componentry (n.)
1956, from component + -ry.
comport (v.)
late 14c., from Old French comporter "endure, admit, behave" (13c.), from Latin comportare "to bring together, collect," from com- "together" (see com-) + portare "to carry" (see port (n.1)). Meaning "to agree with, suit" (with with) is from 1580s. Related: Comported; comporting.
comportment (n.)
c.1600, from Middle French comportement "bearing, behavior," from comporter (13c.) "to be disposed, arranged, laid out," from Latin comportare (see comport).
compos mentis
Latin, literally "in command of one's mind;" from compos "having the mastery of," from com- "with" (see com-) + stem of potis "powerful, master" (see potent); + mentis, genitive of mens "mind" (see mind (n.)).
compose (v.)
c.1400, compousen, from Old French composer "put together, arrange, write" a work (12c.), from com- "with" (see com-) + poser "to place," from Late Latin pausare "to cease, lay down," ultimately from Latin ponere "to put, place" (see position (n.)). Meaning influenced in Old French by componere (see composite). Musical sense is from 1590s. Related: Composed; composing.
composed (adj.)
"calm, tranquil," c.1600, past participle adjective frome compose (v.). Related: Composedly; composedness.
composer (n.)
"one who writes and arranges music," 1590s, agent noun from compose. Used in general sense of "one who combines into a whole" from 1640s, but the music sense remains the predominant one.
composite (adj.)
c.1400, from Old French composite, from Latin compositus "placed together," past participle of componere "to put together, to collect a whole from several parts," from com- "together" (see com-) + ponere "to place" (see position (n.)). The noun is attested from c.1400. Composite number is from 1730s.
composition (n.)
late 14c., "action of combining," also "manner in which a thing is composed," from Old French composicion (13c., Modern French composition) "composition, make-up, literary work, agreement, settlement," from Latin compositionem (nominative compositio) "a putting together, connecting, arranging," noun of action from past participle stem of componere (see composite). Meaning "art of constructing sentences" is from 1550s; that of "literary production" (often also "writing exercise for students") is from c.1600. Printing sense is 1832; meaning "arrangement of parts in a picture" is from 1706.
compositional (adj.)
1815, from composition + -al (1).
compositor (n.)
"a typesetter engaged in picking up arranging and distributing letters or type in a printing office," 1560s, agent noun from past participle stem of Latin componere (see composite).
compost (n.)
late 14c., compote, from Old French composte "mixture of leaves, manure, etc., for fertilizing land" (13c.), also "condiment," from Vulgar Latin *composita, noun use of fem. of Latin compositus, past participle of componere "to put together" (see composite). The fertilizer sense is attested in English from 1580s, and the French word in this sense is a 19th century borrowing from English.
compost (v.)
"make into compost," 1829, from compost (n.). Related: Composted; composting.
composure (n.)
c.1600, "composition" (also, in early use, with many senses now given to compound), from compose + -ure. Sense of "tranquility, calmness" is first recorded 1660s, from composed "calm" (1620s). For sense, compare colloquial to fall apart "to lose one's composure."
compote (n.)
1690s, from French compote "stewed fruit," from Old French composte (13c.) "mixture, compost," from Vulgar Latin *composita, fem. of compositus (see composite). Etymologically the same word as compost (n.).
compound (v.)
"to put together," late 14c., compounen "to mix, combine," from Old French compondre, componre "arrange, direct," from Latin componere "to put together" (see composite). The -d appeared 1500s in English on model of expound, etc. Related: Compounded; compounding.
compound (n.2)
"a compound thing," mid-15c., from compound (adj.).
compound (n.1)
1670s, via Dutch (kampoeng) or Portuguese, from Malay kampong "village, group of buildings." Spelling influenced by compound (v.). Originally, "the enclosure for a factory or settlement of Europeans in the East," later used of South African diamond miners' camps (1893), then of large fenced-in spaces generally (1946).
compound (adj.)
late 14c., originally compouned, past participle of compounen (see compound (v.)). Compound eye is attested from 1836; compound sentence is from 1772.
comprehend (v.)
mid-14c., "to understand," from Latin comprehendere "to take together, to unite; include; seize" (of catching fire or the arrest of criminals); also "to comprehend, perceive" (to seize or take in the mind), from com- "completely" (see com-) + prehendere "to catch hold of, seize" (see prehensile). Related: Comprehended; comprehending.
comprehendible (adj.)
1814 (rare), from comprehend + -ible; a native formation alongside comprehensible.
comprehensible (adj.)
1520s, "able to be contained," from Latin comprehensibilis, from comprehensus, past participle of comphrehendere (see comprehend). Meaning "able to be understood" is from c.1600. Related: Comprehensibly; comprehensibility.
comprehension (n.)
mid-15c., from Middle French comprehénsion (15c.), from Latin comprehensionem (nominative comprehensio) "a seizing, laying hold of, arrest," figuratively "perception, comprehension," noun of action from past participle stem of comprehendere (see comprehend). In reading education, from 1921.
comprehensive (adj.)
"containing much," 1610s, from French comprehénsif, from Late Latin comprehensivus, from comprehens-, past participle stem of Latin comprehendere (see comprehend). Related: Comprehensively (mid-15c.); comprehensiveness.
compress (v.)
late 14c., "to press (something) together," from Old French compresser "compress, put under pressure," from Latin compressare "to press together," frequentative of comprimere "to squeeze," from com- "together" (see com-) + premere "to press" (see press (v.1)). Related: Compressed; compressing.
compress (n.)
