engird (v.) Look up engird at Dictionary.com
1560s, from en- (1) "in" + gird (v.). Related: Engirt; engirded.
England (n.) Look up England at Dictionary.com
Old English Engla land, literally "the land of the Angles" (see English (n.1)), used alongside Angelcynn "the English race," which, with other forms, shows Anglo-Saxon persistence in thinking in terms of tribes rather than place. By late Old English times both words had come to be used with a clear sense of place, not people; a Dane, Canute, is first to call himself "King of England." By the 14c. the name was being used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain and to the land of the Celtic Britons before the Anglo-Saxon conquest. The loss of one of the duplicate syllables is a case of haplology.
English (n.1) Look up English at Dictionary.com
"the people of England; the speech of England," noun use of Old English adjective Englisc (contrasted to Denisc, Frencisce, etc.), "of or pertaining to the Angles," from Engle (plural) "the Angles," the name of one of the Germanic groups that overran the island 5c., supposedly so-called because Angul, the land they inhabited on the Jutland coast, was shaped like a fish hook (see angle (n.)). The use of the word in Middle English was reinforced by Anglo-French Engleis. Cognates: Dutch Engelsch, German Englisch, Danish Engelsk, French Anglais (Old French Engelsche), Spanish Inglés, Italian Inglese.

Technically "of the Angles," but Englisc also was used from earliest times without distinction for all the Germanic invaders -- Angles, Saxon, Jutes (Bede's gens Anglorum) -- and applied to their group of related languages by Alfred the Great. "The name English for the language is thus older than the name England for the country" [OED]. After 1066, it specifically meant the native population of England (as distinguished from Normans and French occupiers), a distinction which lasted about a generation. But as late as Robert of Gloucester's "Chronicle" (c. 1300) it still could retain a sense of "Anglian" and be distinguished from "Saxon" ("Þe englisse in þe norþ half, þe saxons bi souþe").
"... when Scots & others are likely to be within earshot, Britain & British should be inserted as tokens, but no more, of what is really meant" [Fowler]
In pronunciation, "En-" has become "In-," perhaps through the frequency of -ing- words and the relative rarity of -e- before -ng- in the modern language. A form Inglis is attested from 14c. and persisted in Scotland and northern England, but the older spelling has stood fast.

Meaning "English language or literature as a subject at school" is from 1889. Old English meaning the Anglo-Saxon language before the Conquest is attested from c. 1200 in an account of the native (as opposed to Latin) month names.
English (n.2) Look up English at Dictionary.com
"spin imparted to a ball" (as in billiards), 1860, from French anglé "angled" (see angle (n.)), which is similar to Anglais "English."
English (adj.) Look up English at Dictionary.com
Old English, "belonging to the English people;" late 13c., "belonging to England," from English (n.1). The adjective in Old English meant "of or pertaining to the Angles." The adverb Englishly (mid-15c.) is rare.
english (v.) Look up english at Dictionary.com
"to translate into English," late 14c., from English (n.1) in the language sense. Related: Englished; englishing.
Englishman Look up Englishman at Dictionary.com
Old English Engliscman, from English (n.1) + man (n.). Related: Englishmen. Englishwoman is from c. 1400. Englander "native of England" is from 1820; in some cases from German Engländer. Englisher is from 1680s. Englishry is from late 13c. in Anglo-French as "state of being English;" from mid-15c. as "the English people or faction."
engorge (v.) Look up engorge at Dictionary.com
1510s, "fill to excess," from French engorger "to obstruct, block, congest," Old French engorgier "to swallow, devour," from en- (see en- (1)) + gorge "throat" (see gorge (n.)). Probably originally in reference to hawks. Related: Engorged; engorging.
engorgement (n.) Look up engorgement at Dictionary.com
1610s, from engorge + -ment or else from French engorgement.
engraft (v.) Look up engraft at Dictionary.com
1580s, from en- (1) + graft (n.). Originally figurative. Related: Engrafted; engrafting.
