expugn (v.) Look up expugn at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "eradicate, exterminate," also "conquer, defeat," from Old French expugner, from Latin expugnare "to take by assault, storm, capture," from ex- (see ex-) + pugnare "to fight" (see pugnacious). Related: Expugned.
expulsion (n.) Look up expulsion at Dictionary.com
c.1400, from Old French expulsion, from Latin expulsionem (nominative expropriatio), noun of action from past participle stem of expellere "drive out" (see expel).
expunge (v.) Look up expunge at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from Latin expungere "prick out, blot out, mark (a name on a list) for deletion" by pricking dots above or below it, literally "prick out," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + pungere "to prick, stab" (see pungent). Related: Expunged; expunging.
expurgate (v.) Look up expurgate at Dictionary.com
1620s, back-formation from expurgation or from Latin expurgatus, past participle of expurgare "to cleanse out, purge, purify" (see expurgation). Related: Expurgated; expurgating. The earlier verb was simply expurge (late 15c.), from Middle French expurger.
expurgation (n.) Look up expurgation at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "a cleansing from impurity," from Latin expurgationem (nominative expurgatio), noun of action from past participle stem of expurgare "to cleanse out, purge, purify," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + purgare "to purge" (see purge (v.)). Sense of "remove objectionable passages from a literary work" first recorded in English 1610s.
exquisite (adj.) Look up exquisite at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "carefully selected," from Latin exquisitus "carefully sought out," thus, "choice," from past participle of exquirere "search out thoroughly," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + quaerere "to seek" (see query (v.)).

Of any thing (good or bad, torture as well as art) brought to a highly wrought condition, sometimes shading into disapproval. A vogue word 15c.-18c., given wide extensions of meaning, none of which survives. The main modern sense of "of consummate and delightful excellence" is first attested 1579, in Lyly's "Euphues." Related: Exquisitely; exquisiteness. The noun meaning "a dandy, fop" is from 1819.
exsanguinate (v.) Look up exsanguinate at Dictionary.com
1849, from Latin exsanguinatus "bloodless," past participle of exsanguinare, from ex- "out" (see ex-) + sanguinem (nominative sanguis) "blood" (see sanguinary). Related: Exsanguinated; exsanguinating; exsanguination. As an adjective, exsanguine "bloodless" is attested from mid-17c. in literal and figurative use.
exsert (v.) Look up exsert at Dictionary.com
"to thrust forth, protrude," 1660s, biologists' variant of exert (q.v.).
extant (adj.) Look up extant at Dictionary.com
1540s, "standing out above a surface," from Latin extantem (nominative extans), present participle of extare "stand out, be visible, exist," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand" (see stet). Sense of "in existence" attested in English by 1560s.
extemporaneous (adj.) Look up extemporaneous at Dictionary.com
1650s (earlier extemporal, 1560s), from Medieval Latin extemporaneus, from Latin ex tempore (see extempore). Related: Extemporaneously.
extempore Look up extempore at Dictionary.com
1550s (adv.), 1630s (n.), from Latin phrase ex tempore "offhand, in accordance with (the needs of) the moment," literally "out of time," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + tempore, ablative of tempus (genitive temporis) "time" (see temporal). Of speaking, strictly "without preparation, without time to prepare," but now often with a sense merely of "without notes or a teleprompter."
extemporize (v.) Look up extemporize at Dictionary.com
1640s (implied in extemporizing), "to speak ex tempore;" see extempore + -ize. Related: Extemporized.
extend (v.) Look up extend at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "to value, assess;" late 14c. "to stretch out, lengthen," from Anglo-French estendre (late 13c.), Old French estendre "stretch out, extend, increase," from Latin extendere "stretch out," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + tendere "to stretch" (see tenet). Related: Extended; extending.
extension (n.) Look up extension at Dictionary.com
c.1400, from Old French extension (14c.) and directly from Latin extensionem/extentionem (nominative extensio/extentio), noun of action from past participle stem of extendere (see extend). In a concrete sense, "extended portion of something" (a railroad, etc.), from 1852. Telephone sense is from 1906.
