cyst (n.) Look up cyst at
1713, from Modern Latin cystis (in English as a Latin word from 1540s), from Greek kystis "bladder, pouch."
cystic (adj.) Look up cystic at
1630s, "pertaining to the gall bladder," from French cystique (16c.), from Modern Latin cysticus, from Greek kystis "bladder, pouch." Meaning "pertaining to a cyst" is from 1713. Cystic fibrosis coined in 1938.
cystitis (n.) Look up cystitis at
c. 1780, from cyst + -itis "inflammation."
cystocele (n.) Look up cystocele at
1811, from French cystocèle, from Greek kystis "bladder, pouch" + kele "tumor, rupture, hernia," from PIE *kehul- "tumor" (source also of Old Norse haull, Old English heala "groin rupture," Old Church Slavonic kyla, Lithuanian kulas "rupture").
cystoscopy (n.) Look up cystoscopy at
1910, from Latinized combining form of Greek kystis "bladder, pouch" + -scopy.
cyto- Look up cyto- at
before a vowel, cyt-, word-forming element, from Latinized form of Greek kytos "a hollow, receptacle, basket" (from PIE *ku-ti-, from root *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal;" see hide (n.1)); used in modern science since c. 1859 for "cell," perhaps especially from the sense (in Aristophanes) of "a cell of a hive of wasps or bees."
cytology (n.) Look up cytology at
1857, from cyto- + -logy. Related: Cytologist (1884).
cytoplasm (n.) Look up cytoplasm at
1874, from cyto- + -plasm.
cytosine (n.) Look up cytosine at
1894, from German cytosin (1894), from cyto- "cell" + -ose + chemical suffix -ine (2). "The name cytosine (due to Kossel and Neumann) is misleading. Cytosine is not, like adenosine and guanosine, a nucleoside but the sugar-free base." [Flood]
cytotoxic (adj.) Look up cytotoxic at
1902, from cyto- + toxic. Related: Cytotoxicity.
czar (n.) Look up czar at
1550s, from Russian tsar, from Old Slavic tsesari, from Gothic kaisar, from Greek kaisar, from Latin Caesar. First adopted by Russian emperor Ivan IV, 1547.
The spelling with cz- is against the usage of all Slavonic languages; the word was so spelt by Herberstein, Rerum Moscovit. Commentarii, 1549, the chief early source of knowledge as to Russia in Western Europe, whence it passed into the Western Languages generally; in some of these it is now old-fashioned; the usual Ger. form is now zar; French adopted tsar during the 19th c. This also became frequent in English towards the end of that century, having been adopted by the Times newspaper as the most suitable English spelling. [OED]
The Germanic form of the word also is the source of Finnish keisari, Estonian keisar. The transferred sense of "person with dictatorial powers" is first recorded 1866, American English, initially in reference to President Andrew Johnson. The fem. czarina is 1717, from Italian czarina, from Ger. Zarin, fem. of Zar "czar." The Russian fem. form is tsaritsa. His son is tsarevitch, his daughter is tsarevna.
Czech Look up Czech at
said to be from the name of an ancestral chief, but perhaps from a source akin to Czech četa "army."
Czechoslovakia (n.) Look up Czechoslovakia at
Central European nation from 1919-1992, from Czecho-, Latinized comb. form of Czech + Slovakia (see Slovak).