demure (adj.) Look up demure at
late 14c. (early 14c. as a surname), from Old French meur "mature, fully grown, ripe," hence "discreet," from Latin maturus "mature" (see mature (v.)) [OED]. The de- in this word is of uncertain meaning. Or possibly from Anglo-French demuré (Old French demoré), past participle of demorer "stay," and influenced by meur [Barnhart]. Or from Old French de (bon) murs "of good manners," from murs (Modern French moeurs) [Klein].
demurrage (n.) Look up demurrage at
1640s, from Old French demorage, from demorer (see demur).
demurrer (n.) Look up demurrer at
legal pleading, 1530s, from Anglo-French demurrer, Old French demorer "to delay, retard" (see demur).
demystify (v.) Look up demystify at
1963; see de- + mystify. Related: Demystified; demystifying.
den (n.) Look up den at
Old English denn "wild animal's lair," from Proto-Germanic *danjan (cognates: Middle Low German denne "lowland, wooded vale, den," Old English denu "valley," Old Frisian dene "down," Old High German tenni, German tenne "threshing floor," from PIE *dan- "low ground"). Sense of "small room" is 1771, originally colloquial.
denarius (n.) Look up denarius at
ancient Roman silver coin, 1570s, from Latin denarius, noun use of adjective meaning "containing ten," and short for denarius nummus "the coin containing ten (aces)," from deni- "by tens," from decem "ten" (see ten).
denationalize (v.) Look up denationalize at
1807, "to deprive of nationality," from French dénationaliser (said in contemporary English publications to have been coined by Napoleon Buonaparte; denapoleonize was coined shortly thereafter); see de- + nationalize. Meaning "to transfer from national to private ownership" recorded from 1921. Related: Denationalized; denationalization.
denaturation (n.) Look up denaturation at
1845, earlier in French and German; see denature + -ation.
denature (v.) Look up denature at
1878, in modern sense, from French dénaturer (Old French desnaturer "change the nature of; make unnatural"); see de- + nature. Earlier "to make unnatural" (1680s). Related: Denatured.
dendrite (n.) Look up dendrite at
mid-18c., from Greek dendrites "of or pertaining to a tree," from dendron "tree" (see dendro-). The mineral so called for its markings.
dendritic (adj.) Look up dendritic at
1816; see dendrite + -ic.
dendro- Look up dendro- at
word-forming element meaning "tree," from Greek dendro-, comb. form of dendron "tree," sometimes especially "fruit tree" (as opposed to hyle "timber"), from PIE *der-drew-, from root *deru- "to be firm, solid, steadfast," specifically used for "wood, tree" (see tree (n.)).
dendrochronology (n.) Look up dendrochronology at
"dating by tree rings," 1928; see dendro- + chronology.
dendrology (n.) Look up dendrology at
1708, from dendro- + -ology.
dene (n.2) Look up dene at
"bare, sandy tract by the sea," late 13c., of uncertain origin, perhaps connected to dune, but the sense difference is difficult.
dene (n.1) Look up dene at
"small valley," from Old English denu "valley" (see den).
Deneb Look up Deneb at
bright star in the tail of the constellation Cygnus the Swan, 1741, from Arabic Al Dhanab al Dajajah "the Hen's Tail."
Denebola Look up Denebola at
second-brightest star in Leo, from Latinized corruption of Arabic dhanab al-(asad) "tail of the lion." In 18c., often simply Deneb.
dengue (n.) Look up dengue at
1828, from West Indian Spanish dengue, from an African source, perhaps Swahili dinga "seizure, cramp," form influenced by Spanish dengue "prudery" (perhaps because sufferers walk stiffly and erect due to painful joints). The disease is African, introduced to the West Indies 1827.
denial (n.) Look up denial at
1520s; see deny + -al (2). Replaced earlier denyance (mid-15c.). Meaning "unconscious suppression of painful or embarrassing feelings" first attested 1914 in A.A. Brill's translation of Freud's "Psychopathology of Everyday Life"; phrase in denial popularized 1980s.
denier (n.) Look up denier at
French coin, early 15c., from Old French dener, a small coin of slight value, roughly equivalent to the English penny, in use in France from the time of Charlemagne to early modern times, from Latin denarium, from denarius, name of a Roman coin (source also of Spanish dinero; see denarius).
denigrate (v.) Look up denigrate at
1520s, from Latin denigratus, past participle of denigrare "to blacken, defame," from de- "completely" (see de-) + nigr-, stem of niger "black" (see Negro). which is of unknown origin. "Apparently disused in 18th c. and revived in 19th c." [OED]. Related: Denigrated; denigrating.
denigration (n.) Look up denigration at
early 15c., from Late Latin denigrationem (nominative denigratio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin denigrare (see denigrate).
denim (n.) Look up denim at
1690s, from French serge de Nîmes "serge from Nîmes," town in southern France. Application to "coarse cotton cloth" is first recorded 1850 in American English. Denims "pants made of denim" recorded from 1868. The place name is Roman Nemausus, said to be ultimately from Gaulish nemo "sanctuary."
