buccaneer (n.) Look up buccaneer at Dictionary.com
"piratical rover on the Spanish coast," 1680s; earlier "one who roasts meat on a boucan" (1660s), from French boucanier "a pirate; a curer of wild meats, a user of a boucan," a native grill for roasting meat, from Tupi mukem (rendered in Portuguese as moquem c. 1587): "initial b and m are interchangeable in the Tupi language" [Klein] (the Haitian variant, barbacoa, became barbecue).

Originally used of French settlers working as woodsmen and hunters of wild hogs and cattle in the Spanish West Indies, they became a lawless and piratical set after being driven from their trade by Spanish authorities. Boucan/buccan itself is attested in English from 1610s as a noun, c. 1600 as a verb.
Bucephalus Look up Bucephalus at Dictionary.com
Alexander the Great's favorite horse, from Greek Boukephalos, literally "Ox-head," from bous "ox" (from PIE root *gwou- "ox, bull, cow") + kephale "head" (see cephalo-).
Men called [him] Bucephalus ... of the marke or brand of a buls head, which was imprinted vpon his shoulder. [Pliny, I.220, tr. Holland, 1601]
buck (n.1) Look up buck at Dictionary.com
"male deer," c. 1300, earlier "male goat;" from Old English bucca "male goat," from Proto-Germanic *bukkon (source also of Old Saxon buck, Middle Dutch boc, Dutch bok, Old High German boc, German Bock, Old Norse bokkr), perhaps from a PIE root *bhugo (source also of Avestan buza "buck, goat," Armenian buc "lamb"), but some speculate that it is from a lost pre-Germanic language. Barnhart says Old English buc "male deer," listed in some sources, is a "ghost word or scribal error." The Germanic word (in the sense "he-goat") was borrowed in French as bouc.

Meaning "a man" is from c. 1300 (Old Norse bokki also was used in this sense). Especially "fashionable man" (1725); also used of a male Native American (c. 1800) or Negro (1835). This also is perhaps the sense in army slang buck private "private of the lowest class" (1870s).

The phrase pass the buck is recorded in the literal sense 1865, American English poker slang; the buck in question being originally perhaps a buckhorn-handled knife:
The 'buck' is any inanimate object, usually [a] knife or pencil, which is thrown into a jack pot and temporarily taken by the winner of the pot. Whenever the deal reaches the holder of the 'buck', a new jack pot must be made. [J.W. Keller, "Draw Poker," 1887]
The figurative sense of "shift responsibility" is first recorded 1912; the phrase the buck stops here (1952) is associated with U.S. President Harry Truman.
buck (v.1) Look up buck at Dictionary.com
of a horse, "make a violent back-arched leap in an effort to throw off a rider," 1848, apparently "jump like a buck," from buck (n.1). Related: Bucked; bucking. Buck up "cheer up" is from 1844, probably from the noun in the "man" sense.
buck (n.2) Look up buck at Dictionary.com
"dollar," 1856, American English, perhaps an abbreviation of buckskin as a unit of trade among Indians and Europeans in frontier days (attested from 1748).
buck (v.3) Look up buck at Dictionary.com
1750, "to butt," apparently a corruption of butt (v.) by influence of buck (n.1). Figuratively, of persons, "to resist, oppose," 1857.
buck (v.2) Look up buck at Dictionary.com
"to copulate with," 1520s, from buck (n.1). Related: Bucked; bucking.
buck (n.3) Look up buck at Dictionary.com
"sawhorse, frame composed of two X-shaped ends joined at the middle by a bar," 1817, American English, apparently from Dutch bok "trestle," literally "buck" (see buck (n.1)). Compare easel.
buck (n.4) Look up buck at Dictionary.com
"violent effort of a horse to throw off a rider," 1877, from buck (v.1).
buck-tooth (n.) Look up buck-tooth at Dictionary.com
also bucktooth, "tooth that juts out beyond the rest," 1540s, from buck (n.1), perhaps on the notion of "kicking up," + tooth. In French, buck teeth are called dents à l'anglaise, literally "English teeth." Old English had twisel toð "with two protruding front teeth." Related: Buck-toothed.
buckaroo (n.) Look up buckaroo at Dictionary.com
"cowboy," 1907, American English, earlier buckayro (1889), bakhara (1827), from Spanish vaquero "cowboy," from vaca "cow," from Latin vacca, a word of uncertain origin. Spelling altered by influence of buck (n.1).
