collective (adj.)
early 15c., from Middle French collectif, from Latin collectivus, from collectus (see collect). As a noun, short for collective farm (in the USSR) it dates from 1925. collective farm first attested 1919 in translations of Lenin. Collective bargaining coined 1891 by Beatrice Webb; defined in U.S. 1935 by the Wagner Act. Collective noun is recorded from 1510s; collective security first attested 1934 in speech by Winston Churchill.
collectivism (n.)
1880, in socialist theory, from collective + -ism. Related: Collectivist (1882 as both noun and adjective); collectivization (1890).
collector (n.)
late 14c., "gatherer of taxes, etc.," from Anglo-French collectour "collector" (of money or taxes; Old French collector, Modern French collecteur), from Late Latin collector, agent noun from colligere (see collect). Fem. form collectress is attested from 1825.
Colleen
fem. proper name, from Irish cailin "girl," diminutive of caile "girl, woman."
college (n.)
"body of scholars and students within a university," late 14c., from Old French college "collegiate body" (14c.), from Latin collegium "community, society, guild," literally "association of collegae" (see colleague). At first meaning any corporate group, the sense of "academic institution" attested from 1560s became the principal sense in 19c. via use at Oxford and Cambridge.
collegial (adj.)
mid-14c., from Middle French collégial, from Latin collegialis, from collegium (see college). Related: Collegially; collegiality.
collegian (n.)
late 14c., from college + -ian.
collegiate (adj.)
mid-15c., from Latin collegiatus "member of a college or corporation," in Medieval Latin, "of or pertaining to a college," from collegium (see college).
collet (n.)
1520s, from French collet "little collar," diminutive of col "neck," from Latin collum (see collar (n.)).
collide (v.)
1620s, from Latin collidere "strike together," from com- "together" (see com-) + laedere "to strike, injure by striking," of unknown origin. For Latin vowel change, see acquisition. Related: Collided; colliding.
collie (n.)
1650s, possibly from dialectal coaly "coal-black," the color of some breeds (compare colley, "sheep with black face and legs," attested from 1793; Middle English colfox, "coal-fox," a variety of fox with tail and both ears tipped with black; and colley, Somerset dialectal name for "blackbird"). Or from Scandinavian proper name Colle, which is known to have been applied to dogs in Middle English ("Ran Colle our dogge, and Talbot, and Gerlond" [Chaucer]); or perhaps a convergence of the two.
collier (n.)
late 13c., collere "charcoal maker and seller," agent noun from Middle English col (see coal). They were notorious for cheating their customers. Sense of "ship for hauling coal" is from 1620s.
colliery (n.)
1630s, "coal mine," see collier + -y (1).
colligate (v.)
1540s, from Latin colligatus, past participle of colligare "to bind together," from com- "together" (see com-) + ligare "to bind" (see ligament). As a concept in logic, from 1837; in linguistics, from 1953. Related: Colligation.
collin (n.)
1882, from Greek kolla "glue" + chemical suffix -in (2).
collinear (adj.)
1863, from col- + linear.
Collins (n.)
"iced gin drink served in a tall glass" (called a Collins glass), 1940, American English; earlier Tom Collins (by 1878), of uncertain origin. Popular in early 1940s; bartending purists at the time denied it could be based on anything but gin. The surname (12c.) is from a masc. proper name, a diminutive of Col, itself a pet form of Nicholas.
collision (n.)
early 15c., from Middle French collision (15c.), from Latin collisionem (nominative collisio) "a dashing together," noun of action from collidere (see collide).
collocate (v.)
1510s, from Latin collocatus, past participle of collocare "to arrange, place together, set in a place," from com- "together" (see com-) + locare "to place" (see locate). Meaning "conference, consultation" is mid-14c. Related: collocated; collocating.
collocation (n.)
mid-15c., from Latin collocationem (nominative collocatio), noun of action from past participle stem of collocare (see collocate). Linguistics sense is attested from 1940.
collogue (v.)
1590s (implied in colloguing) "to flatter, curry favor," of unknown origin; perhaps from French colloque "conference, consultation" (16c., from Latin colloquium) and influenced by dialogue.
colloid (n.)
1847, from French colloide (1845), from Greek kolla "glue" + -oeides "form" (see -oid).
colloidal (adj.)
1861, from colloid + -al (1).
colloquia (n.)
Latin plural of colloquium (q.v.).
colloquial (adj.)
1751, from colloquy "a conversation" + -al (1). Related: Colloquially.
colloquialism (n.)
