- encomienda (n.)
- 1810, from Spanish, "commission," from encomendar "to commit, charge." Estate granted to a Spaniard in America with powers to tax the Indians.
- encomium (n.)
- 1580s, from Late Latin encomium, from Greek enkomion (epos) "laudatory (ode), eulogy," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + komos "banquet, procession, merrymaking" (see comedy).
- encompass (v.)
- 1550s, from en- (1) "make, put in" + compass. Related: Encompassed; encompasses; encompassing.
- encore (interj.)
- 1712, from French encore "still, yet, again" (12c.), generally explained as being from Vulgar Latin phrase *hinc ad horam "from then to this hour" (Italian ancora "again, still, yet" is said to be a French loan-word).
Whenever any Gentlemen are particularly pleased with a Song, at their crying out Encore ... the Performer is so obliging as to sing it over again. [Steele, "Spectator" No. 314, 1712]
As a noun, from 1763; as a verb, from 1748.
There appears to be no evidence that either the Fr. or It. word was ever similarly used in its native country. The corresponding word both in Fr. and It. is bis; in It. da capo was formerly used. [OED]
- encounter (n.)
- c.1300, "meeting of adversaries, confrontation," from Old French encontre "meeting; fight; opportunity," noun use of preposition/adverb encontre "against, counter to" from Late Latin incontra "in front of," from Latin in- "in" (see in- (2)) + contra "against" (see contra). Modern use of the word in psychology is from 1967, from the work of U.S. psychologist Carl Rogers (1902-1987). Encounter group attested from 1967.
- encounter (v.)
- c.1300, "to meet as an adversary," from Old French encontrer "confront," from encontre (see encounter (n.). Weakened sense of "casually meet" first recorded in English early 16c. Related: Encountered; encountering.
- encourage (v.)
- early 15c., from Old French encoragier "make strong, hearten," from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + corage (see courage). Related: Encouraged; encouraging.
- encouragement (n.)
- 1560s, from encourage + -ment, or from Middle French encoragement.
As a general rule, Providence seldom vouchsafes to mortals any more than just that degree of encouragement which suffices to keep them at a reasonably full exertion of their powers. [Hawthorne, "House of Seven Gables"]
- encroach (v.)
- early 14c., "acquire, get," from Old French encrochier "seize, fasten on, hang on (to), cling (to); hang up, suspend," literally "to catch with a hook," from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + croc "hook," from Old Norse krokr "hook" (see crook). Meaning "seize wrongfully" is from c.1400. Sense of "trespass" is first recorded 1530s. Related: Encroached; encroaches; encroaching.
- encroachment (n.)
- 1520s, from encroach + -ment. In Anglo-French from mid-15c.
- encrust (v.)
- 1640s, from French incruster, from Latin incrustare "to cover with crust," from in- (see in- (2)) + crusta (see crust). Related: Encrusted; encrusting.
- encrypt (v.)
- 1975 in computer sense, from en- (1) + crypt (see crypto-). Related: Encrypted; encrypting; encryption.
- enculturation (n.)
- 1948 (Herskovits), from en- (1) +
culturation (compare acculturation).
- encumber (v.)
- early 14c., "burden, vex, inconvenience," from Old French encombrer "to block up, hinder, thwart," from Late Latin incombrare, from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + combrus "barricade, obstacle," probably from Latin cumulus "heap." Meaning "hinder, hamper" is attested in English from late 14c. Related: Encumbered; encumbering.
- encumbrance (n.)
- early 14c., from Old French encombrance, from encombrer (see encumber).
- encyclical (adj.)
- in reference to a letter sent by the Pope to all the bishops, 1640s, from Late Latin encyclicus, from Latin encyclius, from Greek enkyklios "in a circle, circular" (see encyclopedia). As a noun, from 1837.
- encyclopaedia (n.)
- see encyclopedia. The Latin spelling survives as a variant because many of the most prominent ones (such as Britannica) have Latin names.
- encyclopedia (n.)
- 1530s, "course of instruction," from Modern Latin encyclopaedia (c.1500), thought to be a false reading by Latin authors of Greek enkyklios paideia taken as "general education," but literally "training in a circle," i.e. the "circle" of arts and sciences, the essentials of a liberal education; from enkyklios "circular," also "general" (from en "in" + kyklos "circle") + paideia "education, child-rearing," from pais (genitive paidos) "child" (see pedo-).
Modern sense of "reference work arranged alphabetically" is from 1640s, often applied specifically to the French "Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des Sciences, des Arts, et des Métiers" (1751-65).
- encyclopedic (adj.)
- 1824, from encyclopedia + -ic.
- end (n.)
- Old English ende "end, conclusion, boundary, district, species, class," from Proto-Germanic *andja (cognates: Old Frisian enda, Old Dutch ende, Dutch einde, Old Norse endir "end;" Old High German enti "top, forehead, end," German ende, Gothic andeis "end"), originally "the opposite side," from PIE *antjo "end, boundary," from root *ant- "opposite, in front of, before" (see ante).
Original sense of "outermost part" is obsolete except in phrase ends of the earth. Sense of "destruction, death" was in Old English. Meaning "division or quarter of a town" was in Old English. The end "the last straw, the limit" (in a disparaging sense) is from 1929.
