eponym (n.) Look up eponym at Dictionary.com
one whose name becomes that of a place, a people, an era, an institution, etc., 1833, from Greek eponymos "given as a name, giving one's name to something," as a plural noun (short for eponymoi heroes) denoting founders (legendary or real) of tribes, cities, etc.; from comb. form of epi "upon, (called) after," (see epi-) + onyma, Aeolic dialectal variant of onoma "name" (see name (n.)).
eponymous (adj.) Look up eponymous at Dictionary.com
"giving one's name to," 1833; see eponym + -ous. Related: Eponymously. Alternative form eponymal is used in reference to the other classical eponymos, a title of certain magistrates in ancient Greece who gave their names to the years when they held office. Eponymic has been used in the sense "name-giving; pertaining to eponymic myths" as well as "of or pertaining to a classical eponymos."
epoxy (n.) Look up epoxy at Dictionary.com
1916, in reference to certain chemical compounds, from epi- + first element of oxygen. Epoxy- is used as a prefix in chemistry to indicate an oxygen atom that is linked to two carbon atoms of a chain, thus forming a "bridge" ("intramolecular connection" is one of the chemical uses of epi-). Resins from epoxides are used as powerful glues. Hence the verb meaning "to bond with epoxy" (1965). Related: Epoxied.
epsilon (n.) Look up epsilon at Dictionary.com
from Greek, literally e psilon "bare -e-, -e- and nothing else," so called by late grammarians in contradistinction to the diphthong -ai-, which had come to have the same sound. Greek psilon "smooth, simple" is of uncertain origin (Watkins suggests PIE root *bhes- (1) "to rub").
Epsom salts Look up Epsom salts at Dictionary.com
magnesium sulphate, 1770, obtained from Epsom water, the water of a mineral spring at Epsom in Surrey, England, the medicinal properties of which were discovered in Elizabethan times. The place name is recorded c.973 as Ebbesham, literally "Ebbi's homestead," from the name of some forgotten Anglo-Saxon. The mineral supply there was exhausted 19c.
Epstein-Barr virus Look up Epstein-Barr virus at Dictionary.com
1968, named for British virologist Michael Anthony Epstein and Irish-born virologist Yvonne M. Barr.
ept (adj.) Look up ept at Dictionary.com
1938, back-formation from inept, usually with an attempt at comical effect. Related: Eptitude; eptly.
equability (n.) Look up equability at Dictionary.com
1530s, from Latin aequabilitatem (nominative aequabilitas) "equality, uniformity, evenness," figuratively "impartiality," from aequabilis "equal, consistent, uniform" (see equable).
equable (adj.) Look up equable at Dictionary.com
1670s, back-formation from equability or else from Latin aequabilis "equal, consistent, uniform," from aequare "make uniform" (see equate). Related: Equably; equableness.
equal (adj.) Look up equal at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "identical in amount, extent, or portion;" early 15c., "even or smooth of surface," from Latin aequalis "uniform, identical, equal," from aequus "level, even, flat; as tall as, on a level with; friendly, kind, just, fair, equitable, impartial; proportionate; calm, tranquil," which is of unknown origin. Parallel formation egal (from Old French egal) was in use late 14c.-17c. Equal rights is from 1752; by 1854, American English, in relation to men and women. Equal opportunity (adj.) in terms of hiring, etc. is recorded by 1925.
equal (v.) Look up equal at Dictionary.com
1580s, "compare, liken, consider as equal" (obsolete), also "match, rival, become equal to," from equal (adj.). Related: Equaled; equaling.
equal (n.) Look up equal at Dictionary.com
1570s, from equal (adj.).
equalise (v.) Look up equalise at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of equalize; see -ize. Related: Equalised; equalising; equaliser; equalisation.
equalitarian (adj.) Look up equalitarian at Dictionary.com
1799, in reference to the doctrine that all mankind are equal, from equality on model of humanitarian, etc. As a noun from 1837.
equalitarianism (n.) Look up equalitarianism at Dictionary.com
1857, from equalitarian + -ism.
equality (n.) Look up equality at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "evenness, smoothness, uniformity;" c. 1400, in reference to amount or number, from Old French equalité "equality, parity" (Modern French égalité, which form dates from 17c.), from Latin aequalitatem (nominative aequalitas) "equality, similarity, likeness" (also sometimes with reference to civil rights), from aequalis "uniform, identical, equal" (see equal (adj.)). Early 15c. as "state of being equal." Of privileges, rights, etc., in English from 1520s.
equalization (n.) Look up equalization at Dictionary.com
1781, from equalize + -ation.