1810, "a colloquial word or phrase," from colloquial + -ism.
colloquium (n.)
early 17c., "conversation, dialogue," from Latin colloquium "conversation" (see colloquy). Also as a legal term; meaning "meeting, assembly, conference, seminar" is attested from 1844.
colloquy (n.)
mid-15c., "discourse," from Latin colloquium "conference, conversation," literally "a speaking together," from com- "together" (see com-) + -loquium "speaking," from loqui "to speak" (see locution). Meaning "conversation" is attested in English from 1580s.
collude (v.)
1520s, from Latin colludere "act collusively," literally "to play with" (see collusion). Related: Colluded; colluding.
collusion (n.)
late 14c., from Old French collusion, from Latin collusionem (nominative collusio) "act of colluding," from colludere, from com- "together" (see com-) + ludere "to play," from ludus "game" (see ludicrous). "The notion of fraud or underhandedness is essential to collusion" [Fowler].
collusive (adj.)
1670s, from Latin collus-, past participle stem of colludere (see collude) + -ive.
collywobbles (n.)
1823, fanciful formation from colic and wobble.
cologne (n.)
1814, Cologne water, loan-translation of French eau de Cologne, literally "water from Cologne," from the city in Germany (German Köln, from Latin Colonia Agrippina) where it was made, first by Italian chemist Johann Maria Farina, who had settled there in 1709.
Colombia
South American nation, independent from 1819 as part of Gran Colombia (after its breakup in 1850, as New Granada, then Colombia from 1863); named for Italian explorer Christopher Columbus (Italian Colombo, Portuguese Colom, Spanish Colón).
colon (n.1)
punctuation mark, 1540s, from Latin colon "part of a poem," from Greek kolon (with a long initial -o-) "part of a verse," literally "limb, member" (especially the leg, but also of a tree limb), also, figuratively, "a clause of a sentence," from PIE root *(s)kel- (3) "bent, crooked" (see scoliosis). Meaning evolved from "independent clause" to punctuation mark that sets it off.
colon (n.2)
"large intestine," late 14c., from Greek kolon (with a short initial -o-) "large intestine," of unknown origin.
colonel (n.)
1540s, coronell, from Middle French coronel (16c.), modified by dissimilation from Italian colonnella "commander of a column of soldiers at the head of a regiment," from compagna colonella "little column company," from Latin columna "pillar" (see column). English spelling modified 1580s in learned writing to conform with the Italian form (via translations of Italian military manuals), and pronunciations with "r" and "l" coexisted 17c.-18c., but the earlier pronunciation prevailed. Spanish coronel, from Italian, shows a similar evolution by dissimilation.
colonial (adj.)
1756, from Latin colonia (see colony) + -al (1), or directly from colony on model of baronoinal. Meaning "from or characteristic of America during colonial times" is from 1776. The noun meaning "inhabitant of a colony" is recorded from 1865.
colonialism (n.)
1853, "ways or speech of colonial persons," from colonial + -ism. Meaning "the system of colonial rule" is from 1886.
colonialist (n.)
1813, from colonial + -ist; compare colonist.
colonialization (n.)
1965, noun of action from colonialize (1964); see colonial + -ize. Related: Decolonialize; decolonialization.
colonic (adj.)
1906, from colon (n.2) + adjectival ending -ic.
colonisation (n.)
chiefly British English spelling of colonization; see also -ize.
colonist (n.)
1701, "colonizer," from colony + -ist.
colonization (n.)
1766, noun of action from colonize.
colonize (v.)
1620s, "to settle with colonists," from stem of Latin colonus "tiller of the soil, farmer" (see colony); in sense "to make another place into a national dependency" without regard for settlement there by 1790s (such as in reference to French activity in Egypt or British work in India), and probably directly from colony.
No principle ought ever to be tolerated or acted upon, that does not proceed on the basis of India being considered as the temporary residence of a great British Establishment, for the good government of the country, upon steady and uniform principles, and of a large British factory, for the beneficial management of its trade, upon rules applicable to the state and manners of the country. [Henry Dundas, Chairman of the East-India Company, letter, April 2, 1800]
Related: Colonized; colonizing.
colonnade (n.)
1718, from French colonnade, from Italian colonnato, from colonna "column," from Latin columna "pillar" (see column).
colonoscopy (n.)
by 1902 (earlier procto-colonoscopy, 1896; colonoscope attested from 1884), from colon (n.2) + -oscopy (see -scope).
colony (n.)
late 14c., "ancient Roman settlement outside Italy," from Latin colonia "settled land, farm, landed estate," from colonus "husbandman, tenant farmer, settler in new land," from colere "to inhabit, cultivate, frequent, practice, tend, guard, respect," from PIE root *kwel- (1) "move around" (source of Latin -cola "inhabitant;" see cycle (n.)). Also used by the Romans to translate Greek apoikia "people from home." Modern application dates from 1540s.
colophon (n.)
1774, "publisher's inscription at the end of a book," from Latin colophon, from Greek kolophon "summit, final touch" (see hill).