expressway (n.)
by 1945, American English, from express (adj.) + way (n.). Express highway is recorded by 1938.
exprobration (n.)
1520s, "act of upbraiding;" 1540s, "a reproachful utterance," from Latin exprobrationem (nominative exprobratio), noun of action from past participle stem of exprobrare "to make a matter of reproach," from ex "out" (see ex-) + probrum "shameful deed" (see opprobrious).
expropriate (v.)
1610s, back-formation from expropriation, or from earlier adjective (mid-15c.), or from Medieval Latin expropriatus, past participle of expropriare "deprive of property, deprive of one's own," from ex "away from" (see ex-) + propriare "take as one's own," from proprius "one's own" (see proper). Related: Expropriated; expropriating.
expropriation (n.)
mid-15c., "renunciation of worldly goods," from Medieval Latin expropriationem (nominative expropriatio), noun of action from past participle stem of Late Latin expropriare "deprive of property," from ex "away from" (see ex-) + propriare "take as one's own," from proprius "one's own" (see proper). Sense of "a taking of someone's property," especially for public use, is from 1848; as Weekley puts it, "Current sense of organized theft appears to have arisen among Ger. socialists."
expugn (v.)
early 15c., "eradicate, exterminate," also "conquer, capture by fighting," from Old French expugner, from Latin expugnare "to take by assault, storm, capture" (source also of Spanish expugnar, Italian espugnare), from ex- (see ex-) + pugnare "to fight" (see pugnacious). Related: Expugned; expugnable.
expulsion (n.)
c. 1400, from Old French expulsion or directly from Latin expulsionem (nominative expulsio), noun of action from past participle stem of expellere "drive out" (see expel).
expunction (n.)
c. 1600, from Latin expunctionem (nominative expunctio), noun of action from past participle stem of expungere "prick out, blot out, mark for deletion" (see expunge).
expunge (v.)
c. 1600, from Latin expungere "prick out, blot out, mark (a name on a list) for deletion" by pricking dots above or below it, literally "prick out," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + pungere "to prick, pierce" (from suffixed form of PIE root *peuk- "to prick").

According to OED, taken by early lexicographers in English to "denote actual obliteration by pricking;" it adds that the sense probably was influenced by sponge (v.). Related: Expunged; expunging; expungible.
expurgate (v.)
1620s, "to purge" (in anatomy), back-formation from expurgation or from Latin expurgatus, past participle of expurgare "to cleanse out, purge, purify." Related: Expurgated; expurgating. The earlier verb was simply expurge (late 15c.), from Middle French expurger. Meaning "remove (something offensive or erroneous) from" is from 1670s.
expurgation (n.)
early 15c., "a cleansing from impurity," from Latin expurgationem (nominative expurgatio), noun of action from past participle stem of expurgare "to cleanse out, purge, purify; clear from censure, vindicate, justify," from ex "out" (see ex-) + purgare "to purge" (see purge (v.)). Sense of "a removal of objectionable passages from a literary work" first recorded in English 1610s. Related: Expurgatory.
exquisite (adj.)
early 15c., "carefully selected," from Latin exquisitus "choice," literally "carefully sought out," from past participle stem of exquirere "search out thoroughly," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + quaerere "to seek" (see query (v.)).

Originally in English of any thing (good or bad, torture and diseases as well as art) brought to a highly wrought condition, sometimes shading into disapproval. The main modern meaning, "of consummate and delightful excellence" is first attested 1579, in Lyly's "Euphues." Related: Exquisitely; exquisiteness. The noun meaning "a dandy, fop" is from 1819. Bailey's Dictionary (1727) has exquisitous "not natural, but procured by art."
exsanguinate (v.)
"render bloodless," 1849, from Latin exsanguinatus "bloodless," as if from a past participle of *exsanguinare, from ex "out" (see ex-) + sanguinem (nominative sanguis) "blood" (see sanguinary). Related: Exsanguinated; exsanguinating; exsanguination. As an adjective, exsanguine "bloodless" is attested from mid-17c. in literal and figurative use.
exsert (v.)
"to thrust forth, protrude," 1660s, biologists' variant of exert (q.v.) based on the original Latin form. Also as an adjective, "projecting beyond the surrounding parts." Related: Exsertion.
extant (adj.)
1540s, "standing out above a surface," from Latin extantem (nominative extans), present participle of extare "stand out, be visible, exist," from ex "out" (see ex-) + stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm." Sense of "in existence" attested in English by 1560s. Related: Extance; extancy, both 17c., both obsolete.
extemporaneous (adj.)
"made, done, procured, or furnished 'at the time,'" hence "unpremeditated," 1650s, from Medieval Latin extemporaneus, from Latin ex tempore (see extempore). Earlier was extemporal (1560s); extemporanean (1620s). Related: Extemporaneously; extemporaneousness.
extemporary (adj.)
c. 1600, from extempore + -ary.
extempore (adv.)
1550s, from Latin phrase ex tempore "offhand, in accordance with (the needs of) the moment," literally "out of time," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + tempore, ablative of tempus (genitive temporis) "time" (see temporal). Of speaking, strictly "without preparation, without time to prepare," but now often with a sense merely of "without notes or a teleprompter." As an adjective and noun from 1630s.
extemporize (v.)
1640s (implied in extemporizing), "to speak ex tempore," from extempore + -ize. Related: Extemporized.
extend (v.)
early 14c., "to value, assess," from Anglo-French estendre (late 13c.), Old French estendre "stretch out, extend, increase," transitive and intransitive (Modern French étendre), from Latin extendere "stretch out, spread out; increase, enlarge, prolong, continue," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + tendere "to stretch," from PIE root *ten- "to stretch."