engrain (v.) Look up engrain at Dictionary.com
also ingrain, late 14c., originally "dye (a fabric) red with cochineal," from French phrase en graine, from graine "seed of a plant," also "cochineal" (the source of the dye was thought to be berries), thus "fast-dyed." See grain; also compare kermes. Later associated with grain in the sense of "the fiber of a thing." Used figuratively from 16c. Related: Engrained.
engrave (v.) Look up engrave at Dictionary.com
mid-15c. (implied in ingraved "engraved"), from en- (1) + obsolete verb grave "carve" (see grave (v.)) or from or modeled on French engraver. Related: Engraved; engraven; engraving.
engraver (n.) Look up engraver at Dictionary.com
1580s, agent noun from engrave.
engraving (n.) Look up engraving at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, "act of cutting designs, etc. on a hard surface," verbal noun from engrave (v.). Meaning "that which is engraved" is from 1610s; meaning "impression taken from an engraved plate" is from 1803.
engross (v.) Look up engross at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, "to buy up the whole stock of" (in Anglo-French from c. 1300), from Old French en gros "in bulk, in a large quantity, at wholesale," as opposed to en detail. See gross.

Figurative sense of "absorb the whole attention" is first attested 1709. A parallel engross, meaning "to write (something) in large letters," is from Anglo-French engrosser, from Old French en gros "in large (letters)." Related: Engrossed; engrossing.
engulf (v.) Look up engulf at Dictionary.com
1550s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + gulf (n.) or else from Old French engolfer. Originally of seas, whirlpools, etc.; by 1711 of fire and other mediums. Figurative use from 1590s. Related: Engulfed; engulfing.
enhance (v.) Look up enhance at Dictionary.com
late 13c., anhaunsen "to raise, make higher," from Anglo-French enhauncer, probably from Old French enhaucier "make greater, make higher or louder; fatten, foster; raise in esteem," from Vulgar Latin *inaltiare, from Late Latin inaltare "raise, exalt," from altare "make high," from altus "high" (see old). Meaning "raise in station, wealth, or fame" attested in English from c. 1300. Related: Enhanced; enhancing.

The -h- in Old French supposedly is from influence of Frankish *hoh "high." The -n- perhaps is due to association with Provençal enansar, enanzar "promote, further," from enant "before, rather," from Latin in + ante "before."
enhancement (n.) Look up enhancement at Dictionary.com
1570s, from enhance + -ment.
enharmonic (adj.) Look up enharmonic at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, in reference to Greek music, from Late Latin enharmonicus, from Greek enharmonikos, from en (see en- (2)) + harmonikos (see harmonic). From 1794 in reference to a modern music note that can be indicated in different ways (G sharp/A flat).
ENIAC Look up ENIAC at Dictionary.com
acronym from "electronic numeral integrator and computer," device built 1946 at University of Pennsylvania by John W. Mauchly Jr., J. Presper Eckert Jr., and J.G. Brainerd. It cost $400,000, used 18,000 radio tubes, and was housed in a 30-foot-by-50-foot room.
Enid Look up Enid at Dictionary.com
fem. proper name, from Middle Welsh eneit, "purity," literally "soul," from PIE *ane-tyo-, suffixed form of root *ane- "to breathe" (see animus).
enigma (n.) Look up enigma at Dictionary.com
1530s, "statement which conceals a hidden meaning or known thing under obscure words or forms," earlier enigmate (mid-15c.), from Latin aenigma "riddle," from Greek ainigma (plural ainigmata) "a dark saying, riddle," from ainissesthai "speak obscurely, speak in riddles," from ainos "tale, story; saying, proverb;" according to Liddell & Scott, a poetic and Ionic word, of unknown origin. General sense in English of "anything inexplicable to an observer" is from c. 1600.
enigmatic (adj.) Look up enigmatic at Dictionary.com
1640s, from Late Latin aenigmaticus, from aenigmat-, stem of aenigma (see enigma). Enigmatical in the same sense is from 1570s. Related: Enigmatically.
enisle (v.) Look up enisle at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from en- (1) "in, into" + isle (n.).
enjambment (n.) Look up enjambment at Dictionary.com
also enjambement, 1837, from French enjambement or from enjamb (c. 1600), from French enjamber "to stride over," from en- (see en- (1)) + jambe "leg" (see jamb).
