crow (n.) Look up crow at Dictionary.com
Old English crawe, imitative of bird's cry. Phrase eat crow is perhaps based on the notion that the bird is edible when boiled but hardly agreeable; first attested 1851, American English, but said to date to War of 1812 (Walter Etecroue turns up 1361 in the Calendar of Letter Books of the City of London). The image of a crow's foot for the wrinkles appearing with age at the corner of the eye is from late 14c. ("So longe mote ye lyve Til crowes feet be growen under youre ye." [Chaucer, Troilus and Criseyde, c. 1385]). Phrase as the crow flies recorded from 1800.
crow (v.) Look up crow at Dictionary.com
Old English crawian "make a loud noise like a crow" (see crow (n.)); sense of "exult in triumph" is 1520s, perhaps in part because the English crow is a carrion-eater. Related: Crowed; crowing.
Crow Look up Crow at Dictionary.com
Indian tribe of the American Midwest, the name is a rough translation of their own name, Apsaruke.
crowbar (n.) Look up crowbar at Dictionary.com
1748, with bar (n.1), earlier simply crow (c. 1400); so called from its "beak" or from resemblance to a crow's foot; or possibly it is from crows, from Old French cros, plural of croc "hook."
crowd (v.) Look up crowd at Dictionary.com
Old English crudan "to press, crush." Cognate with Middle Dutch cruden "to press, push," Middle High German kroten "to press, oppress," Norwegian kryda "to crowd." Related: Crowded; crowding.
crowd (n.) Look up crowd at Dictionary.com
1560s, from crowd (v.). The earlier word was press (n.).
crowdfund (v.) Look up crowdfund at Dictionary.com
by 2011, from crowd (n.) + fund (v.). Rrlated: Crowdfunded; crowdfunding.
crown (v.) Look up crown at Dictionary.com
late 12c., from Old French coroner, from corone (see crown (n.)). Related: Crowned; crowning. The latter in its sense of "that makes complete" is from 1650s.
crown (n.) Look up crown at Dictionary.com
early 12c., "royal crown," from Anglo-French coroune, Old French corone (13c., Modern French couronne), from Latin corona "crown," originally "wreath, garland," related to Greek korone "anything curved, kind of crown," from suffixed form of PIE root *sker- (2) "to turn, bend." Old English used corona, directly from Latin.

Extended to coins bearing the imprint of a crown (early 15c.), especially the British silver 5-shilling piece. Also monetary units in Iceland, Sweden (krona), Norway, Denmark (krone), and formerly in German Empire and Austria-Hungary (krone). Meaning "top of the skull" is from c. 1300. Crown-prince is 1791, a translation of German kronprinz.
crozier (n.) Look up crozier at Dictionary.com
late 13c., from Old French crocier, from Medieval Latin crociarius "bearer of a cross," from crocia "cross;" also from Old French croisier "one who bears or has to do with a cross" (see cross (n.)). The two words merged in Middle English. Technically, "the bearer of a bishop's pastoral staff;" erroneously applied to the staff itself since 1733.
cru (n.) Look up cru at Dictionary.com
from French cru "vineyard," literally "growth" (16c.), from Old French crois (12c.; Modern French croît), from croiss-, stem of croistre "growth, augment, increase," ultimately from Latin crescere "come forth, spring up, grow, thrive" (see crescent).
crucial (adj.) Look up crucial at Dictionary.com
1706, "cross-shaped," from French crucial, a medical term for ligaments of the knee (which cross each other), from Latin crux (genitive crucis) "cross" (see cross (n.)). The meaning "decisive, critical" (1830) is extended from a logical term, Instantias Crucis, adopted by Francis Bacon (1620); the notion is of cross fingerboard signposts at forking roads, thus a requirement to choose.
cruciate (adj.) Look up cruciate at Dictionary.com
"cross-shaped," from Modern Latin cruciatus, from Latin crux (genitive crucis) "cross" (see cross (n.)). Obsolete meaning "tormented" is 1530s, from Latin cruciat-, past participle stem of cruciare "cause pain or anguish to," literally "crucify," from crux.
crucible (n.) Look up crucible at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Medieval Latin crucibulum "melting pot for metals," originally "night lamp." First element might be Middle High German kruse "earthen pot." Or perhaps it is from Latin crux on some fancied resemblance to a cross. Used of any severe test or trial since 1640s.
cruciferous (adj.) Look up cruciferous at Dictionary.com
1650s, from Late Latin crucifer "cross-bearing," from Latin crux (genitive crucis) "stake, cross" (see cross (n.)). Originally in literal senses; botanical use (in reference to a symmetrical arrangement of four petals) is from 1851.
crucifix (n.) Look up crucifix at Dictionary.com
early 13c., from Old French crucefix (12c., Modern French crucifix), from Latin cruci fixus "(one) fixed to the cross" (see crucify).