Denise Look up Denise at
fem. form of masc. proper name Dennis. Little used in U.S. before 1920s; was at its most popular (top 50) for girls born between 1951 and 1973.
denitrification (n.) Look up denitrification at
1883; see de- + nitrification. Related: Denitrate; denitrify.
denizen (n.) Look up denizen at
early 15c., from Anglo-French deinzein, from deinz "within, inside," from Late Latin deintus, from de- "from" + intus "within" (see ento-). Historically, an alien admitted to certain rights of citizenship; a naturalized citizen.
Denmark Look up Denmark at
from Dane, the people's name, + Danish mark "border" (see mark (n.1)).
Dennis Look up Dennis at
masc. proper name, from French Denis, ultimately from Latin Dionysius, name of an important 6c. Church father, from Greek Dionysos, god of wine and revelry.
denominate (v.) Look up denominate at
1550s, from Latin denominatus, past participle of denominare "to name" (see denomination). Related: Denominated; denominating.
denomination (n.) Look up denomination at
late 14c., "a naming, act of giving a name to," from Old French denominacion "nominating, naming," from Latin denominationem (nominative denominatio) "a calling by anything other than the proper name, metonymy," from denominare "to name," from de- "completely" (see de-) + nominare "to name" (see nominate). Meaning "a class" is from mid-15c. Monetary sense is 1650s; meaning "religious sect" is 1716.
denominational (adj.) Look up denominational at
1838; see denomination + -al (1).
denominative (adj.) Look up denominative at
early 15c., "in name only," from Late Latin denominativus, from Latin denominatus (see denominate).
denominator (n.) Look up denominator at
1540s, in mathematics, from Medieval Latin denominator, agent noun from past participle stem of denominare (see denomination).
denotate (v.) Look up denotate at
1590s, from past participle stem of Latin denotare (see denote). Related: Denotated; denotating.
denotation (n.) Look up denotation at
1530s, "indication," from Late Latin denotationem (nominative denotatio), noun of action from past participle stem of denotare (see denote). As a term in logic, from 1843 (contrasted with connotation).
denotative (adj.) Look up denotative at
1610s, from Latin denotat-, past participle stem of denotare (see denote) + -ive.
denote (v.) Look up denote at
1590s, from Middle French dénoter (14c.), from Latin denotare "denote, mark out," from de- "completely" (see de-) + notare "to mark" (see note (v.)). Related: Denoted; denoting.
denouement (n.) Look up denouement at
1752, from French dénouement "an untying" (of plot), from dénouer "untie" (Old French desnouer) from des- "un-, out" (see dis-) + nouer "to tie, knot," from Latin nodus "a knot," from PIE *ned- "to bind, tie" (see net (n.)).
denounce (v.) Look up denounce at
early 14c., "announce," from Old French denoncier (12c., Modern French dénoncer), from Latin denuntiare "to announce, proclaim; denounce, menace; command, order," from de- "down" + nuntiare "proclaim, announce," from nuntius "messenger" (see nuncio). Negative sense in English via meaning "to declare or proclaim" something as cursed, excommunicated, forgiven, removed from office. Related: Denounced; denouncing.
dense (adj.) Look up dense at
early 15c., from Middle French dense and directly from Latin densus "thick, crowded; cloudy," perhaps from PIE root *dens- "dense, thick" (cognates: Greek dasus "hairy, shaggy"). Sense of "stupid" is first recorded 1822.
density (n.) Look up density at
c. 1600, from French densité (16c.), from Old French dempsité (13c.), from Latin densitas "thickness," from densus "thick, dense" (see dense).
dent (n.) Look up dent at
early 14c., "a strike or blow," dialectal variant of Middle English dint (q.v.); sense of "indentation" first recorded 1560s, apparently influenced by indent.
dent (v.) Look up dent at
late 14c., from dent (n.). Related: Dented; denting.
dental (adj.) Look up dental at
1590s, from Middle French dental "of teeth" or Medieval Latin dentalis, from Latin dens (genitive dentis) "tooth," from PIE root *dent- (see tooth).
dentifrice (n.) Look up dentifrice at
early 15c., from Middle French dentifrice (15c.), from Latin dentifricium "powder for rubbing the teeth," from dens (genitive dentis) "tooth" (see tooth) + fricare "to rub" (see friction).
dentin (n.) Look up dentin at
also dentine, the hard substance in teeth, 1836, from comb. form of Latin dens (genitive dentis) "tooth" (see tooth) + chemical suffix -in (2).
dentist (n.) Look up dentist at
1759, from French dentiste, from dent "tooth," from Latin dens (see tooth) + -ist.
Dentist figures it now in our newspapers, and may do well enough for a French puffer, but we fancy Rutter is content with being called a tooth-drawer ["Edinburgh Chronicle," Sept. 15, 1759].
Tooth-drawer is attested from late 14c.
dentistry (n.) Look up dentistry at
1838; see dentist + -ry.
dentition (n.) Look up dentition at
1610s, "teething, the cutting of teeth," from Latin dentitionem (nominative dentitio) "teething," noun of action from past participle stem of dentire "to cut the teeth," from dentem (nominative dens) "tooth" (see tooth). Meaning "arrangement of teeth" is from 1849.