enjoin (v.) Look up enjoin at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, engoinen, "to prescribe, impose" (penance, etc.), from stem of Old French enjoindre (12c.) "impose (on), inflict; subject to; assign (to)," from Latin iniungere "to join, fasten, attach;" figuratively "to inflict, to attack, impose," from in- "on" (see in- (2)) + iungere "to join" (see jugular). Related: Enjoined; enjoining.
enjoy (v.) Look up enjoy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "rejoice, be glad" (intransitive), from stem of Old French enjoir "to give joy, rejoice, take delight in," from en- "make" (see en- (1)) + joir "enjoy," from Latin gaudere "rejoice" (see joy); Sense of "have the use or benefit of" first recorded early 15c. (replacing Old English brucan, for which see brook (v.)).

Transitive meaning "take pleasure in" is mid-15c. In modern use it has a tendency to lose its connection with pleasure: newspaper photo captions say someone enjoys an ice cream cone, etc., when all she is doing is eating it, and Wright's "English Dialect Dictionary" (1900) reports widespread use in north and west England of the phrase to enjoy bad health for one who has ailments. Meaning "have sexual relations with" (a woman) is from 1590s. Related: Enjoyed; enjoys; enjoying. To enjoy oneself "feel pleasure or satisfaction in one's mind" attested by 1708.
enjoyable (adj.) Look up enjoyable at Dictionary.com
1640s, "capable of being enjoyed," from enjoy + -able. Meaning "affording pleasure" is from 1744. Related: Enjoyably; enjoyableness.
enjoyment (n.) Look up enjoyment at Dictionary.com
1550s, "state of enjoying," from enjoy + -ment. As "that which gives pleasure" from 1732.
enkindle (v.) Look up enkindle at Dictionary.com
1540s (literal), 1580s (figurative), from en- (1) + kindle. Related: Enkindled; enkindling.
enlace (v.) Look up enlace at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "connect, involve, entangle," from Old French enlacer "trap, ensnare, capture," from Late Latin *inlaciare, from in- (see in- (2)) + *lacius, from Latin laqueus "noose" (see lace (n.)). Related: Enlaced; enlacing.
enlarge (v.) Look up enlarge at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "grow fat, increase" (intrans.); c. 1400, "make larger" (trans.), from Old French enlargier "to widen, increase, make larger," from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + large (see large). Meaning "expand in words, speak at large" is from 1650s. Related: Enlarged; enlarging.
enlargement (n.) Look up enlargement at Dictionary.com
1530s, "a release from confinement," from enlarge in the secondary Middle English sense "release a prisoner" (mid-15c.) + -ment. Meaning "act of increasing in size" is from 1560s. Photographic sense "picture of a larger size than the negative from which it was made" is from 1866.
enlighten (v.) Look up enlighten at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "to remove the dimness or blindness" (usually figurative, from one's eyes or heart); see en- (1) + lighten. From 1660s as "supply with intellectual light." Literal senses are later and less common in English: "put light in" is from 1580s; "shed light upon" is from 1610s. Related: Enlightened; enlightening. Old English had inlihtan "to illuminate, enlighten."
enlightened (adj.) Look up enlightened at Dictionary.com
1630s, "illuminated;" 1660s in the sense "well-informed;" past participle adjective from enlighten.
enlightenment (n.) Look up enlightenment at Dictionary.com
1660s, "action of enlightening," from enlighten + -ment. Used only in figurative sense, of spiritual enlightenment, etc. Attested from 1865 as a translation of German Aufklärung, a name for the spirit of independent thought and rationalistic system of 18c. Continental philosophers.
