caries (n.)
1630s, from Latin caries "rottenness, decay," from Proto-Italic *kas-, usually said to be from PIE root *kere- "to injure, break apart" (cognates: Greek ker "death, destruction," Old Irish krin "withered, faded"). Related: Carious. But de Vaan writes that "semantically, caries may just as well belong to careocared 'to lack' as 'defect, state of defectiveness' ...."
carillon (n.)
1775, from French carillon, which, according to French sources, is from Old French carignon "set of four bells," an alteration of quarregon, from Vulgar Latin *quadrinionem, from Latin quaternionem "set of four," from quater "four times," from PIE *kwetrus, from root *kwetwer- "four" (see four).
caring (n.)
1550s, verbal noun from care (v.).
caring (adj.)
"compassionate," 1966, present participle adjective from care (v.). Related: Caringly; caringness.
carious (adj.)
1670s, from French carieux (16c.), from Latin cariosus "full of decay," from caries "rottenness, decay" (see caries).
caritas (n.)
Latin, literally "charity" (see charity).
cark (v.)
"to be weighed down or oppresssed by cares or worries, be concerned about," early 12c., a figurative use, via Anglo-French from Old North French carkier "to load, burden," from Late Latin carcare (see charge (v.)). Compare Old North French carguer "charger," corresponding to Old French chargier. The literal sense in English, "to load, put a burden on," is from c.1300. Related: Carked; carking. Also as a noun in Middle English and after, "charge, responsibility; anxiety, worry; burden on the mind or spirit," (c.1300), from Anglo-French karke, from Old North French form of Old French carche, variant of charge "load, burden, imposition."
carl (n.)
c.1300, "bondsman; common man, man of low birth," from Old Norse karl "man, male, freeman," from Proto-Germanic *karlon-, the same root that produced Old English ceorl "man of low degree" (see churl).
The Mellere was a stout carle for the nones [Chaucer]
Carl
masc. proper name, from Middle High German Karl "man, husband" (see carl).
Carlisle
Carleol (c.1100), earlier Lugovalio (4c.), from a Celtic proper name *Luguvalos. The Celtic cair "fortified town" was added in the Middle Ages.
Carlos
Spanish form of the Germanic masculine proper name that is represented in English by Charles.
Carlovingian (adj.)
1781, from French Carlovingien, an alteration of Carolingien (see Carolingian) on model of Mérovingien (see Merovingian).
Carmel
mountain in northern Israel, from Latin Carmel, from Greek Karmel, from Hebrew karmel "garden, fertile field."
Carmelite (n.)
c.1500, from Medieval Latin Carmelites, member of an order of mendicant friars (White Friars) founded 12c. by Berthold of Calabria on Mount Carmel in what is now northwest Israel.
Carmen (n.)
French opera by Georges Bizet (1838-1875), premiered in Paris March 3, 1875. As a proper name, it can represent (especially in Italian and Spanish) a diminutive of Carmel/Carmelo or Latin carmen "song, poem, incantation, oracle" (see charm (n.)).
carminative (adj.)
early 15c., from Latin carminat- (past participle stem of carminare "to card," from carmen, genitive carminis, "a card for wool or flax," which is related to carrere "to card;" see card (v.2)) + -ive. As a noun from 1670s.
A medical term from the old theory of humours. The object of carminatives is to expel wind, but the theory was that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises, combing them out like knots in wool. [Hensleigh Wedgwood, "A Dictionary of English Etymology," 1859-65]
carmine (n.)
1712, originally of the dyestuff, from French carmin (12c.), from Medieval Latin carminium, from Arabic qirmiz "crimson" (see kermes). Form influenced in Latin by minium "red lead, cinnabar," a word said to be of Iberian origin. As an adjective from 1737; as a color name from 1799.