crucifixion (n.) Look up crucifixion at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Late Latin crucifixionem (nominative crucifixio), noun of action from past participle stem of crucifigere "kill by crucifixion; fasten to a cross" (see crucify).
cruciform (adj.) Look up cruciform at Dictionary.com
1660s, from Modern Latin cruciformis, from Latin crux (genitive crucis) "stake, cross" (see cross (n.)) + forma "form" (see form (n.)).
crucify (v.) Look up crucify at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, from Old French crucifer (12c., Modern French crucifier), from Vulgar Latin *crucificare, from Late Latin crucifigere "to fasten to a cross," from cruci, dative of Latin crux "cross" (see cross (n.)) + figere "to fasten, fix" (see fix (v.)). An ancient mode of capital punishment considered especially ignominious by the Romans. Figurative sense of "to torment" is 1620s. Related: Crucified; crucifying.
cruciverbalist (n.) Look up cruciverbalist at Dictionary.com
"maker of crossword puzzles," by 1990, coined in English from Latin cruci-, comb. form of crux "cross" (see cross (n.)) + verbum "word" (see verb).
crud (n.) Look up crud at Dictionary.com
"nonsense, rubbish," 1940, U.S. slang; originally 1920s army and college student slang for "venereal disease." Said to be a metathesis variant of curd, which actually makes it an unconscious return to the original Middle English form of that word (see curd). As G.I. name for "disease of any and every sort" it is attested from 1945.
crude (adj.) Look up crude at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "in a raw state," from Latin crudus "rough; not cooked, raw, bloody," from PIE *krue-do-, from PIE *kreue- (1) "raw flesh" (see raw). Meaning "lacking grace" is first attested 1640s. Related: Crudely; crudeness. Crude oil is from 1865.
crudites (n.) Look up crudites at Dictionary.com
1960, from French crudités, literally "raw things" (see crudity).
crudity (n.) Look up crudity at Dictionary.com
early 14c., from Middle French crudité (14c.) and directly from Latin cruditatem (nominative cruditas), from crudus (see crude).
cruel (adj.) Look up cruel at Dictionary.com
early 13c., from Old French cruel (12c.), earlier crudel, from Latin crudelis "rude, unfeeling; cruel, hard-hearted," related to crudus "rough, raw, bloody" (see crude). Related: Cruelly. Latin medial -d- began to disappear 10c. in French: compare chance/cadentia, cheoir/cadere, joyeux/gaudiosus, juif/judaeus, moyen/medianus, obéir/obedire, séance/sedentia.
cruelty (n.) Look up cruelty at Dictionary.com
early 13c., from Old French crualté (12c., Modern French cruauté), from Latin crudelitatem (nominative crudelitas) "cruelty," from crudelis (see cruel).
cruet (n.) Look up cruet at Dictionary.com
"small glass bottle for vinegar, oil, etc.," c. 1300, Anglo-French diminutive of Old French crue "an earthen pot," from Frankish *kruka or some other Germanic source (compare Old High German kruog); related to crock.
cruise (v.) Look up cruise at Dictionary.com
1650s, from Dutch kruisen "to cross, sail to and fro," from kruis "cross," from Latin crux. Compare the sense evolution in cognate cross (v.). Related: Cruised; cruising. As a noun from 1706.
cruiser (n.) Look up cruiser at Dictionary.com
1670s, agent noun from cruise (v.), or, probably, borrowed from similar words in neighboring languages (such as Dutch kruiser, French croiseur), originally a warship built to cruise and protect commerce or chase hostile ships (but in 18c. often applied to privateers).
Like the frigate of olden days the cruiser relies primarily on her speed; and is employed to protect the trade-routes, to glean intelligence, and to act as the 'eyes of the fleet'. [Sir Geoffrey Callender, "Sea Passages," 1943]
Meaning "one who cruises for sex partners" is from 1903, in later use mostly of homosexuals; as a boxing weight class, from 1920; meaning "police patrol car" is 1929, American English.
cruller (n.) Look up cruller at Dictionary.com
1805, American English, apparently from Dutch kruller, from krullen "to curl," from Middle Dutch crullen, related to curl.
crumb (n.) Look up crumb at Dictionary.com
Old English cruma "crumb, fragment," from a West Germanic root of obscure origin (compare Middle Dutch crume, Dutch kruim, German krume). The -b- appeared mid-15c., in part by analogy with words like dumb, in part perhaps reinforced by crumble. Slang meaning "lousy person" is 1918, from crumb, U.S. slang for "body-louse" (1863), so called from resemblance.
crumble (v.) Look up crumble at Dictionary.com
late 15c., kremelen, from Old English *crymelan, presumed frequentative of gecrymman "to break into crumbs," from cruma (see crumb). The -b- is 16c., probably on analogy of French-derived words like humble, where it belongs, or by influence of crumb. Related: Crumbled; crumbling.