buckboard (n.) Look up buckboard at Dictionary.com
1839, "plank mounted on four wheels," from board (n.1) + buck "body of a cart or wagon" (1690s), perhaps representing a dialectal survival of Old English buc "belly, body, trunk" (see bucket). As a type of vehicle constructed this way, from 1874.
bucket (n.) Look up bucket at Dictionary.com
"pail or open vessel for drawing and carrying water and other liquids," mid-13c., from Anglo-French buquet "bucket, pail," from Old French buquet "bucket," which is from Frankish or some other Germanic source, or a diminutive of cognate Old English buc "pitcher, bulging vessel," originally "belly" (buckets were formerly of leather as well as wood), both from West Germanic *buh- (source also of Dutch buik, Old High German buh, German Bauch "belly"), possibly from a variant of PIE root *beu-, *bheu- "to grow, swell" (see bull (n.2)).

To kick the bucket "die" (1785) perhaps is from an unrelated bucket "beam on which something may be hung or carried" (1570s), from French buquet "balance," a beam from which slaughtered animals were hung (by the heels or hooves). This was perhaps reinforced by the notion of suicide by hanging after standing on an upturned bucket; but Farmer calls attention to bucket "a Norfolk term for a pulley."
buckeye (n.) Look up buckeye at Dictionary.com
also buck-eye, "American horse-chestnut tree," 1763, said to be so called from resemblance of the nut to a stag's eye (see buck (n.1) + eye (n.)). Meaning "native of Ohio" is attested since 1822, from the great number of such trees growing there. Used figuratively in early 20c. of anything cheap or inferior.
buckhorn (n.) Look up buckhorn at Dictionary.com
also buck-horn, "substance of the horns of a deer," used in making knife-handles, etc., 1610s, from buck (n.1) + horn (n.).
Buckinghamshire Look up Buckinghamshire at Dictionary.com
Old English Buccingahamscir, from Buccingahamme (early 10c.), "River-bend land of the family or followers of a man called Bucca."
buckish (adj.) Look up buckish at Dictionary.com
"dandyish," 1782, from buck (n.1) in the slang sense + -ish. Earlier it meant "like a he-goat, foul-smelling, lascivious" (1510s). Related: Buckishly; buckishness.
buckle (n.) Look up buckle at Dictionary.com
"spiked metal ring for holding a belt, etc.," c. 1300, bukel, from Old French bocle "boss (of a shield)," then "shield," then by further extension "buckle, metal ring," (12c., Modern French boucle), from Latin buccula "cheek strap of a helmet," in Late Latin "boss of a shield," diminutive of bucca "cheek" (see bouche).
Boucle in the middle ages had the double sense of a "shield's boss" and "a ring"; the last sense has alone survived, and it metaph. developed in the boucle de cheveux, ringlets. [Kitchin]
buckle (v.1) Look up buckle at Dictionary.com
"to fasten with a buckle," late 14c., bokelen, from buckle (n.). Meaning "prepare for action of any kind" (1560s) probably is a metaphor from buckling on armor before battle. Related: Buckled; buckling.
buckle (v.2) Look up buckle at Dictionary.com
"distort, warp, bend out of shape" 1520s, bokelen "to arch the body," from Middle French boucler "to bulge," from Old French bocler "to bulge," from bocle "boss of a shield" (see buckle (n.)). Meaning "to bend under strong pressure" is from 1590s (figurative from 1640s) . Related: Buckled; buckling.
buckler (n.) Look up buckler at Dictionary.com
"small, round shield used to ward off blows," c. 1300, from Old French bocler "boss (of a shield), shield, buckler" (12c., Modern French bouclier), from Medieval Latin *buccularius (adj.) "having a boss," from Latin buccula (see buckle (n.)).
bucko (n.) Look up bucko at Dictionary.com
term of address, 1883, originally nautical and with a sense of "swaggering, domineering fellow." Probably from buck (n.1) in the slang sense of "a blood or choice spirit."
