broadside (n.) Look up broadside at
"side of a ship" (technically, "the side of a ship above the water, between the bow and the quarter"), 1590s, from broad (adj.) + side (n.); thus "the artillery on one side of a ship all fired off at once" (1590s, with figurative extensions). Two words until late 18c.

Of things other than ships, 1630s. But oldest-recorded sense in English is "sheet of paper printed only on one side" (1570s). As an adverb by 1870; as an adjective by 1932. As a verb from 1930, "to skid sideways;" later "to strike broadside, collide with the side of."
broadsword (n.) Look up broadsword at
"sword with a broad blade," Old English brad swurd, from broad (adj.) + sword.
Broadway Look up Broadway at
common street name, c. 1300 as "a wide road or street," from broad (adj.) + way (n.); the allusive use for "New York theater district" is first recorded 1881.
Brobdingnag Look up Brobdingnag at
(not *brobdignag), 1727, Swift's name in "Gulliver's Travels" for an imaginary country where everything was on a gigantic scale.
brobdingnagian (adj.) Look up brobdingnagian at
"huge, immense, gigantic," 1728, from Brobdingnag + -ian.
brocade (v.) Look up brocade at
"to weave or work into a brocade," 1650s (implied in brocaded), from brocade (n.). Related: Brocading.
brocade (n.) Look up brocade at
"silken fabric variegated with gold and silver r otherwise ornamented," 1560s, from Spanish brocado, corresponding to Italian broccato "embossed cloth," originally past participle of broccare "to stud, set with nails," from brocco (Spanish broca) "small nail," from Latin broccus "projecting, pointed" (see broach (n.)).
broccoli (n.) Look up broccoli at
variety of common cabbage with a dense, edible head, 1690s, from Italian broccoli, plural of broccolo "a sprout, cabbage sprout," diminutive of brocco "shoot, protruding tooth, small nail," from Latin broccus (see broach (n.)).
broch (n.) Look up broch at
prehistoric stone tower of the Scottish Highland and isles, 1650s, from Scottish broch, from Old Norse borg "castle," cognate with Old English burh (see borough).
brochure (n.) Look up brochure at
"pamphlet; short written work stitched together," 1748, from French brochure "a stitched work," from brocher "to stitch" (sheets together), from Old French brochier "to prick, jab, pierce," from broche "pointed tool, awl" (see broach (n.)).
brock (n.) Look up brock at
Old English brocc "badger," a borrowing from Celtic (compare Old Irish brocc, Welsh broch), "probably so called for its white-streaked face. After c. 1400, often with the adjective stinking and meaning "a low, dirty fellow."
brogan (n.) Look up brogan at
type of coarse half-boot, 1846, from Irish and Gaelic brogan, diminutive of brog "shoe" (compare brogue). Related: Brogans.
brogue (n.) Look up brogue at
type of Celtic accent, 1705, perhaps from the meaning "rough, stout shoe" (made of rawhide and tied with thongs), of the type worn by rural Irish and Scottish highlanders (1580s), via Gaelic or Irish, from Old Irish broce "shoe." The footwear was "characteristic of the wilder Irish" [Century Dictionary], thus the noun might mean something like "speech of those who call a shoe a brogue." Or perhaps it is from Old Irish barrog "a hold" (on the tongue).
broil (v.1) Look up broil at
"to cook (meat) by direct action of heat," late 14c. (earlier "to burn," mid-14c.), from Old French bruller "to broil, roast" (Modern French brûler), earlier brusler "to burn" (11c.), which, with Italian bruciare, is of uncertain and much-disputed origin.

Perhaps from Vulgar Latin *brodum "broth," borrowed from Germanic and ultimately related to brew (v.). Gamillscheg proposes it to be from Latin ustulare "to scorch, singe" (from ustus, past participle of urere "to burn") and altered by influence of Germanic "burn" words beginning in br-. From 1610 as "to be very hot." Related: Broiled; broiling.
broil (v.2) Look up broil at
early 15c., "to quarrel, brawl," also "mix up, present in disorder," from Anglo-French broiller "mix up, confuse," Old French brooillier "to mix, mingle," figuratively "to have sexual intercourse" (13c., Modern French brouiller), perhaps from breu, bro "stock, broth, brew," from Frankish or another Germanic source (compare Old High German brod "broth"), from PIE root *bhreu- "to boil, bubble, effervesce, burn." Compare Italian brogliare "to stir, disorder" (see imbroglio).
broil (n.1) Look up broil at
"broiled meat," 1822, from broil (v.1).
broil (n.2) Look up broil at
"a confused disturbance, quarrel," 1520s, from broil (v.2).
broiler (n.) Look up broiler at
late 14c., "grill or gridiron used in broiling," agent noun from broil (v.1). From c. 1300 as a surname, perhaps meaning "cook who specializes in broiling." Meaning "chicken for broiling" is from 1858.
broke (adj.) Look up broke at
from obsolete past participle of break (v.); extension to "insolvent" is first recorded 1716 (broken in this sense is attested from 1590s). Old English cognate broc meant, in addition to "that which breaks," "affliction, misery."
broken (adj.) Look up broken at
"separated by force into parts, not integral or entire," past-participle adjective from Old English brocken, past participle of break (v.). Of terrain, "rough," 1590s; of language, "imperfect, ungrammatical," 1590s. Related: Brokenly; brokenness. Broken home, one in which the parents of children no longer live together, is from 1846. Broken record in reference to someone continually repeating the same thing is from 1944, in reference to scratches on phonograph disks that cause the needle to jump back and repeat.