Original sense in English is obsolete. From late 14c. as "lengthen or extend in time," also "straighten" (an arm, wing. etc.). Meaning "make longer and/or broader in space" is from early 15c., as is intransitive sense of "cover an area, have a certain extent in space;" sense of "expand, grow distended" is from 1753. Related: Extended; extending.
extended (adj.)
mid-15c., "occupying time, made longer," past participle adjective from extend (v.). Meaning "stretched out" in space is from 1550s; extended-play (adj.), in reference to recordings (especially 7-inch, 45 rpm vinyl records) is from 1953; in reference to pinball games by 1943. Extended family (n.) in sociology recorded from 1942.
A challenging question was asked RCA engineers and scientists in 1951. How can we increase the playing time of a 7-inch record, without using a larger disc? Sixteen months of research gave the answer, "45 EP"--Extended Play. [Radio Corporation of America magazine advertisement, May 1953]
extender (n.)
1610s, agent noun from extend (v.). Middle English had extendour "surveyor, assessor."
extensible (n.)
1610s, from French extensible, from stem of Latin extendere (see extend). Earlier was extendible (late 15c.).
extension (n.)
c. 1400, "swelling, bulging," from Latin extensionem/extentionem (nominative extensio/extentio) "a stretching out, extension," noun of action from past participle stem of extendere (see extend). In a concrete sense, "extended portion of something" (a railroad, etc.), from 1852. Telephone sense is from 1906.
extensive (adj.)
"vast, far-reaching;" c. 1600 of immaterial, c. 1700 of material things; from Late Latin extensivus, from extens-, past participle stem of Latin extendere "to stretch out, spread" (see extend). Earlier in a medical sense, "characterized by swelling" (early 15c.). Related: Extensively; extensiveness.
extensor (n.)
"muscle which serves to straighten or extend any part of the body," 1713, short for medical Latin musculus extensor, from Late Latin extensor "stretcher," agent noun from Latin extendere "spread out, spread" (see extend).
extent (n.)
early 14c., from Anglo-French extente, estente "extent, extension;" in law, "valuation of land, stretch of land," from fem. past participle of Old French extendre "extend," from Latin extendere "to spread out, spread" (see extend). Meaning "degree to which something extends" is from 1590s.
extenuate (v.)
1520s, from Latin extenuatus, past participle of extenuare "lessen, make small, reduce, diminish, detract from," from ex "out" (see ex-) + tenuare "make thin," from tenuis "thin," from PIE root *ten- "to stretch." Used over the years in a variety of literal and figurative senses in English. Related: Extenuated; extenuating. Extenuating circumstances (1660s) are those which lessen the magnitude of guilt (opposed to aggravating).
extenuation (n.)
early 15c., from Latin extenuationem (nominative extenuatio) "a lessening, diminution," noun of action from past participle stem of extenuare "lessen, reduce, diminish" (see extenuate).
exterior (adj.)
1520s, from Latin exterior "outward, outer, exterior," comparative of exterus "on the outside, outward, outer, of another country, foreign," itself a comparative of ex "out of" (see ex-). As a noun, "outer surface or aspect" from 1590s.
exterminate (v.)
1540s, "drive away," from Latin exterminatus, past participle of exterminare "drive out, expel, put aside, drive beyond boundaries," also, in Late Latin "destroy," from phrase ex termine "beyond the boundary," from ex- "out of" (see ex-) + termine, ablative of termen "boundary, limit, end" (see terminus).

