counterfactual (adj.)
1946, from counter- + factual.
counterfeit (v.)
late 13c., from Old French contrefait "imitated" (Modern French contrefait), past participle of contrefaire "imitate," from contre- "against" (see contra-) + faire "to make, to do" (from Latin facere "to make, do," from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Medieval Latin contrafactio meant "setting in opposition or contrast." Related: Counterfeited; counterfeiting. The noun and adjective are from late 14c.
counterinsurgency (n.)
1962, from counter- + insurgency.
counterintelligence (n.)
also counter-intelligence, 1940, from counter- + intelligence.
counterintuitive (adj.)
also counter-intuitive, 1955, from counter- + intuitive.
countermand (v.)
early 15c., from Old French contremander "reverse an order or command" (13c.), from contre- "against" (see contra-) + mander, from Latin mandare "to order" (see mandate (n.)). Related: Countermanded; countermanding.
countermeasure (n.)
1923, from counter- + measure (n.).
counteroffer (n.)
1788, from counter- + offer (n.).
counterpane (n.)
"outer covering of a bed," c. 1600, alteration of earlier counterpoynte (mid-15c.; see counterpoint) on model of Middle French pan, Latin pannus "cloth" (see pane).
counterpart (n.)
mid-15c., originally countre part "duplicate of a legal document," from Middle French contrepartie, from contre "facing, opposite" (see contra-) + partie "copy of a person or thing," originally fem. past participle of partir "to divide" (see party (n.)).
counterpoint (n.)
early 15c., of stitching, from Old French cuilte contrepointe "quilt stitched through and through," altered from coute pointe, from Medieval Latin culcita puncta "quilted mattress," from Latin culcita "cushion" + puncta, fem. past participle of pungere "to prick, stab" (from suffixed form of PIE root *peuk- "to prick").

Of music, mid-15c., from Old French contrepoint, from Medieval Latin cantus contrapunctus, from contrapunctum, from Latin contra + puncta, with reference to the indication of musical notes by "pricking" with a pointed pen over or under the original melody on a manuscript.
counterpoise (n.)
early 15c., from Old French contrepois (Modern French contrepoids), from contre- "against" (see contra-) + peis, from Latin pensum "weight," noun use of neuter past participle of pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").
counterproductive (adj.)
also counter-productive, counter productive, 1920, American English, from counter- + productive.
counterrevolution (n.)
also counter-revolution, 1791, from counter- + revolution. First recorded in U.S. with reference to American Revolution.
countersign (n.)
1590s, from Middle French contresigne, from contre- "against" (see contra-) + signe "sign" (see sign (n.)).
countertop (n.)
1878, from counter (n.) + top (n.1).
countervail (v.)
late 14c., "to be worth as much as," also "to prevail against," from Anglo-French countrevaloir, Old French contrevaloir "to be effective against, be comparable to," from Latin phrase contra valere "to be worth against" (see contra- and valiant). Related: Countervailing.
countess (n.)
mid-12c., adopted in Anglo-French for "the wife of an earl," from Medieval Latin cometissa, fem. of Latin comes "count" (see count (n.1)).
countless (adj.)
"numberless, uncountable," 1580s, from count (v.) + -less.
countrified (adj.)
1650s, from country + past participle form of -fy.
country (n.)
mid-13c., "district, native land," from Old French contree, from Vulgar Latin *(terra) contrata "(land) lying opposite," or "(land) spread before one," from Latin contra "opposite, against" (see contra-). Sense narrowed 1520s to rural areas, as opposed to cities. Replaced Old English land. As an adjective from late 14c. First record of country-and-western music style is from 1942. Country club first recorded 1886. Country mile "a long way" is from 1915, American English.
countryman (n.)
late 13c., from country + man (n.).
countryside (n.)
mid-15c., literally "one side of a country" (a valley, a mountain range, etc.), from country + side (n.); hence, "any tract of land having a natural unity" (1727).
county (n.)
c. 1300, from Anglo-French counte, from Late Latin comitatus "jurisdiction of a count," from Latin comes (see count (n.1)); replaced Old English scir "shire."
coup (n.)
c. 1400, "a blow," from Old French coup, colp "a blow, strike" (12c.), from Medieval Latin colpus, from Vulgar Latin colapus, from Latin colaphus "a cuff, box on the ear," from Greek kolaphos "a blow, buffet, punch, slap," "a lowly word without clear etymology" [Beekes]. Meaning "a sudden decisive act" is 1852, short for coup d'etat. In Modern French the word is a workhorse, describing everything from a pat on the back to a whipping, and is used as well of thunder, gusts of wind, gunshots, and chess moves.
coup d'etat (n.)
1640s, from French coup d'étate, literally "stroke of the state" (see coup). Technically any sudden, decisive political act but popularly restricted to the overthrow of a government.
coup de foudre (n.)
1779, from French coup de foudre, literally "stroke of lightning," also "love at first sight" (see coup).
coup de grace (n.)
1690s, from French coup de grâce, literally "stroke of grace;" the merciful death-blow that ends another's suffering (see coup).
coupe (n.)
1834, from French coupe (18c.), noun use of past participle of couper "to cut (in half);" see coup. Modern use is from early 19c. carrosse coupe "cut-off carriage," a shorter version of the berlin, minus the back seat. First applied to closed two-door automobiles 1897.
couple (v.)
c. 1200, from Old French copler, from cople (see couple (n.)). Related: Coupled; coupling.
couple (n.)
late 13c., from Old French cople "married couple, lovers" (12c., Modern French couple), from Latin copula "tie, connection," from PIE *ko-ap-, from *ko(m)- "together" + *ap- "to take, reach." Sense extended mid-14c. to mean any two things.
couplet (n.)
1570s, in poetry, from French couplet (mid-14c.), a diminutive of couple (see couple (n.)). In music, from 1876.
coupon (n.)
1822, "certificate of interest due on a bond" (which could be cut from the bond and presented for payment), from French coupon, literally "piece cut off," from couper "to cut," from coup "a blow" (see coup). Meaning widened to "discount ticket" 1860s by British travel agent Thomas Cook. The specific advertising sense is from 1906.
COUPON. A financial term, which, together with the practice, is borrowed from France. In the United States, the certificates of State stocks drawing interest are accompanied by coupons, which are small tickets attached to the certificates. At each term when the interest falls due, one of these coupons is cut off (whence the name); and this being presented to the State treasurer or to a bank designated by him, entitles the holder to receive the interest. [Bartlett]
courage (n.)
c. 1300, from Old French corage (12c., Modern French courage) "heart, innermost feelings; temper," from Vulgar Latin *coraticum (source of Italian coraggio, Spanish coraje), from Latin cor "heart" (ffrom PIE root *kerd- "heart"). Words for "heart" also commonly are metaphors for inner strength. In Middle English, used broadly for "what is in one's mind or thoughts," hence "bravery," but also "wrath, pride, confidence, lustiness," or any sort of inclination. Replaced Old English ellen, which also meant "zeal, strength."
The saddest thing in life is that the best thing in it should be courage. [Robert Frost]
courageous (adj.)
late 13c., from Anglo-French corageous, Old French corageus (12c., Modern French courageux), from corage (see courage). Related: Courageously; courageousness.
courant (n.)
"newspaper" (now only in names of newspapers), from French courant, literally "running," present participle of courir "to run," from Latin currere "to run, move quickly" (of persons or things), from PIE root *kers- "to run."
courier (n.)
mid-14c., from Anglo-French courrier, from Old French coreor, ultimately an agent noun from Latin currere "to run" (from PIE root *kers- "to run").
course (v.)
16c., from course (n.). Related: Coursed; coursing.
course (n.)
late 13c., "onward movement," from Old French cors (12c.) "course; run, running; flow of a river," from Latin cursus "a running race or course," from curs- past participle stem of currere "to run" (from PIE root *kers- "to run").