The phrase end run is first attested 1902 in U.S. football; extended to military tactics in World War II; general figurative sense is from 1968. End time in reference to the end of the world is from 1917. To end it all "commit suicide" is attested by 1911. Be-all and end-all is from Shakespeare ("Macbeth" I.vii.5).
Worldly wealth he cared not for, desiring onely to make both ends meet. [Thomas Fuller, "The History of the Worthies of England," 1662]
- end (v.)
- Old English endian, from the source of end (n.). Related: Ended; ending.
- endanger (v.)
- late 15c., from en- (1) "make, put in" + danger. Related: Endangered; endangering. Endangered species first recorded 1964.
- endangerment (n.)
- 1640s, from endanger + -ment.
- endear (v.)
- 1580s, "to enhance the value of," also "win the affection of," from en- (1) "make, put in" + dear (adj.). Meaning "to make dear" is from 1640s. Related: Endeared; endearing.
- endearing (adj.)
- 1660s, present participle adjective from endear. Related: Endearingly.
- endearment (n.)
- "act of endearing," 1610s, from endear + -ment. Meaning "obligation of gratitude" is from 1620s; that of "action expressive of love" is from 1702.
- endeavor (n.)
- early 15c., "pains taken to attain an object," literally "in duty," from phrase put (oneself) in dever "make it one's duty" (a partial translation of Old French mettre en deveir "put in duty"), from Old French dever "duty," from Latin debere "to owe" (see debt). One's endeavors meaning one's "utmost effort" is from late 15c.
- endeavor (v.)
- c.1400; see endeavor (n.). Related: Endeavored; endeavoring.
- chiefly British English spelling of endeavor (q.v.); for spelling, see -or. Related: Endeavoured; endeavoring; endeavours.
- ended (adj.)
- "finished, completed," 1590s, past participle adjective from end (v.).
- endemic (n.)
- 1660s, from Greek endemos "native, dwelling in (a place), of or belonging to a people" (from en "in;" see en- (2) + demos "people, district;" see demotic) + -ic. From 1759 as an adjective. Endemical is attested from 1650s.
- endgame (n.)
- 1884, from chess, from end + game (n.). There is no formal or exact definition of it in chess, but it begins when most of the pieces have been cleared from the board.
- ending (n.)
- "a coming to an end," Old English endunge, verbal noun from end (v.).
- endive (n.)
- late 14c., from Old French endive (14c.), from Medieval Latin endivia or a related Romanic source, from Latin intibus. Probably connected in some way with Medieval Greek entybon, which Klein says is perhaps of Eastern origin (compare Egyptian tybi "January," the time the plant grows in Egypt).
- endless (adj.)
- Old English endeleas; see end (n.) + -less. Related: Endlessly. Old English used endeleasnes for "infinity, eternity."
- endlong (adv.)
- Old English andlang "from end to end, lengthwise" (see along) with Middle English substitution of ende (see end (n.)) for first element. Meaning "at full length, horizontally" is from early 15c. In Middle English frequently paired with overthwart and together meaning "lengthwise and crosswise," hence "in all directions." As a preposition c.1200.
- word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," comb. form of Greek endon "in, within," literally "in the house of," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + base of domos "house" (see domestic).
- endocrine (adj.)
- "secretly, internally," 1914, from endo- + Latinized form of Greek krinein "to separate, distinguish" (see crisis).
- endocrinology (n.)
- 1919, from endocrine + -ology. Related: Endocrinologist.
- endoderm (n.)
- 1835, from endo- + -derm. Coined by Prussian embryologist Robert Remak (1815-1865).
- endogamy (n.)
- 1865, from endogamous (1865); for which see endo- + gamete.
- endogenous (adj.)
- 1830, from endo- "within" + -genous "producing."
- endometrium (n.)
- 1882, medical Latin, from endo- + Greek metra "uterus," related to meter (see mother (n.1)).
- endomorph (n.)
- 1940 as one of W.H. Sheldon's three types of human bodies, from endo- + Greek morphe "form" (see Morpheus). Related: Endomorphic.
- endorphin (n.)
- 1975, from French endorphine, from endogène "endogenous, growing within" (see endo- + genus) + (mo)rphine.
- endorse (v.)
- late 14c. endosse "alteration," from Old French endosser (12c.), literally "to put on back," from en- "put on" (see en- (1)) + dos "back," from Latin dossum, variant of dorsum.
Sense of "confirm, approve" (by signing on the back) is recorded in English first in 1847. Assimilated 16c. in form to Medieval Latin indorsare. Related: Endorsed; endorsing.
You can endorse, literally, a cheque or other papers, &, metaphorically, a claim or argument, but to talk of endorsing material things other than papers is a solecism. [Fowler]
- endorsement (n.)
- 1540s, from endorse + -ment. Earlier endosement (early 15c.).
- endoscopy (n.)
- 1861, from endo- + -oscopy (see -scope).
- endoskeleton (n.)
- 1838, from endo- + skeleton.
- endosperm (n.)
- 1819, perhaps from German, from endo- + sperm.