colloquy (n.) Look up colloquy at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "discourse," from Latin colloquium "conference, conversation," literally "a speaking together," from com- "together" (see com-) + -loquium "speaking," from loqui "to speak" (from PIE root *tolkw- "to speak"). Meaning "conversation" is attested in English from 1580s.
collude (v.) Look up collude at Dictionary.com
1520s, from Latin colludere "act collusively," literally "to play with" (see collusion). Related: Colluded; colluding.
collusion (n.) Look up collusion at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French collusion, from Latin collusionem (nominative collusio) "act of colluding," from colludere, from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + ludere "to play" (see ludicrous). "The notion of fraud or underhandedness is essential to collusion" [Fowler].
collusive (adj.) Look up collusive at Dictionary.com
1670s, from Latin collus-, past participle stem of colludere (see collude) + -ive.
collywobbles (n.) Look up collywobbles at Dictionary.com
1823, fanciful formation from colic and wobble.
cologne (n.) Look up cologne at Dictionary.com
1814, Cologne water, loan-translation of French eau de Cologne, literally "water from Cologne," from the city in Germany (German Köln, from Latin Colonia Agrippina) where it was made, first by Italian chemist Johann Maria Farina, who had settled there in 1709. The city seems to have been known in English generally by its French name in 18c.
Colombia Look up Colombia at Dictionary.com
South American nation, independent from 1819 as part of Gran Colombia (after its breakup in 1850, as New Granada, then Colombia from 1863); named for Italian explorer Christopher Columbus (Italian Colombo, Portuguese Colom, Spanish Colón).
colon (n.1) Look up colon at Dictionary.com
punctuation mark, 1540s, from Latin colon "part of a poem," from Greek kolon (with a long initial -o-) "part of a verse," literally "limb, member" (especially the leg, but also of a tree limb), also, figuratively, "a clause of a sentence," from PIE root *(s)kel- (3) "bent, crooked" (see scoliosis). Meaning evolved from "independent clause" to punctuation mark that sets it off.
colon (n.2) Look up colon at Dictionary.com
"large intestine," late 14c., from Latinized form of Greek kolon (with a short initial -o-) "large intestine," which is of unknown origin.
colonel (n.) Look up colonel at Dictionary.com
1540s, coronell, from Middle French coronel (16c.), modified by dissimilation from Italian colonnella "commander of a column of soldiers at the head of a regiment," from compagna colonella "little column company," from Latin columna "pillar," collateral form of columen "top, summit," from PIE root *kel- (2) "to be prominent; hill."

English spelling modified 1580s in learned writing to conform with the Italian form (via translations of Italian military manuals), and pronunciations with "r" and "l" coexisted 17c.-18c., but the earlier pronunciation prevailed. Spanish coronel, from Italian, shows a similar evolution by dissimilation.
colonial (adj.) Look up colonial at Dictionary.com
1756, from Latin colonia (see colony) + -al (1), or directly from colony on model of baronoinal. Meaning "from or characteristic of America during colonial times" is from 1776. The noun meaning "inhabitant of a colony" is recorded from 1865.
colonialism (n.) Look up colonialism at Dictionary.com
1853, "ways or speech of colonial persons," from colonial + -ism. Meaning "the system of colonial rule" is from 1886.
colonialist (n.) Look up colonialist at Dictionary.com
1813, from colonial + -ist; compare colonist.
colonialization (n.) Look up colonialization at Dictionary.com
1965, noun of action from colonialize (1964); see colonial + -ize. Related: Decolonialize; decolonialization.
colonic (adj.) Look up colonic at Dictionary.com
1906, from colon (n.2) + adjectival ending -ic.
colonisation (n.) Look up colonisation at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of colonization; see also -ize.
colonist (n.) Look up colonist at Dictionary.com
1701, "colonizer," from colony + -ist.
colonization (n.) Look up colonization at Dictionary.com
1766, noun of action from colonize.
colonize (v.) Look up colonize at Dictionary.com
1620s, "to settle with colonists," from stem of Latin colonus "tiller of the soil, farmer" (see colony); in sense "to make another place into a national dependency" without regard for settlement there by 1790s (such as in reference to French activity in Egypt or British work in India), and probably directly from colony.