Carnaby Street (n.)
street in Soho, London (Westminster), in mid-1960s lined with fashionable boutiques and clothing shops, hence used figuratively from 1964 for English 1960s stylishness. It was named for Karnaby House, built 1683, from a surname or transferred from Carnaby in Yorkshire, which is from a Scandinavian personal name + -by (see by).
carnage (n.)
c.1600, from Middle French carnage (16c.), from Old Italian carnaggio "slaughter, murder," from Medieval Latin carnaticum "flesh," from Latin carnaticum "slaughter of animals," from carnem (nominative caro) "flesh," originally "a piece of flesh," from PIE root *(s)ker- (1) "to cut" (see shear (v.)). In English always used more of slaughters of men than beasts. Southey (1795) tried to make a verb of it.
carnal (adj.)
c.1400, "physical, human, mortal," from Old French carnal and directly from Medieval Latin carnalis "natural, of the same blood," from Latin carnis "of the flesh," genitive of caro "flesh, meat" (see carnage). Meaning "sensual" is from early 15c.; that of "worldly, sinful" is from mid-15c. Carnal knowledge is attested from early 15c. and was in legal use by 1680s.
carnalite (n.)
"worldly minded man, one addicted to fleshly practices," 1570s, from carnal + -ite (1).
carnality (n.)
early 15c., "sensuality," from Late Latin carnalitas, from Latin carnalis (see carnal). Meaning "state of being flesh, fleshliness" is from mid-15c.
carnalize (v.)
"despiritualize, sensualize," 1680s, from carnal + -ize.
carnally (adv.)
late 15c., "sexually;" 1530s, "corporeally," from carnal + -ly (2).
carnation (n.)
"Dianthus Caryophyllus," commonly also called "pink," herbaceous perennial flowering plant native to southern Europe and abundant in Normandy, 1530s, of uncertain origin. The early forms are confused; perhaps (on evidence of early spellings) it is a corruption of coronation, from the flower's being used in chaplets or from the toothed crown-like look of the petals.

Or it might be called for its pinkness and derive from Middle French carnation "person's color or complexion" (15c.), which probably is from Italian dialectal carnagione "flesh color," from Late Latin carnationem (nominative carnatio) "fleshiness," from Latin caro "flesh" (see carnage). This carnation had been borrowed separately into English as "color of human flesh" (1530s) and as an adjective meaning "flesh-colored" (1560s; the earliest use of the word in English was to mean "the incarnation of Christ," mid-14c.). OED points out that not all the flowers are this color.
carnelian (n.)
"red variety of chalcedony," variant of cornelian, altered by influence of Latin carnem "flesh" because of its color.
carnival (n.)
1540s, "time of merrymaking before Lent," from French carnaval, from Italian carnevale "Shrove Tuesday," from older Italian forms such as Milanese *carnelevale, Old Pisan carnelevare "to remove meat," literally "raising flesh," from Latin caro "flesh" (see carnage) + levare "lighten, raise, remove" (see lever (n.)). Folk etymology is from Medieval Latin carne vale " 'flesh, farewell!' " Meaning "a circus or fair" is attested by 1931 in North America.
Carnivora (n.)
order of mammals, 1830, from Latin (animalia) carnivora "flesh-eating (animals)," neuter plural of carnivorus (see carnivorous). Applied as the scientific name of a large order of flesh-eating mammals by French naturalist Georges Léopole Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert, Baron Cuvier (1769-1832).
carnivore (n.)
"flesh-eating animal," 1839, from French carnivore (16c.), from Latin carnivorus "flesh-eating" (see carnivorous).
carnivorous (adj.)
1640s, from Latin carnivorus "flesh-eating, feeding on flesh," from caro (genitive carnis) "flesh" (see carnage) + vorare "to devour" (see voracity).
carny (n.)
1931, U.S. slang, short for carnival worker (see carnival).
carob (n.)
1540s, from French carobe, ultimately from Arabic kharrub "locust bean pod" (also in Persian as khirnub), perhaps from Assyrian kharubu or Aramaic kharubha "carob tree, carob," related to Hebrew harubh.
carol (n.)
c.1300, "joyful song," also "dance in a ring," from Old French carole "kind of dance in a ring, round dance accompanied by singers," perhaps from Medieval Latin choraula "a dance to the flute," from Latin choraules "flute-player," from Greek khoraules "flute player who accompanies the choral dance," from khoros "chorus" (see chorus) + aulein "to play the flute," from aulos "reed instrument" (see alveolus). The meaning "Christmas hymn of joy" is attested from c.1500.
Carol
masc. proper name, from Medieval Latin Carolus (see Charles). As a fem. proper name, an abbreviation of Caroline. The masc. name never has been popular in U.S.; the fem. form was common after c.1900 and was a top-10 name for U.S. girls born 1936-1950.
carol (v.)
c.1300, "to dance in a ring," from Old French caroler, from carole (see carol (n.)). As "to sing" from late 14c. Related: Caroled; caroling.