extensive (adj.) Look up extensive at Dictionary.com
"vast, far-reaching;" c.1600 of immaterial, c.1700 of material things; from Late Latin extensivus, from extens-, past participle stem of Latin extendere (see extend). Earlier in a medical sense, "characterized by swelling" (early 15c.). Related: Extensively; extensiveness.
extensor (n.) Look up extensor at Dictionary.com
1713, short for medical Latin musculus extensor, from Late Latin extensor "stretcher," agent noun from Latin extensus (see extend).
extent (n.) Look up extent at Dictionary.com
early 14c., from Anglo-French extente, Old French estente "valuation of land, stretch of land," from fem. past participle of Old French extendre "extend," from Latin extendere (see extend). Meaning "degree to which something extends" is from 1590s.
extenuate (v.) Look up extenuate at Dictionary.com
1520s, from Latin extenuatus, past participle of extenuare "lessen, make small, reduce, diminish," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + tenuare "make thin," from tenuis "thin" (see tenet). Related: Extenuated; extenuating. Extenuating circumstances attested from 1660s.
extenuation (n.) Look up extenuation at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin extenuationem (nominative extenuatio), noun of action from past participle stem of extenuare (see extenuate).
exterior (adj.) Look up exterior at Dictionary.com
1520s, from Latin exterior, comparative of exterus "on the outside, outward, outer, of another country, foreign," itself a comparative of ex "out of" (see ex-). As a noun from 1590s.
exterminate (v.) Look up exterminate at Dictionary.com
1540s, "drive away," from Latin exterminatus, past participle of exterminare "drive out, expel, drive beyond boundaries," also, in Late Latin "destroy," from phrase ex termine "beyond the boundary," from ex- "out of" (see ex-) + termine, ablative of termen "boundary, limit, end" (see terminus).

Meaning "destroy utterly" is from 1640s in English, a sense found in equivalent words in French and in the Vulgate; earlier in this sense was extermine (mid-15c.). Related: Exterminated; exterminating.
extermination (n.) Look up extermination at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "repulsion;" 1540s, "utter destruction," from Middle French extermination and directly from Latin exterminationem (nominative exterminatio), noun of action from past participle stem of exterminare (see exterminate).
exterminator (n.) Look up exterminator at Dictionary.com
c.1400, "an angel who expells (people from a country)," from Late Latin exterminator, from Latin exterminatus, past participle stem of exterminare (see exterminate). As a substance for ridding a place of rats, etc., by 1848. As a person whose job it is to do this, by 1938.
extern (n.) Look up extern at Dictionary.com
"outsider," c.1600, from French externe, from Latin externus (see external).
external (adj.) Look up external at Dictionary.com
early 15c. (implied in externalle), from Middle French externe or directly from Latin externus "outside, outward" (from exterus; see exterior) + -al (1). This version won out over exterial. Related: Externally.
externality (n.) Look up externality at Dictionary.com
1713, from external + -ity.
externalize (v.) Look up externalize at Dictionary.com
1852, from external + -ize. Related: Externalized; externalizing.
extinct (adj.) Look up extinct at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin extinctus/exstinctus, past participle of extinguere/exstinguere (see extinguish). Originally of fires; the sense of the condition of "dying out" of a family or a hereditary title, 1580s; of species by 1768. Also see extinction.
extinction (n.) Look up extinction at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin extinctionem/exstinctionem (nominative extinctio/exstinctio), noun of action from past participle stem of extinguere/exstinguere (see extinguish). Originally of fires, lights; figurative use, of wiping out a material thing (a debt, a person, a family, etc.) from early 17c.; of species by 1784.
extinguish (v.) Look up extinguish at Dictionary.com
c.1500 (implied in extinguishable), from Latin extinguere/exstinguere "quench, wipe out, obliterate," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + stinguere "quench," from PIE *steig- "to prick, stick, pierce." Related: Extinguished; extinguishing.
extinguisher (n.) Look up extinguisher at Dictionary.com
1550s, agent noun from extinguish. As a mechanical device for putting out fires, from 1887.
extirpate (v.) Look up extirpate at Dictionary.com
1530s, usually figurative, from Latin extirpatus/exstirpatus, past participle of extirpare/exstirpare (see extirpation). Related: Extirpated; extirpating.
