fine (v.)
late 13c., "pay as a ransom or penalty," from fine (n.). Inverted meaning "to punish by a fine" is from 1550s. Related: Fined; fining.
fine tune (v.)
also fine-tune, 1969, a back-formation from fine-tuning (1924), originally in reference to radio receivers. From fine (adj.) + tune (v.). Related: Fine-tuning.
finely (adv.)
early 14c., "perfectly, completely," from fine (adj.) + -ly (1). Meaning "delicately, minutely" is from 1540s; that of "excellently" is from 1680s.
finery (n.)
1670s, "showy dress," from fine (adj.) + -ery. Literally, "something that is fine."
finesse (n.)
1520s, from Middle French finesse "fineness, subtlety," from Old French fin "subtle, delicate" (see fine (adj.)).
finesse (v.)
1746, originally as a term in whist; see finesse (n.). Related: Finessed; finessing.
finger (n.)
Old English fingor, from Proto-Germanic *fingraz (cognates: Old Saxon fingar, Old Frisian finger, Old Norse fingr, Dutch vinger, German Finger, Gothic figgrs), with no cognates outside Germanic; perhaps connected with PIE *penkwe-, the root meaning "five."

As a unit of measure (Middle English) it represents the breadth of a finger, about three-quarters of an inch. They generally are numbered from the thumb, and named index finger, fool's finger, leech- or physic-finger, and ear-finger.
finger (v.)
early 15c., "to touch or point to with the finger" (but see fingering from late 14c.), from finger (n.). Sense of "play upon a musical instrument" is from 1510s. The meaning "identify a criminal" is underworld slang first recorded 1930. Related: Fingered; fingering.
fingering (n.1)
"action of using the fingers in playing a musical instrument," late 14c., fyngerynge, from finger (n.).
fingering (n.2)
"fine woolen yarn," from fingram, from French fin grain, literally "fine grain."
fingerless (adj.)
1838, of gloves, from finger (n.) + -less.
fingernail (n.)
early 13c., from finger (n.) + nail (n.).
fingerprint (n.)
1834, from finger (n.) + print (n.). Proposed as a means of identification from c.1892. Admissibility as evidence as valid proof of guilt in murder trials in U.S. upheld in 1912. From 1905 as a verb. Related: Fingerprinted; fingerprinting.
fingertip (n.)
1824, from finger (n.) + tip (n.). Related: Fingertips.
finial (n.)
"ornament at the top of a spire, gable, etc.," mid-15c., from fyniall "putting an end to, binding" (early 15c.), a variant of final.
finical (adj.)
1590s; see finicky.
finicky (adj.)
1825, "dainty, mincing," from finical "too particular" (1590s), perhaps from fine (adj.) + -ical as in cynical, ironical. The -k- between the final -c- and a suffix beginning in -i, -y, or -e is an orthographic rule to mark the pronunciation of -c- as "k" (compare picnicking, trafficking, panicky, shellacked).
finis (n.)
Latin, literally "the end" (see finish (v.)).
finish (v.)
late 14c., "to bring to an end;" mid-15c., "to come to an end," from Old French finiss-, present participle stem of fenir (13c.) "stop, finish, come to an end, die," from Latin finire "to limit, set bounds, put an end to, come to an end," from finis "boundary, limit, border, end," of unknown origin, perhaps related to figere "to fasten, fix" (see fix). Meaning "to kill" is from 1755. Related: Finished; finishing. Finishing school is from 1836.
finish (n.)
1779, "that which finishes or gives completion," from finish (v.). Meaning "the end" is from 1790. Finish line attested from 1873.
finite (adj.)
early 15c., from Latin finitus, past participle of finire "to limit, set bounds, end," from finis (see finish (v.)). Related: Finitely.
finitude (n.)
1640s, from finite + -ude.
fink (n.)
1902, of uncertain origin, possibly from German Fink "a frivolous or dissolute person," originally "finch;" the German word also had a sense of "informer" (compare stool pigeon). The other theory traces it to Pinks, short for Pinkerton agents, the private police force hired to break up the 1892 Homestead strike. As a verb, 1925 in American English slang. Related: Finked; finking.
Finn (n.)
Old English finnas, from Old Norse finnr, the Norsemen's name for the Suomi. Some suggest a connection with fen. Attested in Tacitus as Fenni.
finned (adj.)
mid-14c., adjective in past participle form from fin.
Finnish (adj.)
c.1790, from Finn + -ish. Earlier was Finnic (1660s).
finny (adj.)
1580s, from fin + -y (2).
fiord (n.)
alternative form of fjord (q.v.).
fippeny
1802, short for five penny; further contracted form fip attested by 1822.
fir (n.)
14c.; Old English had furhwudu "pine wood," but the modern word is more likely from Old Norse fyri- "fir" or Old Danish fyr, all from Proto-Germanic *furkhon (cognates: Old High German foraha, German Föhre "fir"), from PIE root *perkos, originally "oak" (cognates: Sanskrit paraktah "the holy fig tree," Hindi pargai "the evergreen oak," Latin quercus "oak," Lombardic fereha "a kind of oak").
Firbolgs (n.)
1797, ancient supernatural people of Ireland (enemies of the Dannans), perhaps from Old Irish fir, plural of fear "man" + bolg, genitive plural of bolg "bag, belly;" or second element may be cognate with Gaulish Belgae.
fire (n.)
Old English fyr, from Proto-Germanic *fuir (cognates: Old Saxon and Old Frisian fiur, Old Norse fürr, Middle Dutch and Dutch vuur, Old High German fiur, German Feuer), from PIE *perjos, from root *paewr- (cognates: Armenian hur "fire, torch," Czech pyr "hot ashes," Greek pyr, Umbrian pir, Sanskrit pu, Hittite pahhur "fire").