Most extended senses (meals, etc.) are present in 14c. Academic meaning "planned series of study" is c. 1600 (in French from 14c.). Phrase of course is attested from 1540s; literally "of the ordinary course;" earlier in same sense was bi cours (c. 1300).
courser (n.)
large, powerful horse," c. 1300, from Old French corsier "fast horse, charger," literally "fast-running," from Vulgar Latin *cursarius, from Latin cursus (see course (n.)).
court (v.)
"woo, offer homage," as one does at court, 1570s; see court (n.). Related: Courted; courting.
court (n.)
late 12c., from Old French cort (11c., Modern French cour) "king's court, princely residence," from Latin cortem, accusative of cors (earlier cohors) "enclosed yard," and by extension (and perhaps by association with curia "sovereign's assembly"), "those assembled in the yard; company, cohort," from com- "together" (see com-) + stem hort- related to hortus "garden, plot of ground" (from PIE root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose"). Sporting sense is from 1510s, originally of tennis. Legal meaning is from late 13c. (early assemblies for justice were overseen by the sovereign personally).
court martial (n.)
also court-martial, 1650s (plural courts martial), originally martial court (1570s), from court + martial. Word-order changed on the model of French cour martiale. As a verb, from 1859.
courteous (adj.)
mid-14c., earlier curteis (c. 1300), from Old French curteis (Modern French courtois) "having courtly bearing or manners," from curt "court" (see court (n.)) + -eis, from Latin -ensis.

Rare before c. 1500. In feudal society, also denoting a man of good education (hence the name Curtis). Medieval courts were associated with good behavior and also beauty; compare German hübsch "beautiful," from Middle High German hübesch "beautiful," originally "courteous, well-bred," from Old Franconian hofesch, from hof "court." Related: Courteously (mid-14c., kurteis-liche).
courtesan (n.)
early 15c., from Middle French courtisane, from Italian cortigiana "prostitute," literally "woman of the court," fem. of cortigiano "one attached to a court," from corte "court," from Latin cortem (see court (n.)).
courtesy (n.)
c. 1200, curteisie, "courtly ideals; chivalry, chivalrous conduct," also "a courteous act," from Old French curteisie (Modern French courtoisie), from curteis "courteous" (see courteous). From c. 1300 as "good will, kindness," also "a reward, a gift;" mid-14c. as "refinement, gentlemanly conduct." A specialized sense of curteisie is the source of English curtsy.
courthouse (n.)
late 15c., from court (n.) + house (n.). In Virginia and the Upper South, it also can mean "county seat."
courtier (n.)
early 13c., from Anglo-French *corteour, from Old French cortoiier "to be at court, live at court" (see court (n.)).
courtly (adj.)
mid-15c., "having manners befitting a court," from court (n.) + -ly (1). Meaning "pertaining to the court" is from late 15c. Courtly love "highly conventionalized medieval chivalric love" (amour courtois) is attested from 1896.
courtroom (n.)
1670s, from court (n.) + room (n.).