equalize (v.) Look up equalize at Dictionary.com
1580s, "make equal, cause to be equal in amount or degree," from equal (adj.) + -ize. Sports score sense attested by 1925. Related: Equalized; equalizing.
equalizer (n.) Look up equalizer at Dictionary.com
1792, agent noun from equalize. Sports sense attested by 1930; in the U.S. underworld slang sense of "pistol," it is from c. 1900.
equally (adv.) Look up equally at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "in equal shares," from equal (adj.) + -ly (2). Meaning "impartially" is from 1520s; that of "in an equal manner, uniformly" is from 1660s.
equanimity (n.) Look up equanimity at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, "fairness, impartiality," from French équanimité, from Latin aequanimitatem (nominative aequanimitas) "evenness of mind, calmness; good-will, kindness," from aequanimis "mild, kind," literally "even-minded," from aequus "even, level" (see equal (adj.)) + animus "mind, spirit" (see animus). Meaning "evenness of temper" in English is from 1610s.
equanimous (adj.) Look up equanimous at Dictionary.com
"of a steady temper," 1650s, from Latin aequanimis "mild, kind" (see equanimity) + -ous.
equate (v.) Look up equate at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "to make similar or the same; to balance or harmonize; distribute (ingredients) uniformly; reduce to evenness or smoothness; to set (a fracture)," from Latin aequatus "level, levelled, even, side-by-side," past participle of aequare "make even or uniform, make equal," from aequus "level, even, equal" (see equal (adj.)). Earliest use in English was of astrological calculation, then "to make equal;" meaning "to regard as equal" is early 19c. Related: Equated; equating.
equation (n.) Look up equation at Dictionary.com
late 14c., a term in astrology (from French équation, 14c.); general sense of "action of making equal" is from 1650s, from Latin aequationem (nominative aequatio) "an equal distribution, a sharing in common," noun of state from past participle stem of aequare (see equal (adj.)). Mathematical sense is from 1560s, on notion of equalizing the expressions; Chemistry sense is from 1807.
equator (n.) Look up equator at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Medieval Latin aequator (diei et noctis) "equalizer (of day and night)," agent noun from Latin aequare "make equal" (see equate). When the sun is on the celestial equator, twice annually, day and night are of equal length. Sense of "celestial equator" is earliest, extension to "terrestrial line midway between the poles" first recorded in English 1610s.
equatorial (adj.) Look up equatorial at Dictionary.com
1660s, from equator + -ial. Related: Equatorially.
equerry (n.) Look up equerry at Dictionary.com
royal officer, especially one charged with care of horses, 1590s, short for groom of the equirrie, from esquiry "stables" (1550s), from Middle French escuerie (Modern French écurie), perhaps from Medieval Latin scuria "stable," from Old High German scura "barn" (German Scheuer); or else from Old French escuier "groom," from Vulgar Latin scutarius "shield-bearer." In either case, the spelling was influenced by Latin equus "horse," which is unrelated.
equestrian (adj.) Look up equestrian at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to or relating to horses or horsemanship," 1650s, formed in English from Latin equester (genitive equestris) "of a horseman, knightly," from eques "horseman, knight," from equus "horse" (see equine). As a noun, "one who rides on horseback," from 1786. The feminine form equestrienne is attested from 1848 (Century Dictionary calls it "circus-bill French"). An earlier adjective was equestrial (1550s).
equi- Look up equi- at Dictionary.com
before vowels equ-, word-forming element meaning "equal, having equal," from Latin aequi-, comb. form of aequus "equal, even" (see equal (adj.)).
equiangular (adj.) Look up equiangular at Dictionary.com
1650s; see equi- + angular. French équiangle is from 16c.
equidistant (adj.) Look up equidistant at Dictionary.com
1560s, from French équidistant (14c.), from Late Latin aequidistantem (nominative aequidistans), from aequi- (see equal (adj.)) + distans (see distant). In reference to a type of map projection, from 1866. Related: Equidistance.
equilateral (adj.) Look up equilateral at Dictionary.com
"having all sides equal," 1560s, from Late Latin aequilateralis, from aequi- (see equal (adj.)) + lateralis (see lateral). Related: Equilaterally.
equilibrium (n.) Look up equilibrium at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, "state of mental balance," from Latin aequilibrium "an even balance; a horizontal position," from aequilibris "equal, level, horizontal, evenly balanced," from aequus "equal" (see equal (adj.)) + libra "a balance, scale, plummet" (see Libra). Related: Equilibrious.