Meaning "destroy utterly" is from 1640s in English, a sense found in equivalent words in French and in the Vulgate; earlier in this sense was extermine (mid-15c.). Related: Exterminated; exterminating.
extermination (n.)
mid-15c., "repulsion;" 1540s, "utter destruction, eradication," from Middle French extermination and directly from Latin exterminationem (nominative exterminatio) "ejection, banishment," noun of action from past participle stem of exterminare (see exterminate).
exterminator (n.)
c. 1400, "an angel who expells (people from a country)," from Late Latin exterminator, from past participle stem of Latin exterminare (see exterminate). As a substance for ridding a place of rats, etc., by 1848; as a person whose job it is to do this, by 1938.
extern (n.)
"outsider," c. 1600, from Middle French externe "outer, outward;" as a noun, "a day-scholar," from Latin externus "outside," also used as a noun (see external). As an adjective in English from 1530s.
external (adj.)
early 15c., from Middle French externe or directly from Latin externus "outside, outward" (from exterus; see exterior) + -al (1). This version won out over exterial. Related: Externally.
externality (n.)
1670s, "state of being external," from external + -ity. From 1839 as "that which is external." From 1833 as "undue regard for externals."
externalization (n.)
1803; see external + -ization.
externalize (v.)
1846, from external + -ize. Related: Externalized; externalizing.
Self-government begins with a reverential recognition of a supreme law: its process is a constant endeavor to render that law objective, real, operative--to externalize it, if we may use the term. ["American Review," July, 1846]
extinct (adj.)
early 15c., "extinguished, quenched," from Latin extinctus/exstinctus, past participle of extinguere/exstinguere "to put out, quench; go out, die out; kill, destroy" (see extinguish). Originally of fires; in reference to the condition of a family or a hereditary title that has "died out," from 1580s; of species by 1690s. Shakespeare uses it as a verb. Compare extinction.
extinction (n.)
early 15c., "annihilation," from Latin extinctionem/exstinctionem (nominative extinctio/exstinctio) "extinction, annihilation," noun of action from past participle stem of extinguere/exstinguere "quench, wipe out" (see extinguish). Originally of fires, lights; figurative use, the wiping out of a material thing (a debt, a person, a family, etc.) from early 17c.; of species by 1784.
extinguish (v.)
1540s, from Latin extinguere/exstinguere "quench, put out (what is burning), wipe out, obliterate," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + stinguere "quench," apparently an evolved sense from PIE *steig- "to prick, stick, pierce" (see stick (v.)). But see distinguish (v.). Related: Extinguished; extinguishing.
extinguishable (adj.)
c. 1500; see extinguish + -able.
extinguisher (n.)
1550s, agent noun from extinguish. As a mechanical device for putting out fires, from 1887.
extirpate (v.)
"root up, root out," 1530s, usually figurative, from Latin extirpatus/exstirpatus, past participle of extirpare/exstirpare "root out, eradicate, pull up by the roots" (see extirpation). Related: Extirpated; extirpating; extirpable.
extirpation (n.)
early 15c., "removal;" 1520s, "rooting out, eradication," from Latin extirpationem/exstirpationem (nominative extirpatio/exstirpatio), noun of action from past participle stem of extirpare/exstirpare "root out," from ex "out" (see ex-) + stirps (genitive stirpis) "a root, stock of a tree."
extol (v.)
also extoll, c. 1400, "to lift up," from Latin extollere "to place on high, raise, elevate," figuratively "to exalt, praise," from ex "up" (see ex-) + tollere "to raise," from PIE *tele- "to bear, carry," "with derivatives referring to measured weights and thence money and payment" [Watkins].

Cognates include Greek talantos "bearing, suffering," tolman "to carry, bear," telamon "broad strap for bearing something," talenton "a balance, pair of scales," Atlas "the 'Bearer' of Heaven;" Lithuanian tiltas "bridge;" Sanskrit tula "balance," tulayati "lifts up, weighs;" Latin tolerare "to bear, support," perhaps also latus "borne;" Old English þolian "to endure;" Armenian tolum "I allow." Figurative sense of "praise highly" in English is first attested c. 1500. Related: Extolled; extolling.
extoll
variant of extol.
extort (v.)
1520s (as a past participle adj. from early 15c.), "obtain by force or compulsion; wrest away by oppressive means," from Latin extortus, past participle of extorquere "obtain by force," literally "to wrench out," from ex "out" (see ex-) + torquere "to twist" (from PIE root *terkw- "to twist"). Related: Extorted; extorting.
extortion (n.)
c. 1300, from Latin extortionem (nominative extortio) "a twisting out, extorting," noun of action from past participle stem of extorquere "wrench out, wrest away, to obtain by force," from ex "out" (see ex-) + torquere "to twist" (from PIE root *terkw- "to twist").
extortionate (adj.)
1711, from extortion + -ate. Extortious is from c. 1600.
extortionist (n.)
1824, from extortion + -ist. Earlier in the same sense were extorter (1590s), extortioner (late 14c.).