caraway (n.)
late 13c., from Old Spanish alcarahuaya, alcaravea, from Arabic al-karawiya, which is of unknown origin but suspected to be somehow from Greek karon "cumin." Also as Anglo-Latin carvi, Old French carvi.
carb (n.)
1942 as an abbreviation of carburetor; c. 2000 as short for carbohydrate.
carbide (n.)
compound formed by combination of carbon and another element, 1848, from carb-, comb. form of carbon + chemical suffix -ide. The earlier word was carburet.
carbine (n.)
short rifle, 1580s, from French carabine (Middle French carabin), used of light horsemen and also of the weapon they carried, of uncertain origin, perhaps from Medieval Latin Calabrinus "Calabrian" (i.e., "rifle made in Calabria"). A less-likely theory (Gamillscheg, etc.) connects it to Old French escarrabin "corpse-bearer during the plague," literally (probably) "carrion beetle," said to have been an epithet for archers from Flanders.
carbo-
before vowels carb-, word-forming element meaning "carbon," abstracted 1810 from carbon.
carbohydrate (n.)
1851, from carbo-, comb. form of carbon, + hydrate (n.), denoting compound produced when certain substances combine with water, from Greek hydor "water" (from suffixed form of PIE root *wed- (1) "water; wet").
The name carbohydrate was given to these compounds because, in composition, they are apparently hydrates of carbon. In structure, however, they are far more complex. [Flood]
carbolic (adj.)
1836, from carb-, combining form of carbon + -ol "oil" + -ic.
carbon (n.)
non-metallic element, 1789, coined 1787 in French by Lavoisier as charbone, from Latin carbonem (nominative carbo) "a coal, glowing coal; charcoal," from PIE root *ker- (4) "heat, fire, to burn" (source also of Latin cremare "to burn;" Sanskrit kudayati "singes;" Lithuanian kuriu "to heat," karštas "hot," krosnis "oven;" Old Church Slavonic kurjo "to smoke," krada "fireplace, hearth;" Russian ceren "brazier;" Old High German harsta "roasting;" Gothic hauri "coal;" Old Norse hyrr "fire;" Old English heorð "hearth").

Carbon 14, long-lived radioactive isotope used in dating organic deposits, is from 1936. Carbon dating (using carbon 14) is recorded from 1958. Carbon cycle is attested from 1912. Carbon footprint was in use by 2001. Carbon paper (soon to be obsolete) is from 1895.
carbon copy (n.)
1895, from carbon (paper) + copy (n.). A copy on paper made using carbon paper. The figurative sense is from 1944. Also as a verb, "send a carbon copy (of something)," and as such often abbreviated c.c.
carbon dioxide (n.)
1869, so called because it consists of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. The chemical was known since mid-18c. under the name fixed air; later as carbonic acid gas (1791). "The term dioxide for an oxide containing two atoms of oxygen came into use in the middle of the 19th century." [Flood].
carbon monoxide (n.)
1869, so called because it consists of one carbon and one oxygen atom (as opposed to carbon dioxide, which has two of the latter). An older name for it was carbonic oxide gas.
carbonate (n.)
1794, from French carbonate "salt of carbonic acid" (Lavoisier), from Modern Latin carbonatem "a carbonated (substance)," from Latin carbo (see carbon).
carbonate (v.)
1805, "to form into a carbonate," from carbonate (n.) by influence of French carbonater "transform into a carbonate." Meaning "to impregnate with carbonic acid gas (i.e. carbon dioxide)" is from 1850s. Related: Carbonated; carbonating.
carbonated (adj.)
"containing carbon dioxide," 1858, past participle adjective from carbonate (v.).
carbonation (n.)
1881, from carbonic acid, an old name for carbon dioxide (see carbonate (n.)) + -ation.
Carboniferous (adj.)
1830 with reference the geological period, from a word formed in English in 1799 to mean "coal-bearing," from Latin carbo (genitive carbonis) "coal" (see carbon) + -ferous "producing, containing, bearing," from ferre "to bear," from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry," also "to bear children." The great coal beds of Europe were laid down during this period. As a stand-alone noun (short for Carboniferous Period) from 1940s.
Carborundum (n.)
silicon carbide used as an abrasive, (reg. trademark U.S. June 21, 1892, by Carborundum Co. of Monongahela City, Pa.), from carbon + corundum.
carboy (n.)
"large globular bottle covered with basketwork," 1753, probably ultimately from Persian qarabah "large flagon."
carbs (n.)
see carb.
carbuncle (n.)
early 13c., "fiery jewel," from Old North French carbuncle (Old French charbocle, charboncle) "carbuncle-stone," also "carbuncle, boil," from Latin carbunculus "red gem," also "red, inflamed spot," literally "a little coal," from carbo (genitive carbonis) "coal" (see carbon). Originally of rubies, garnets, and other red jewels; in English the word was applied to tumors from late 14c.
carbuncular (adj.)
1737, from Latin carbunculus (see carbuncle) + -ar.
carburetor (n.)
device to enhance a gas flame, 1866, from carburet "compound of carbon and another substance" (1795, now displaced by carbide), also used as a verb, "to combine with carbon" (1802); from carb-, comb. form of carbon, + -uret, an archaic suffix formed from Modern Latin -uretum to parallel French words in -ure. Motor vehicle sense is from 1896.
carcass (n.)
late 13c., from Anglo-French carcois, from or influenced by Old French charcois (Modern French carcasse) "trunk of a body, chest, carcass," and Anglo-Latin carcosium "dead body," all of uncertain origin. Not used of humans after c. 1750, except contemptuously. Italian carcassa probably is a French loan word.
carceral (adj.)
"pertaining to prisons or a prison," 1570s, from Latin carceralis, from carcer "prison, jail; starting place in a race course" (see incarceration).
carcinogen (n.)
"cancer-causing substance," 1853, from carcinoma + -gen.
carcinogenic (adj.)
1926, from carcinogen + -ic.
carcinoma (n.)
"malignant tumor," 1721, from Latin carcinoma, from Greek karkinoma "a cancer," from karkinos "cancer," literally "crab" (see cancer) + -oma.
card (n.1)
c. 1400, "playing card," from Middle French carte (14c.), from Latin charta "leaf of paper, tablet," from Greek khartes "layer of papyrus," probably from Egyptian. Form influenced after 14c. by Italian carta (see chart (n.)).