equine (adj.) Look up equine at Dictionary.com
1765, from Latin equinus "of a horse, of horses; of horsehair," from equus "horse," from PIE root *ekwo- "horse" (cognates: Greek hippos, Old Irish ech, Old English eoh, Gothic aihwa-, Sanskrit açva-, Avestan aspa-, Old Church Slavonic ehu-, all meaning "horse").
equinox (n.) Look up equinox at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, "point at which the sun crosses the earth's equator, making day and night of equal length everywhere," from Old French equinoce (12c.) or directly from Medieval Latin equinoxium "equality of night (and day)," from Latin aequinoctium, usually in plural, dies aequinoctii "the equinoxes," from aequus "equal" (see equal (adj.)) + nox (genitive noctis) "night" (see night). The Old English translation was efnniht. Related: Equinoctial.
equip (v.) Look up equip at Dictionary.com
1520s, from Middle French équiper "to fit out," from Old French esquiper "fit out a ship, load on board" (12c.), probably from Old Norse skipa "arrange, place in order," usually "fit out a ship," but also of warriors manning a hall and trees laden with ripe fruit, from skip "ship" (see ship (n.)). Related: Equipped; equipping. Similar words in Spanish and Portuguese ultimately are from Germanic.
equipage (n.) Look up equipage at Dictionary.com
1570s, from French équipage (15c.), from équiper "to fit out" (see equip). Now largely replaced by equipment. In 18c. often especially tweezers, a toothpick, earpick, nail-cleaner, etc., carried on the person in a small case.
equiparation (n.) Look up equiparation at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "impartial treatment;" 1610s, "equal ranking;" from Latin aequiparationem (nominative aequiparatio) "an equalizing, comparison," from past participle stem of aequiparare "put on equality, compare," from aequipar "equal, alike," from aequus "equal, even" (see equal (adj.)) + par (see par (n.)). Related: Equiparate.
equipment (n.) Look up equipment at Dictionary.com
1717, "things equipped;" 1748, "action of equipping;" from equip + -ment, or from French équipement. Superseding earlier equipage.
equipoise (n.) Look up equipoise at Dictionary.com
"an equal distribution of weight," 1650s, a contraction of the phrase equal poise (1550s); see equal (adj.) + poise (n.).
equitable (adj.) Look up equitable at Dictionary.com
1640s, from French équitable (16c.), from équité (see equity). Related: Equitably.
equity (n.) Look up equity at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "quality of being equal or fair, impartiality in dealing with others," from Old French equite (13c.), from Latin aequitatem (nominative aequitas) "equality, uniformity, conformity, symmetry; fairness, equal rights; kindness, moderation," from aequus "even, just, equal" (see equal (adj.)). As the name of a system of law, 1590s, from Roman naturalis aequitas, the general principles of justice which corrected or supplemented the legal codes.
equivalence (n.) Look up equivalence at Dictionary.com
1540s, from French équivalence, from Medieval Latin aequivalentia, from Late Latin aequivalentem "equivalent" (see equivalent). Related: Equivalency (1530s).
equivalent (adj.) Look up equivalent at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Middle French equivalent and directly from Late Latin aequivalentem (nominative aequivalens) "equivalent," present participle of aequivalere "be equivalent," from Latin aequus "equal" (see equal (adj.)) + valere "be well, be worth" (see valiant). As a noun from c. 1500, "that which is equal or corresponds to." Related: Equivalently.
equivocal (adj.) Look up equivocal at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from Late Latin aequivocus "of equal voice, of equal significance, ambiguous" (see equivocation) + -al (1). Earlier in same sense was equivoque (late 14c.). Related: Equivocally (1570s).
equivocate (v.) Look up equivocate at Dictionary.com
early 15c., equivocaten, from Medieval Latin equivocatus, past participle of equivocare "to call by the same name, be called by the same name, have the same sound," from Late Latin aequivocus "of identical sound" (see equivocation). Related: Equivocated; equivocating.
equivocation (n.) Look up equivocation at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "fallacy of using a word in different senses at different stages of the reasoning" (a loan-translation of Greek homonymia, literally "having the same name"), from Old French equivocation, from Late Latin aequivocationem (nominative aequivocatio), noun of action from aequivocus "of identical sound, of equal voice, of equal significance, ambiguous, of like sound," past participle of aequivocare, from aequus "equal" (see equal (adj.)) + vocare "to call" (see voice (n.)).
equivocator (n.) Look up equivocator at Dictionary.com
1590s, from Late Latin aequivocator, agent noun from aequivocare (see equivocation).
equus (n.) Look up equus at Dictionary.com
"a horse," Latin, see equine.
er Look up er at Dictionary.com
as a sound of hesitation or uncertainty, attested from mid-19c.