounds, end," from finis (see finish (v.)). Related: Finitely.
finitude (n.) Look up finitude at Dictionary.com
1640s, from finite + -ude.
fink (n.) Look up fink at Dictionary.com
1902, of uncertain origin, possibly from German Fink "a frivolous or dissolute person," originally "finch;" the German word also had a sense of "informer" (compare stool pigeon). The other theory traces it to Pinks, short for Pinkerton agents, the private police force hired to break up the 1892 Homestead strike. As a verb, 1925 in American English slang. Related: Finked; finking.
Finn (n.) Look up Finn at Dictionary.com
Old English finnas, from Old Norse finnr, the Norsemen's name for the Suomi. Some suggest a connection with fen. Attested in Tacitus as Fenni.
finned (adj.) Look up finned at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., adjective in past participle form from fin.
Finnish (adj.) Look up Finnish at Dictionary.com
c.1790, from Finn + -ish. Earlier was Finnic (1660s).
finny (adj.) Look up finny at Dictionary.com
1580s, from fin + -y (2).
fiord (n.) Look up fiord at Dictionary.com
alternative form of fjord (q.v.).
fippeny Look up fippeny at Dictionary.com
1802, short for five penny; further contracted form fip attested by 1822.
fir (n.) Look up fir at Dictionary.com
14c.; Old English had furhwudu "pine wood," but the modern word is more likely from Old Norse fyri- "fir" or Old Danish fyr, all from Proto-Germanic *furkhon (cognates: Old High German foraha, German Föhre "fir"), from PIE root *perkos, originally "oak" (cognates: Sanskrit paraktah "the holy fig tree," Hindi pargai "the evergreen oak," Latin quercus "oak," Lombardic fereha "a kind of oak").
Firbolgs (n.) Look up Firbolgs at Dictionary.com
1797, ancient supernatural people of Ireland (enemies of the Dannans), perhaps from Old Irish fir, plural of fear "man" + bolg, genitive plural of bolg "bag, belly;" or second element may be cognate with Gaulish Belgae.
fire (n.) Look up fire at Dictionary.com
Old English fyr, from Proto-Germanic *fuir (cognates: Old Saxon and Old Frisian fiur, Old Norse fürr, Middle Dutch and Dutch vuur, Old High German fiur, German Feuer), from PIE *perjos, from root *paewr- (cognates: Armenian hur "fire, torch," Czech pyr "hot ashes," Greek pyr, Umbrian pir, Sanskrit pu, Hittite pahhur "fire").

Current spelling is attested as early as 1200, but did not fully displace Middle English fier (preserved in fiery) until c.1600.

PIE apparently had two roots for fire: *paewr- and *egni- (source of Latin ignis). The former was "inanimate," referring to fire as a substance, and the latter was "animate," referring to it as a living force (see water (n.1)).

Fire applied in English to passions, feelings, from mid-14c. Meaning "action of guns, etc." is from 1580s. Firecracker is American English coinage for what is in England just cracker, but the U.S. word distinguishes it from the word meaning "biscuit." Fire-engine attested from 1680s. The figurative expression play with fire "risk disaster" is from 1887; phrase where's the fire? "what's the hurry?" first recorded 1924.
fire (v.) Look up fire at Dictionary.com
c.1200, furen, figurative, "arouse, excite;" literal sense of "set fire to" is from late 14c., from fire (n.). The Old English verb fyrian "to supply with fire" apparently did not survive into Middle English.

The sense of "sack, dismiss" is first recorded 1885 in American English (earlier "throw (someone) out" of some place, 1871), probably from a play on the two meanings of discharge: "to dismiss from a position," and "to fire a gun," fire in the second sense being from "set fire to gunpowder," attested from 1520s. Of bricks, pottery, etc., from 1660s. Related: Fired; firing. Fired up "angry" is from 1824. Firing squad is attested from 1904.
firearm (n.) Look up firearm at Dictionary.com
1640s, from fire (n.) + arm (n.2). Related: Firearms.
fireball (n.) Look up fireball at Dictionary.com
1550s, from fire (n.) + ball (n.1).
firebomb (n.) Look up firebomb at Dictionary.com
1895, from fire (n.) + bomb (n.). As a verb, from 1950 as an act of vandalism or terrorism, from 1941 as a military aviation tactic. Related: Firebombed; firebombing.
firebrand (n.) Look up firebrand at Dictionary.com
c.1200, "piece of wood kindled at a fire," from fire (n.) + brand (n.). Figurative sense of "one who kindles mischief or passions" is from late 14c.
firebug (n.) Look up firebug at Dictionary.com
"arsonist," 1872, from fire (n.) + bug (n.).
firefighter (n.) Look up firefighter at Dictionary.com
1903, from fire (n.) + fighter.