Carolina
1663, North American colony named for King Charles II (the Latin form of the male proper name is Carolus). Earlier French colonists called the region Caroline (1564) in honor of Charles IX, King of France. A 1629 grant here by Charles I of England was named Carolana. The original site of the name is modern South Carolina and the tract originally included North Carolina and Georgia; North Carolina first used 1691, in reference to settlements made from Virginia. The official division into north and south dates from 1710. Used generically in forming species names in botany and zoology from 1734.
caroline (adj.)
1650s, "of or pertaining to a Charles," from French, from Latin Carolus "Charles" (see Charles). Especially of Charlemagne, or, in English history, Charles I and Charles II.
Caroline
fem. proper name, from French, from Italian Carolina, originally a fem. adjective from Medieval Latin Carolus "Charles" (see Charles).
caroling (n.)
c.1300, verbal noun from carol (v.).
Carolingian (adj.)
1881, "belonging to the dynasty founded by Carl the Great" (French Charlemagne), from Latin Carolus "Charles;" also compare Carlovingian.
carom (n.)
1779, earlier carambole (1775), from French carambole "the red ball in billiards," from Spanish carombola "the red ball in billiards," perhaps originally "fruit of the tropical Asian carambola tree," which is round and orange and supposed to resemble a red billiard ball; from Marathi (southern Indian) karambal. Originally a type of stroke involving the red ball:
If the Striker hits the Red and his Adversary's Ball with his own Ball he played with, he wins two Points; which Stroke is called a Carambole, or for Shortness, a Carrom. ["Hoyle's Games Improved," London, 1779]
carom (v.)
1860, from carom (n.). Related: Caromed; caroming.
carotene (n.)
hydrocarbon found in carrots and other plants, 1861, from German carotin, coined 1831 by German chemist H.W.F. Wackenroder (1789-1854) from Latin carota "carrot" (see carrot) + German form of chemical suffix -ine (2), denoting a hydrocarbon.
carotenoid (n.)
1913, from German carotinoïde (1911), from carotin (see carotene) + -oid.
carotid (adj.)
1540s, "pertaining to the two great arteries of the neck," from Greek karotides "great arteries of the neck," plural of karotis, from karoun "plunge into sleep or stupor," because compression of these arteries was believed to cause unconsciousness (Galen). But if this is folk etymology, the Greek word could be from kara "head," related to kranion "skull, upper part of the head," from PIE root *ker- (1) "horn, head" (see horn (n.)).
carousal (n.)
1735, from carouse (v.) + -al (2). The earlier noun was simply carouse "a drinking bout" (1550s).
carouse (v.)
1550s, from Middle French carousser "drink, quaff, swill," from German gar aus "quite out," from gar austrinken; trink garaus "to drink up entirely." Frequently also as an adverb in early English usage (to drink carouse).
carousel (n.)
"merry-go-round," 1670s, earlier "playful tournament of knights in chariots or on horseback" (1640s), from French carrousel "a tilting match," from Italian carusiello, possibly from carro "chariot," from Latin carrus (see car).
A new and rare invencon knowne by the name of the royalle carousell or tournament being framed and contrived with such engines as will not only afford great pleasure to us and our nobility in the sight thereof, but sufficient instruction to all such ingenious young gentlemen as desire to learne the art of perfect horsemanshipp. [letter of 1673]
carp (n.)
type of freshwater fish, late 14c., from Old French carpe "carp" (13c.) and directly from Vulgar Latin carpa (source also of Italian carpa, Spanish carpa), from a Germanic source (compare Middle Dutch carpe, Dutch karper, Old High German karpfo, German Karpfen "carp"); possibly the immediate source is Gothic *karpa. A Danube fish (hence the proposed East Germanic origin of its name), introduced in English ponds 14c. Lithuanian karpis, Russian karp are Germanic loan words.
carp (v.)
"complain," early 13c., originally "to talk," from Old Norse karpa "to brag," of unknown origin; meaning turned toward "find fault with" (late 14c.), probably by influence of Latin carpere "to slander, revile," literally "to pluck" (see harvest (n.)). Related: Carped; carping.