There are in London divers lodges or societies of Bucks, formed in imitation of the Free Masons: one was held at the Rose, in Monkwell-street, about the year 1705. The president is styled the Grand Buck. ["Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1811]
buckra (n.) Look up buckra at Dictionary.com
disparaging term among Caribbean and Southern U.S. African-Americans for "white person," especially a poor one, 1790, apparently from an African language; compare mbakara "master" in Efik, a language of the Ibibio people of southern Nigeria.
buckram (n.) Look up buckram at Dictionary.com
early 13c., from Old French boquerant "fine oriental cloth" (12c., Modern French bougran), probably (along with Spanish bucarán, Italian bucherame) from Bukhara, city in central Asia from which it was imported to Europe. Originally a name of a delicate, costly fabric, it later came to mean coarse linen used for lining. The many variations of its spelling in Middle English and Old French indicate confusion over the origin. The -m may indicate that the word arrived in English via Italian.
buckshot (n.) Look up buckshot at Dictionary.com
also buck-shot, "large size of shot used for killing deer and other large game," 1776, from buck (n.1) + shot (n.).
buckskin (n.) Look up buckskin at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, "skin of a buck," from buck (n.1) + skin (n.). Meaning "kind of soft leather made from buckskin" was in use by 1804. Formerly much used for clothing by Native Americans and frontiersmen; the word was a nickname for Continental troops in the American Revolution.
buckwheat (n.) Look up buckwheat at Dictionary.com
1540s, from Middle Dutch boecweite "beech wheat" (compare Danish boghvede, Swedish bovete, German Buchweizen), so called from resemblance of the grains to the seed of beech trees. Possibly a native formation on the same model as the Dutch word, from a dialectal form of beech. See beech + wheat.
bucolic (adj.) Look up bucolic at Dictionary.com
"pastoral, relating to country life or the affairs and occupations of a shepherd," 1610s, earlier bucolical (1520s), from Latin bucolicus, from Greek boukolikos "pastoral, rustic," from boukolos "cowherd, herdsman," from bous "cow" (from PIE root *gwou- "ox, bull, cow") + -kolos "tending," related to Latin colere "to till (the ground), cultivate, dwell, inhabit" (from PIE root *kwel- (1) "revolve, move round; sojourn, dwell"). Middle Irish búachaill, Welsh bugail "shepherd" are Celtic words formed from the same root material as Greek boukolos.
bud (n.) Look up bud at Dictionary.com
"undeveloped growth-point of a plant," late 14c., budde, origin unknown, perhaps from Old French boter "push forward, thrust," itself a Germanic word (compare Dutch bot "bud," Old Saxon budil "bag, purse," German Beutel), or perhaps from Old English budd "beetle."
bud Look up bud at Dictionary.com
familiar form of address for a male, 1851, perhaps a shortening of buddy (q.v.) and ultimately from brother.
bud (v.) Look up bud at Dictionary.com
"put forth or produce buds," c. 1400; see bud (n.). Related: Budded; budding.
Budapest Look up Budapest at Dictionary.com
Hungarian capital, formed 1872 from merger of two cities on opposite shores of the Danube, Buda (probably from a word originally meaning "water") + Pest, a Hungarian word meaning "furnace, oven, cove," also in Slavic (compare Russian pech'). Ofen, literally "oven," was the old German name for the place.
Buddha (n.) Look up Buddha at Dictionary.com
an epithet applied to the historical founder of Buddhism, 1680s, from Pali, literally "awakened, enlightened," past participle of budh "to awake, know, perceive," which is related to Sanskrit bodhati "is awake, observes, understands," from PIE root *bheudh- "be aware, make aware." Title given by his adherents to the man who taught this path, Siddhartha Gautama, also known to them as Sakyamuni "Sage of the Sakyas" (his family clan), who lived in northern India 5c. B.C.E.
Buddhism (n.) Look up Buddhism at Dictionary.com
"the religious system founded by the Buddha in India," 1801, from Buddha + -ism.
Buddhist (n.) Look up Buddhist at Dictionary.com
"one who professes Buddhism, a follower of the Buddha," 1810, from Buddha + -ist. An earlier word in this sense was a direct borrowing of Sanskrit Bauddha "follower of Buddha" (1801 in English), hence early erroneous hybrid compounds such as Boudhist, Bauddhist.
budding (adj.) Look up budding at Dictionary.com
1560s, "sprouting, putting forth or producing buds," present-participle adjective from bud (v.). Figurative sense of "being in an early stage of growth" is from 1580s.
buddy (n.) Look up buddy at Dictionary.com
1850, American English, possibly an alteration of brother, or from British colloquial butty "companion" (1802), itself perhaps a variant of booty in booty fellow "confederate who shares plunder" (1520s). But butty, meaning "work-mate," also was a localized dialect word in England and Wales, attested since 18c., and long associated with coal miners. Short form bud is attested from 1851. Reduplicated form buddy-buddy (adj.) attested by 1952, American English.