crumby (adj.) Look up crumby at Dictionary.com
1731, "full of crumbs," from crumb + -y (2). Overlapping somewhat with crummy, but generally restricted to the more literal senses.
crummy (adj.) Look up crummy at Dictionary.com
1560s, "easily crumbled;" 1570s, "like bread," from crumb + -y (2). The second sense probably accounts for 18c. (and later in dialects) use, of a woman, "attractively plump, full-figured, buxom." Slang meaning "shoddy, filthy, inferior, poorly made" in use by 1859, probably is from the first sense, but influenced by crumb in its slang sense of "louse."
crumpet (n.) Look up crumpet at Dictionary.com
1690s, perhaps from crompid cake "wafer," literally "curled-up cake" (1382; Wyclif's rendering of Hebrew raqiq in Exodus xxix.23), from crompid, past participle of crumpen "curl up." Alternative etymology is from Celtic (compare Breton krampoez "thin, flat cake"). Slang meaning "woman regarded as a sex object" is first recorded 1936.
crumple (v.) Look up crumple at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, crumplen, frequentative of crumpen "to curl up" (from Old English crump "bent, crooked"). Related: Crumpled; crumpling.
crunch (v.) Look up crunch at Dictionary.com
1814, from craunch (1630s), probably of imitative origin. Related: Crunched; crunching. The noun is 1836, from the verb; the sense of "critical moment" was popularized 1939 by Winston Churchill, who had used it in his 1938 biography of Marlborough.
crunchy (adj.) Look up crunchy at Dictionary.com
1892, from crunch + -y (2). Student slang sense of "annoyingly intense about health or environmental issues" is by 1990, short for crunchy granola (considered as natural and wholesome); not entirely pejorative at first. Related: Crunchiness.
crunk (n.) Look up crunk at Dictionary.com
by 1999, style of popular music developed in U.S. South in 1990s; often said to be a contraction of crazy drunk. It was used early in a sense of "cool, good."
crusade (n.) Look up crusade at Dictionary.com
1706, respelling of croisade (1570s), from Middle French croisade (16c.), Spanish cruzada, both from Medieval Latin cruciata, past participle of cruciare "to mark with a cross," from Latin crux (genitive crucis) "cross." Other Middle English forms were croiserie, creiserie. Figurative sense of "campaign against a public evil" is from 1786.
crusade (v.) Look up crusade at Dictionary.com
1732, from crusade (n.). Related: Crusaded; crusading.
crusader (n.) Look up crusader at Dictionary.com
1743, from crusade + -er (1). Earlier was croisader, from French croisadeur.
cruse (n.) Look up cruse at Dictionary.com
"small vessel for liquids," early 15c., perhaps related to Old Norse krus "pot, tankard," from a general Germanic root which is of unknown origin. Compare Middle Dutch cruese, Dutch kroes "cup, pot, mug," Middle Low German krus, Danish krus "mug, jug," German Krause "jug, mug."
crush (v.) Look up crush at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., from Old French cruissir (Modern French écraser), variant of croissir "to gnash (teeth), crash, break," perhaps from Frankish *krostjan "to gnash" (cognates: Gothic kriustan, Old Swedish krysta "to gnash"). Figurative sense of "to humiliate, demoralize" is c. 1600. Related: Crushed; crushing. Italian crosciare, Catalan cruxir, Spanish crujirare "to crack" are Germanic loan-words.
crush (n.) Look up crush at Dictionary.com
1590s, "act of crushing," from crush (v.). Meaning "thick crowd" is from 1806. Sense of "person one is infatuated with" is first recorded 1884; to have a crush on is from 1913.
crust (v.) Look up crust at Dictionary.com
late 14c.; see crust (n.). Related: Crusted; crusting.
crust (n.) Look up crust at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "hard outer part of bread," from Old French crouste (13c., Modern French croûte) and directly from Latin crusta "rind, crust, shell, bark," from PIE *krus-to- "that which has been hardened," suffixed form of root *kreus- "to begin to freeze, form a crust." Meaning "outer shell of the earth" is from 1550s.
Crustacea (n.) Look up Crustacea at Dictionary.com
1814, Modern Latin neuter plural of crustaceus (animalia), literally "having a crust or shell," from Latin crusta "crust, rind, bark, hard shell" (from PIE root *kreus- "to begin to freeze, form a crust;" also see -a (2)). Taken as a zoological classification by Lamarck, 1801; Cuvier (1798) had les insectes crustacées.
crustacean (n.) Look up crustacean at Dictionary.com
1835, from Crustacea the class name. As an adjective, 1858 (earlier was crustaceous, 1640s).
crustation (n.) Look up crustation at Dictionary.com
mid-17c., noun of action from crust (v.).