Sense of "playing cards" also is oldest in French. Sense in English extended by 1590s to similar small, flat, stiff bits of paper. Meaning "printed ornamental greetings for special occasions" is from 1869. Application to clever or original persons (1836, originally with an adjective, as in smart card) is from the playing-card sense, via expressions such as sure card "an expedient certain to attain an object" (c. 1560).

Card table is from 1713. Card-sharper is 1859. House of cards in the figurative sense is from 1640s, first attested in Milton. To have a card up (one's) sleeve is 1898; to play the _______ card is from 1886, originally the Orange card, meaning "appeal to Northern Irish Protestant sentiment (for political advantage)."
card (v.1)
"to comb wool," late 14c., from card (n.2) or else from Old French carder, from Old Provençal cardar "to card," from Vulgar Latin *caritare, from Latin carrere "to clean or comb with a card," perhaps from PIE root *kars- "to scrape" (see harsh). Related: Carded; carding.
card (v.2)
1540s, "to play cards" (now obsolete), from card (n.1). From 1925 as "to write (something) on a card for filing." Meaning "require (someone) to show ID" is from 1970s. Related: Carded; carding.
card (n.2)
"machine for combing," late 14c. (mid-14c. in surname Cardmaker), from Old French carde "card, teasel," from Old Provençal cardo or some other Romanic source (compare Spanish and Italian carda "thistle, tease, card," back-formation from cardar "to card" (see card (v.1)). The English word probably also comes via Anglo-Latin cardo, from Medieval Latin carda "a teasel," from Latin carduus.
card-carrying (adj.)
1948, used frequently during Cold War in U.S. (typically in reference to official membership in the communist party), from card (n.1) + present participle of carry (v.).
cardamom (n.)
1550s, from French cardamome, from Latin cardamomum, from Greek kardamomon, from kardamon "cress" (which is of unknown origin) + amomon "spice plant." The word was in English from late 14c. in Latin form.
cardboard (n.)
1848, from card (n.) + board (n.1). Figurative sense is from 1893. An earlier word for the same stuff was card paper (1777).
cardiac (adj.)
c. 1600, from French cardiaque (14c.) or directly from Latin cardiacus, from Greek kardiakos "pertaining to the heart," from kardia "heart," from PIE root *kerd- "heart." Cardiac arrest is attested from 1950.