1590s in the surgical sense, from compress (v.).
compression (n.)
c.1400, from Middle French compression (14c.), from Latin compressionem (nominative compressio) "a pressing together," noun of action from past participle stem of comprimere (see compress (v.)). Related: Compressional. Compressional wave is attested from 1887.
compressor (n.)
1839, from Latin compressor, agent noun from comprimere (see compress (v.)). As a type of surgical instrument, from 1870. As short for air compressor, from 1874.
comprise (v.)
early 15c., "to include," from Old French compris, past participle of comprendre "to contain, comprise" (12c.), from Latin comprehendere (see comprehend). Related: Comprised; comprising.
compromise (n.)
early 15c., "a joint promise to abide by an arbiter's decision," from Middle French compromis (13c.), from Latin compromissus, past participle of compromittere "to make a mutual promise" (to abide by the arbiter's decision), from com- "together" (see com-) + promittere (see promise). The main modern sense of "a coming to terms" is from extension to the settlement itself (late 15c.).
compromise (v.)
mid-15c., from compromise (n.). Related: Compromised; compromising.
Compsognathus (n.)
genus of small dinosaurs, Modern Latin, from Greek kompsos "refined, elegant" + gnathos "jaw" (see gnathic).
comptroller (n.)
c.1500, variant of controller, with bad spelling due to influence of unrelated French compte "an account," from Latin computare.
compulsion (n.)
early 15c., from Middle French compulsion, from Latin compulsionem (nominative compulsio) "a driving, urging," noun of action from past participle stem of compellere "compel" (see compel). Psychological sense is from 1909 in A.A. Brill's translation of Freud's "Selected Papers on Hysteria," where German Zwangsneurose is rendered as compulsion neurosis.
compulsive (adj.)
c.1600, from French compulsif, from Latin compulsus, past participle of compellere (see compel). Psychological sense is from 1902. As a noun, attested from 1630s; psychological sense from 1957. Related: Compulsively; compulsiveness.
compulsory (adj.)
1580s, from Medieval Latin compulsorius, from Latin compulsus, past participle of compellere (see compel).
compunction (n.)
mid-14c., from Old French compunction (12c., Modern French componction), from Late Latin compunctionem (nominative compunctio) "remorse; a pricking" (of conscience), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin compungere "to severely prick, sting," from com-, intensive prefix (see com-), + pungere "to prick" (see pungent). Used in figurative sense by early Church writers. Originally a much more intense feeling, similar to "remorse," or "contrition."
compunctious (adj.)
c.1600, from stem of compunction + -ous. Related: Compunctiously; compunctiousness.
computation (n.)
early 15c., from Middle French computation, from Latin computationem (nominative computatio), noun of action from past participle stem of computare "to sum up, reckon, compute" (see compute).
computational (adj.)
1857, from computation + -al (1). Related: Computationally.
compute (v.)
1630s, from French computer, from Latin computare "to count, sum up, reckon together," from com- "with" (see com-) + putare "to reckon," originally "to prune" (see pave). Related: Computed; computing.
computer (n.)
1640s, "one who calculates," agent noun from compute (v.). Meaning "calculating machine" (of any type) is from 1897; in modern use, "programmable digital electronic computer" (1945 under this name; theoretical from 1937, as Turing machine). ENIAC (1946) usually is considered the first. Computer literacy is recorded from 1970; an attempt to establish computerate (adjective, on model of literate) in this sense in the early 1980s didn't catch on. Computerese "the jargon of programmers" is from 1960, as are computerize and computerization.
WASHINGTON (AP) -- A New York Congressman says the use of computers to record personal data on individuals, such as their credit background, "is just frightening to me." [news article, March 17, 1968]
comrade (n.)
1590s, "one who shares the same room," from Middle French camarade (16c.), from Spanish camarada "chamber mate," originally "chamberful," from Latin camera (see camera). In Spanish, a collective noun referring to one's company. In 17c., sometimes jocularly misspelled comrogue. Related: Comradely; comradeship.
comradery (n.)
1879, an attempt to nativize camaraderie.
Comstockery (n.)
1905, from Anthony Comstock (1844-1915), founder of New York Society for the Suppression of Vice (1873) and self-appointed crusader against immorality, + -ery. Coined by George Bernard Shaw after Comstock objected to "Mrs. Warren's Profession." "Comstockery is the world's standing joke at the expense of the United States" [Shaw, "New York Times," Sept. 26, 1905]. The Comstock lode, silver vein in Nevada, was discovered 1859 and first worked by U.S. prospector H.T.P. Comstock (1820-1870).
Comus (n.)
Greek god of joy and revelry, from Latin, from Greek komos "revel, merrymaking" (see comedy).
con (n.1)
"negation" (mainly in pro and con), 1570s, short for Latin contra "against" (see contra).
con (n.2)
"study," early 15c., from Old English cunnan "to know, know how" (see can (v.1)).
con (adj.)
"swindling," 1889, American English, from confidence man (1849), from the many scams in which the victim is induced to hand over money as a token of confidence. Confidence with a sense of "assurance based on insufficient grounds" dates from 1590s.
con (n.3)
a slang or colloquial shortening of various nouns beginning in con-, such as, from the 19th century, confidant, conundrum, conformist, convict, contract, and from the 20th century, conductor, conservative.