extirpation (n.) Look up extirpation at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "removal;" 1520s, "rooting out, eradication," from Latin extirpationem/exstirpationem (nominative extirpatio/exstirpatio), noun of action from past participle stem of extirpare/exstirpare "root out," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + stirps (genitive stirpis) "a root, stock of a tree."
extol (v.) Look up extol at Dictionary.com
also extoll, c.1400, "to lift up," from Latin extollere "to place on high, raise, elevate," figuratively "to exalt, praise," from ex- "up" (see ex-) + tollere "to raise," from PIE *tele- "to bear, carry," "with derivatives referring to measured weights and thence money and payment" [Watkins] (cognates: Greek talantos "bearing, suffering," tolman "to carry, bear," telamon "broad strap for bearing something," talenton "a balance, pair of scales," Atlas "the 'Bearer' of Heaven;" Lithuanian tiltas "bridge;" Sanskrit tula "balance," tulayati "lifts up, weighs;" Latin tolerare "to bear, support," latus "borne;" Old English þolian "to endure;" Armenian tolum "I allow"). Figurative sense of "praise highly" in English is first attested c.1500. Related: Extolled; extolling.
extoll Look up extoll at Dictionary.com
variant of extol.
extort (v.) Look up extort at Dictionary.com
1520s (as a past participle adj. from early 15c.), from Latin extortus, past participle of extorquere (see extortion). Related: Extorted; extorting.
extortion (n.) Look up extortion at Dictionary.com
c.1300, from Latin extortionem (nominative extortio) "a twisting out, extorting," noun of action from past participle stem of extorquere "wrench out, wrest away, to obtain by force," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + torquere "to twist" (see torque (n.)).
extortionate (adj.) Look up extortionate at Dictionary.com
1789, from extortion + -ate.
extortionist (n.) Look up extortionist at Dictionary.com
1885, from extortion + -ist. Earlier in the same sense were extorter (1590s), extortioner (late 14c.).
extra Look up extra at Dictionary.com
1650s as a stand-alone adjective; also used as an adverb and noun in 17c. (see extra-); modern usages -- including sense of "minor performer in a play" (1777) and "special edition of a newspaper" (1793) -- all probably are from shortenings of extraordinary, which was used extensively in 18c. as noun and adverb in places we would use extra today.
extra- Look up extra- at Dictionary.com
only recorded in classical Latin in extraordinarius, but much used in Medieval Latin and modern formations; it represents Latin extra (adv.) "on the outside, without, except," the old fem. ablative singular of exterus "outward, outside," comparative of ex "out of" (see ex-).
extra-special (adj.) Look up extra-special at Dictionary.com
1889, from extra + special (adj.). Originally of certain editions of daily newspapers.
extract (v.) Look up extract at Dictionary.com
late 15c., from Latin extractus, past participle of extrahere "draw out," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + trahere "to draw" (see tract (n.1)). Related: Extracted; extracting.
extract (n.) Look up extract at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from Late Latin extractum, noun use of neuter past participle of extrahere "to draw out" (see extract (v.)).
extraction (n.) Look up extraction at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Old French estraction (12c.) or directly from Medieval Latin extractionem (nominative extractio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin extrahere (see extract (v.)).
extracurricular (adj.) Look up extracurricular at Dictionary.com
1925, from extra- + curricular (see curriculum).
extradite (v.) Look up extradite at Dictionary.com
1864, back-formation from extradition. Related: Extradited; extraditing.
extradition (n.) Look up extradition at Dictionary.com
1833, from French extradition (18c.), apparently a coinage of Voltaire's, from Latin ex "out" (see ex-) + traditionem (nominative traditio) "a delivering up, handing over," noun of action from tradere "to hand over" (see tradition).
This word might be adopted in our language with advantage, as we have none which conveys the same meaning. Extradition signifies the delivering up of criminals who may have sought refuge in any country, to the government whose subjects they are, on a claim being made to this effect. [from a footnote to the word extradition in translation of "Memoirs of Marshal Ney," London, 1833]
extrajudicial (adj.) Look up extrajudicial at Dictionary.com
also extra-judicial, 1580s (implied in extrajudicially); see extra- + judicial.
extramarital (adj.) Look up extramarital at Dictionary.com
also extra-marital, by 1844, from extra- + marital.