Current spelling is attested as early as 1200, but did not fully displace Middle English fier (preserved in fiery) until c.1600.

PIE apparently had two roots for fire: *paewr- and *egni- (source of Latin ignis). The former was "inanimate," referring to fire as a substance, and the latter was "animate," referring to it as a living force (see water (n.1)).

Fire applied in English to passions, feelings, from mid-14c. Meaning "action of guns, etc." is from 1580s. Firecracker is American English coinage for what is in England just cracker, but the U.S. word distinguishes it from the word meaning "biscuit." Fire-engine attested from 1680s. The figurative expression play with fire "risk disaster" is from 1887; phrase where's the fire? "what's the hurry?" first recorded 1924.
fire (v.)
c.1200, furen, figurative, "arouse, excite;" literal sense of "set fire to" is from late 14c., from fire (n.). The Old English verb fyrian "to supply with fire" apparently did not survive into Middle English.

The sense of "sack, dismiss" is first recorded 1885 in American English (earlier "throw (someone) out" of some place, 1871), probably from a play on the two meanings of discharge: "to dismiss from a position," and "to fire a gun," fire in the second sense being from "set fire to gunpowder," attested from 1520s. Of bricks, pottery, etc., from 1660s. Related: Fired; firing. Fired up "angry" is from 1824. Firing squad is attested from 1904.
firearm (n.)
1640s, from fire (n.) + arm (n.2). Related: Firearms.
fireball (n.)
1550s, from fire (n.) + ball (n.1).
firebomb (n.)
1895, from fire (n.) + bomb (n.). As a verb, from 1950 as an act of vandalism or terrorism, from 1941 as a military aviation tactic. Related: Firebombed; firebombing.
firebrand (n.)
c.1200, "piece of wood kindled at a fire," from fire (n.) + brand (n.). Figurative sense of "one who kindles mischief or passions" is from late 14c.
firebug (n.)
"arsonist," 1872, from fire (n.) + bug (n.).
firefighter (n.)
1903, from fire (n.) + fighter.
firefly (n.)
1650s, from fire (n.) + fly (n.).
firelight (n.)
Old English fyrleoht; see fire (n.) + light (n.).
fireman (n.)
late 14c., "tender of a fire," from fire (n.) + man (n.). As "person hired to put out (rather than tend) fires" it is attested from 1714.
fireplace (n.)
c.1700, from fire (n.) + place (n.).
fireplug (n.)
1713, from fire (n.) + plug (n.).
fireproof (adj.)
1630s, from fire (n.) + proof. As a verb, from 1867. Related: Fireproofed; fireproofing.
fireside (n.)
1560s, from fire (n.) + side (n.). Symbolic of home life by 1848.
firewall (n.)
1851 as a physical wall meant to prevent the spread of fire in a structure, from fire (n.) + wall (n.). Computer sense is by 1990.
firewater (n.)
"alcoholic liquor," 1826, American English, supposedly from American Indians, from fire (n.) + water (n.1).
firewood (n.)
late 14c., from fire (n.) + wood (n.).
fireworks (n.)
1570s, from fire (n.) + works (see work (n.)).