For the philosophes, man was not a sinner, at least not by nature; human nature -- and this argument was subversive, in fact revolutionary, in their day -- is by origin good, or at least neutral. Despite the undeniable power of man's antisocial passions, therefore, the individual may hope for improvement through his own efforts -- through education, participation in politics, activity in behalf of reform, but not through prayer. [Peter Gay, "The Enlightenment"]
enlist (v.) Look up enlist at Dictionary.com
also inlist, 1690s (trans.), 1753 (intrans.), from en- (1) "make, put in" + list (n.). Possibly suggested by Dutch inlijsten "to write on a list." Related: Enlisted; enlisting.
enlistment (n.) Look up enlistment at Dictionary.com
1758, from enlist + -ment.
enliven (v.) Look up enliven at Dictionary.com
1630s, "give life to," from en- (1) "make, put in" + live for life + -en (1). Meaning "make lively or cheerful" is from 1690s. Related: Enlivened; enlivening. Enlive in same sense is from 1590s. A noun, enlivement, is recorded from 1877.
enmesh (v.) Look up enmesh at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from en- (1) "put in" + mesh (v.). Related: Enmeshed; enmeshing.
enmity (n.) Look up enmity at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "hostile feeling, rivalry, malice; internal conflict," from Old French enemite, variant of enemistié "enmity, hostile act, aversion" (Modern French inimité), from Vulgar Latin *inimicitatem (nominative *inimicitas), from Latin inimicitia "enmity, hostility," usually plural, from inimicus "enemy" (see enemy). Related: Enmities. Amity is basically the same word without the negative prefix.
ennead (n.) Look up ennead at Dictionary.com
"group of nine things," 1650s, from Greek enneas (genitive enneados) "group of nine," from ennea "nine" (see nine). Especially in reference to the divisions of Porphyry's collection of the neo-Platonic doctrines of Plotinus. Related: enneadic.
ennoble (v.) Look up ennoble at Dictionary.com
late 15c., "refine, impart a higher character to" (implied in ennobled), from Middle French ennoblir; see en- (1) + noble (adj.). Sense of "give noble rank to" is from 1590s. Related: Ennobler; ennobling.
ennui (n.) Look up ennui at Dictionary.com
1660s as a French word in English; nativized by 1758; from French ennui, from Old French enui "annoyance" (13c.), back-formation from enuier (see annoy). Hence ennuyé (adj.) "afflicted with ennui," and thence ennuyée (n.) for a woman so afflicted.
So far as frequency of use is concerned, the word might be regarded as fully naturalized; but the pronunciation has not been anglicized, there being in fact no Eng. analogy which could serve as a guide. [OED]
Enoch Look up Enoch at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, in Old Testament eldest son of Cain, father of Methuselah, from Latin Enoch, from Greek Enokh, from Hebrew Hanokh, literally "dedicated, consecrated," from hanakh "he dedicated," whence also Hanukkah. Related: Enochian.
enoptomancy (n.) Look up enoptomancy at Dictionary.com
divination by means of a mirror, 1855, from Greek enoptos, literally "seen in," from en- "in" (see in) + optos "seen, visible" (see optic) + -mancy.
enormious (adj.) Look up enormious at Dictionary.com
see enormous.
enormity (n.) Look up enormity at Dictionary.com
late 15c., "transgression, crime; irregularity," from Old French enormité "extravagance, atrocity, heinous sin," from Latin enormitatem (nominative enormitas) "hugeness, vastness; irregularity," from enormis "irregular, huge" (see enormous). Meaning "extreme wickedness" in English attested from 1560s. The notion is of that which surpasses the endurable limits of order, right, decency. Sense of "hugeness" (1765 in English) is etymological but to prevent misunderstanding probably best avoided in favor of enormousness, though this, too, originally meant "immeasurable wickedness" (1718) and didn't start to mean "hugeness" until c. 1800.
enormous (adj.) Look up enormous at Dictionary.com
1530s, "abnormal" (usually in a bad sense), from Latin enormis "out of rule, irregular, shapeless; extraordinary, very large," from assimilated form of ex- "out of" (see ex-) + norma "rule, norm" (see norm), with English -ous substituted for Latin -is. Meaning "extraordinary in size" is attested from 1540s; original sense of "outrageous" is more clearly preserved in enormity. Earlier was enormyous (mid-15c.) "exceedingly great, monstrous." Related: Enormously; enormousness.
Enos Look up Enos at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, in Old Testament the son of Seth, from Greek Enos, from Hebrew Enosh, literally "man" (compare nashim "women," Arabic ins "men, people").