Greek kardia also could mean "stomach" and Latin cardiacus "pertaining to the stomach." This terminology continues somewhat in modern medicine. Confusion of heart and nearby digestive organs also is reflected in Breton kalon "heart," from Old French cauldun "bowels," and English heartburn for "indigestion."
cardigan (n.)
1868, from James Thomas Brudenell (1797-1868), 7th Earl of Cardigan, English general distinguished in the Crimean War, who set the style, in one account supposedly wearing such a jacket while leading the Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaclava (1854). The place name is an Englishing of Welsh Ceredigion, literally "Ceredig's land." Ceredig lived 5c.
cardinal (n.)
early 12c., "one of the ecclesiastical princes who constitute the sacred college" (short for cardinalis ecclesiae Romanae or episcopus cardinalis), from Latin cardinalis "principal, chief, essential" (see cardinal (adj.)).

Ecclesiastical use began for the presbyters of the chief (cardinal) churches of Rome. The North American songbird (Cardinalis virginianus) is attested from 1670s, so named for its resemblance to the cardinals in their red robes.
cardinal (adj.)
"chief, pivotal," early 14c., from Latin cardinalis "principal, chief, essential," from cardo (genitive cardinis) "that on which something turns or depends; pole of the sky," originally "door hinge," which is of unknown origin. Related: Cardinally.

The cardinal points (1540s) are north, south, east, west. The cardinal sins (c. 1600) are too well known to require rehearsal. The cardinal virtues (c. 1300) were divided into natural (justice prudence, temperance, fortitude) and theological (faith, hope, charity). The natural ones were the original classical ones, which were amended by Christians. But typically in Middle English only the first four were counted as the cardinal virtues:
Of þe uour uirtues cardinales spekeþ moche þe yealde philosofes. ["Ayenbite of Inwyt," c. 1340]
By analogy of this, and cardinal points, cardinal winds, cardinal signs (four zodiacal signs marking the equinoxes and the solstices), the adjective in Middle English acquired an association with the number four.
cardinal number (n.)
1590s, "one, two, three," etc. as opposed to ordinal numbers "first, second, third," etc.; so called because they are the principal numbers and the ordinals depend on them (see cardinal (adj.)).
cardinality (n.)
1520s, "condition of being a cardinal," from cardinal (n.) + -ity. Mathematical sense is from 1935 (see cardinal (adj.)).
carding (n.)
"wool-dressing," late 15c., verbal noun from card (v.1).
cardio-
before vowels cardi-, word-forming element meaning "pertaining to the heart," from Latinized form of Greek kardia "heart," from PIE root *kerd- "heart."
cardiogram (n.)
1876, from cardio- + -gram.
cardiograph (n.)
1867, from cardio- + -graph "something written."
Although the work does not treat of the recent means of diagnosis--the thermometer, laryngoscope, cardiograph, etc.,--still it is complete as far as it goes. [book review in "Medical Investigator," May 1867, p.94]
cardiology (n.)
1847, from cardio- + -logy. Cardiologist attested from 1885.
cardiopulmonary (adj.)
1908, from cardio- + pulmonary.
cardiovascular (adj.)
1879, from cardio- + vascular. Cardiovascular system is recorded by 1918.
cardoon (n.)
1610s, from French cardon, from Provençal cardon, properly "thistle," from Late latin cardonem (nominative cardo "thistle," related to Latin carduus "thistle, artichoke" (see harsh).
care (n.)
Old English caru, cearu "sorrow, anxiety, grief," also "burdens of mind; serious mental attention," from Proto-Germanic *karo "lament; grief, care" (see care (v.)). Different sense evolution in related Dutch karig "scanty, frugal," German karg "stingy, scanty." The sense development in English is from "cry" to "lamentation" to "grief." Meaning "charge, oversight, protection" is attested c. 1400, the sense in care of in addressing. To take care of "take in hand, do" is from 1580s.
care (v.)
Old English carian, cearian "be anxious, grieve; to feel concern or interest," from Proto-Germanic *karo- "lament," hence "grief, care" (source also of Old High German charon "to lament," Old Saxon karon "to care, to sorrow"), from Proto-Germanic *karo (source also of Old Saxon kara "sorrow;" Old High German chara "wail, lament;" Gothic kara "sorrow, trouble, care;" German Karfreitag "Good Friday"), from PIE root *gar- "cry out, call, scream" (source also of Irish gairm "shout, cry, call;" see garrulous). OED emphasizes that it is in "no way related to L. cura." Related: Cared; caring. Positive senses, such as "have an inclination" (1550s); "have fondness for" (1520s) seem to have developed later as mirrors to the earlier negative ones.

To not care as a negative dismissal is attested from mid-13c. Phrase couldn't care less is from 1946; could care less in the same sense (with an understood negative) is from 1957. Care also figures in many "similies of indifference" in the form don't care a _____, with the blank filled by fig, pin, button, cent, straw, rush, point, farthing, snap, etc., etc.