No principle ought ever to be tolerated or acted upon, that does not proceed on the basis of India being considered as the temporary residence of a great British Establishment, for the good government of the country, upon steady and uniform principles, and of a large British factory, for the beneficial management of its trade, upon rules applicable to the state and manners of the country. [Henry Dundas, Chairman of the East-India Company, letter, April 2, 1800]
Related: Colonized; colonizing.
colonnade (n.) Look up colonnade at Dictionary.com
1718, from French colonnade, from Italian colonnato, from colonna "column," from Latin columna "pillar," collateral form of columen "top, summit," from PIE root *kel- (2) "to be prominent; hill."
colonoscopy (n.) Look up colonoscopy at Dictionary.com
by 1902 (earlier procto-colonoscopy, 1896; colonoscope attested from 1884), from colon (n.2) + -scopy.
colony (n.) Look up colony at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "ancient Roman settlement outside Italy," from Latin colonia "settled land, farm, landed estate," from colonus "husbandman, tenant farmer, settler in new land," from colere "to cultivate, to till; to inhabit; to frequent, practice, respect; tend, guard," from PIE root *kwel- (1) "revolve, move round; sojourn, dwell" (source also of Latin -cola "inhabitant"). Also used by the Romans to translate Greek apoikia "people from home." Modern application dates from 1540s.
colophon (n.) Look up colophon at Dictionary.com
1774, "publisher's inscription at the end of a book," from Latin colophon, from Greek kolophon "summit, final touch" (from PIE root *kel- (2) "to be prominent; hill").
color (v.) Look up color at Dictionary.com
late 14c.; see color (n.); earliest use is figurative. Related: Colored; coloring.
color (n.) Look up color at Dictionary.com
early 13c., "skin color, complexion," from Old French color "color, complexion, appearance" (Modern French couleur), from Latin color "color of the skin; color in general, hue; appearance," from Old Latin colos, originally "a covering" (akin to celare "to hide, conceal"), from PIE root *kel- (1) "to cover, conceal, save."

For sense evolution, compare Sanskrit varnah "covering, color," related to vrnoti "covers," and also see chroma. Meaning "visible color, color of something" is attested in English from c. 1300. As "color as a property of things," from late 14c. Old English words for "color" were hiw ("hue"), bleo.
color blindness (n.) Look up color blindness at Dictionary.com
1844, replacing Daltonism (after English chemist John Dalton, 1766-1844, who published a description of it in 1794); in figurative use, with reference to race or ethnicity, attested from 1866, American English. Related: color blind (adj.).
Colorado Look up Colorado at Dictionary.com
U.S. state (organized as a territory 1861, admitted as a state 1876), named for the river, Spanish Rio Colorado, from colorado "ruddy, reddish," literally "colored," past participle of colorar "to color, dye, paint," from Latin colorare (see coloration).
coloration (n.) Look up coloration at Dictionary.com
1620s, from French coloration (16c.), from Late Latin colorationem (nominative coloratio) "act or fact of coloring," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin colorare "to color, to get tanned," from color (see color (n.)).
coloratura (n.) Look up coloratura at Dictionary.com
"Ornamental passages, roulades, embellishments, etc., in vocal music" [Elson], 1740, from Italian coloratura, literally "coloring," from Late Latin coloratura, from colorare "to color," from color (see color (n.)).
colorectal (adj.) Look up colorectal at Dictionary.com
by 1918, from combining form of colon (n.2) + rectal.
colored (adj.) Look up colored at Dictionary.com
late 14c., past participle adjective from color (v.); in reference to "non-white skin," 1610s.
colorful (adj.) Look up colorful at Dictionary.com
1889, in figurative sense of "interesting," from color (n.) + -ful. Related: Colorfully.
coloring (n.) Look up coloring at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "action of applying color," noun of action from color (v.). Figurative use by 1540s. Meaning "way something is colored" is early 15c. Coloring book is from 1931.
colorless (adj.) Look up colorless at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from color (n.) + -less. Figurative sense of "lacking vividness" is recorded from 1861. Related: Colorlessness.
colors (n.) Look up colors at Dictionary.com
"flag of a regiment or ship" 1580s, from color (n.).
colossal (adj.) Look up colossal at Dictionary.com
1712 (colossic in the same sense is recorded from c. 1600), from French colossal, from colosse, from Latin colossus, from Greek kolossos (see colossus).