Lenny Kent, a long-time fave here, is really in his element. ... After four weeks here he's got everone in town saying, "Hiya, Buddy, Buddy" with a drawl simulating his. [Review of Ned Schuyler's 5 O'Clock Club, Miami Beach, Fla., "Billboard," Nov. 12, 1949]
Buddy system attested from 1920.
buddy (v.) Look up buddy at Dictionary.com
1931, usually with up, from buddy (n.); perhaps originally U.S. underworld slang. Related: Buddied; buddying.
budge (v.) Look up budge at Dictionary.com
1580s (intransitive) "to move, stir, change position, give way a little;" 1590s (transitive) "change the position of;" from Middle French bougier "to move, stir" (Modern French bouger), from Vulgar Latin *bullicare "to bubble, boil" (hence, "to be in motion"), from Latin bullire "to boil" (see boil (v.)). Compare Spanish bullir "to move about, bustle;" Portuguese bulir "to move a thing from its place." Related: Budged; budging.
budgerigar (n.) Look up budgerigar at Dictionary.com
small Australian parrot, 1847, from a native Australian language, said to mean "good cockatoo," from budgeri "good" + gar "cockatoo."
budget (v.) Look up budget at Dictionary.com
"to include in a (fiscal) budget," 1884, from budget (n.). Related: Budgeted; budgeting.
budget (n.) Look up budget at Dictionary.com
early 15c., bouget, "leather pouch, small bag or sack," from Middle French bougette, diminutive of Old French bouge "leather bag, wallet, pouch," from Latin bulga "leather bag," a word of Gaulish origin (compare Old Irish bolg "bag," Breton bolc'h "flax pod"), from PIE *bhelgh- "to swell," extended form of root *bhel- (2) "to blow, swell."

The modern financial meaning "statement of probable expenditures and revenues" (1733) is from the notion of the treasury minister keeping his fiscal plans in a wallet. Also used from late 16c. in a general sense of "a stock, store, or collection of miscellaneous items," which led to 18c. transferred sense "bundle of news," hence the use of the word as the title of some newspapers.
budgie (n.) Look up budgie at Dictionary.com
1936, short for budgerigar.
Budweis Look up Budweis at Dictionary.com
German name of the Bohemian town known in Czech as České Budĕjovice ("Czech Budweis"), from an adjectival form of the Slavic proper name Budivoj, hence "settlement of Budivoj's people." Related: Budweiser.
buff (n.1) Look up buff at Dictionary.com
kind of thick, soft leather, 1570s, buffe leather "leather made of buffalo hide," from Middle French buffle "buffalo" (15c., via Italian, from Latin bufalus; see buffalo (n.)).

The color term "light brownish-yellow" (by 1788) comes from the hue of buff leather. Association of "hide" and "skin" led c. 1600 to the sense in in the buff "naked." Buff-colored uniforms of New York City volunteer firefighters since 1820s led to the meaning "enthusiast" (1903).
The Buffs are men and boys whose love of fires, fire-fighting and firemen is a predominant characteristic. [N.Y. "Sun," Feb. 4, 1903, quoted in OED]
buff (adj.) Look up buff at Dictionary.com
1690s, "of the nature of buff leather;" 1762, "of the color of buff leather;" see buff (n.1). Meaning "well-built, hunky" (of physically fit persons) is from 1980s, from buff (v.) "to polish, make attractive."
buff (n.2) Look up buff at Dictionary.com
"a blow, a slap," early 15c., probably from buffet (n.2).
buff (v.) Look up buff at Dictionary.com
"to polish, make attractive," 1849, from buff (n.1), either in reference to the treatment of buff leather or to the use of buff cloth to polish metals, etc., with a buff-wheel or a buff-stick (1881). Related: Buffed; buffing.
buffalo (v.) Look up buffalo at Dictionary.com
"alarm, overawe," 1900, from buffalo (n.). Probably from the animals' tendency to mass panic. Related: Buffaloed; buffaloing.
Buffalo Look up Buffalo at Dictionary.com
city in western New York state, U.S., of disputed origin (there never were bison thereabouts), perhaps from the name of a native chief, or a corruption of French beau fleuve "beautiful river." Buffalo wings finger food so called because the recipe was invented in Buffalo (1964, at Frank & Teressa's Anchor Bar on Main Street).