Colosseum (n.) Look up Colosseum at Dictionary.com
1560s, Medieval Latin name for the classical Amphitheatrum Flavium (begun c.70 C.E.), noun use of neuter of adjective colosseus "gigantic;" perhaps a reference to the colossal statue of Nero that long stood nearby (see colossus).
colossus (n.) Look up colossus at Dictionary.com
"gigantic statue," late 14c., from Latin colossus "a statue larger than life," from Greek kolossos "gigantic statue," which is of unknown origin, used by Herodotus of giant Egyptian statues, and used by Romans of the bronze Helios at the entrance to the harbor of Rhodes. Figurative sense of "any thing of awesome greatness or vastness" is from 1794.
Helios, the sun, is a god everywhere; there was a scandal when Anaxagoras dared to call him a glowing clod. But the island of Rhodes is almost the only place where Helios enjoys an important cult; ... the largest Greek statue in bronze, the Colossus of Rhodes, is a representation of Helios. [Walter Burkert, "Greek Religion"]
colostomy (n.) Look up colostomy at Dictionary.com
1888, from colon (n.2) + Modern Latin -stoma "opening, orifice," from Greek stoma "opening, mouth" (see stoma).
colostrum (n.) Look up colostrum at Dictionary.com
1570s, from Latin colostrum "first milk from an animal," which is of unknown origin.
colour Look up colour at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of color (q.v.); for ending see -or. Related: Coloured; colouring; colourful; colours.
colposcopy (n.) Look up colposcopy at Dictionary.com
1940, from colpo-, Latinized combining form of Greek kolpos "womb" (used from c. 1900 in medical compounds in sense "vagina;" see gulf (n.)) + -scopy.
colt (n.) Look up colt at Dictionary.com
Old English colt "colt," originally "young ass," in Biblical translations also used for "young camel," perhaps from Proto-Germanic *kultaz (source also of Swedish dialectal kult "young boar, piglet; boy," Danish kuld "offspring, brood") and akin to child. Applied to persons from early 13c.
COLT'S TOOTH An old fellow who marries, or keeps a young girl, is ſaid to have a colt's tooth in his head. ["Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1796]
Colt (n.) Look up Colt at Dictionary.com
type of revolver, 1838, originally the manufacture of U.S. gunsmith Samuel Colt (1814-1862).
coltish (adj.) Look up coltish at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "wild, frisky," also in early use "lustful, lewd," from colt + -ish. Lit. sense of "pertaining to a colt" is recorded from 1540s.
columbarium (n.) Look up columbarium at Dictionary.com
"subterranean sepulchre in ancient Roman places with niches for urns holding remains," neuter of Latin columbarius, "dove-cote" (so called from resemblance), literally "pertaining to doves;" from columba "dove." Literal sense of "dove-cote" is attested in English from 1881.
Columbia Look up Columbia at Dictionary.com
poetic name for United States of America, earlier for the British colonies there, 1730s, also the nation's female personification, from name of Christopher Columbus (also see Colombia) with Latin "country" ending -ia. A popular name for places and institutions in the U.S. in the post-Revolutionary years, when former tributes to king and crown were out of fashion: such as Columbia University (New York, U.S.) founded in 1754 as King's College; re-named 1784. Also District of Columbia (1791, as Territory of Columbia); "Hail, Columbia" (Joseph Hopkinson, 1798), Barlow's "Columbiad" (1809).
columbine (n.) Look up columbine at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, from Old French columbine "columbine," or directly from Medieval Latin columbina, from Late Latin columbina "verbena," fem. of Latin columbinus, literally "dove-like," from columba "dove." The inverted flower supposedly resembles a cluster of five doves. Also a fem. proper name; in Italian comedy, the name of the mistress of Harlequin.
Columbus Look up Columbus at Dictionary.com
his name is Latinized from his native Italian Cristoforo Colombo, in Spanish Christobal Colon.
America was discovered accidentally by a great seaman who was looking for something else, and most of the exploration for the next fifty years was done in the hope of getting through or around it. [S.E. Morison, "The Oxford History of the United States," 1965]
column (n.) Look up column at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "vertical division of a page," also "a pillar, post," from Old French colombe (12c., Modern French colonne "column, pillar"), from Latin columna "pillar," collateral form of columen "top, summit," from PIE root *kel- (2) "to be prominent; hill." Sense of "matter written for a newspaper" dates from 1785.