When Britain's Minister of State, Selwyn Lloyd[,] became bored with a speech by Russia's Andrei Vishinsky in UN debate, he borrowed a Dizzy Gillespie bebop expression and commented: "Dig that broken record." While most translators pondered the meaning, a man who takes English and puts it into Chinese gave this translation: "Recover the phonograph record which you have discarded." ["Jet," Oct. 15, 1953]
broken-hearted (adj.) Look up broken-hearted at
also brokenhearted, "depressed or crushed by grief of despair," 1520s, from broken + -hearted. Related: Broken-heartedly; broken-heartedness.
broker (n.) Look up broker at
mid-14c. (mid-13c. in surnames), "commercial agent, factor," also "an agent in sordid business," from Anglo-French brocour "small trader," from abrokur "retailer of wine, tapster;" perhaps from Portuguese alborcar "barter," but more likely from Old French brocheor, from brochier "to broach, tap, pierce (a keg)," from broche (Old North French broke, broque) "pointed tool" (see broach (n.)), with an original sense of "wine dealer," hence "retailer, middleman, agent." In Middle English, used contemptuously of peddlers and pimps, "one who buys and sells public office" (late 14c. in Anglo-French), "intermediary in love or marriage" (late 14c.).
broker (v.) Look up broker at
"to act as a broker," 1630s (implied in brokering), from broker (n.). Related: Brokered.
brokerage (n.) Look up brokerage at
mid-15c., "a broker's trade," from broker (n.) + -age. Also, in 17c., "a pimp's trade." From 1620s as "fee or commission charged for doing business as a broker."
brolly (n.) Look up brolly at
British slang, "umbrella," by 1866, a clipped and shortened form of umbrella.
bromatography (n.) Look up bromatography at
"a description of foods," 1844, from comb. form of Greek broma "food" + -graphy "a writing, recording, or description."
bromeliad (n.) Look up bromeliad at
one of a group of related plants indigenous to South America and the West Indies, from Modern Latin Bromeliaceæ, family name given by Linnæus, for Olaus Bromel (1639-1705), Swedish botanist. Related: Bromeliads.
bromide (n.) Look up bromide at
compound of bromine and another metal or radical, 1836, from bromine, the pungent, poisonous element, + -ide. Used medicinally as a sedative; figurative sense of "dull, conventional person or trite saying" popularized by U.S. humorist Frank Gelett Burgess (1866-1951) in his book "Are You a Bromide?" (1906). Related: Bromidic.
bromine (n.) Look up bromine at
nonmetallic element, 1827, from French brome, from Greek bromos "stench," a word of unknown etymology. With chemical suffix -ine (2). The evil-smelling dark red liquid was discovered by French chemist Antoine Jérôme Balard (1802-1876), who initially called it muride.
bronchia (n.) Look up bronchia at
"bronchial tubes," 1670s, from Latinized form of Greek bronkhia, plural of bronkhos "windpipe, throat," which is of unknown etymology.
bronchial (adj.) Look up bronchial at
"pertaining to the bronchia," 1735, from Late Latin bronchus, from Greek bronkhos "windpipe, throat" (a word of unknown etymology) + -al (1). bronchial tubes is from 1847. Related: Bronchially.
bronchiectasis (n.) Look up bronchiectasis at
"dilation of the bronchial tubes," 1848, earlier in German, coined in Modern Latin from Greek bronkhia "the bronchial tubes" (see bronchia) + ektasis "a stretching out, extension, dilation," from ek (see ex-) + tasis "a stretching, tension, intensity" (from PIE root *ten- "to stretch").
bronchiole (n.) Look up bronchiole at
"a small bronchial tube," 1866, Modern Latin, from diminutive of bronchia "the bronchial tubes" (see bronchia).
bronchitis (n.) Look up bronchitis at
"inflammation of the bronchial membrane," coined in Modern Latin 1808 by Charles Bedham, from bronchia "the bronchial tubes" (see bronchia) + -itis "inflammation."
broncho- Look up broncho- at
before vowels bronch-, word-forming element meaning "bronchus," from Latinized form of Greek bronkhos "windpipe," a word of unknown origin.
bronchoscopy (n.) Look up bronchoscopy at
1908, from German bronchoskopie (1898), from Latinized combining form of Greek bronkhia "the bronchial tubes" (see bronchia); also see -scopy.
bronchus (n.) Look up bronchus at
"either of the two main branches of the trachea" (plural bronchi), 1706, from Latinized form of Greek bronkhos "the wind pipe" (see bronchia).
bronco (n.) Look up bronco at
also broncho, "untamed or half-tamed horse of the American Southwest," 1850, American English, apparently from a noun use of Spanish bronco (adj.) "rough, rude," originally a noun meaning "a knot in wood," perhaps from Vulgar Latin *bruncus "a knot, projection," apparently from a cross of Latin broccus "projecting" (see broach (n.)) + truncus "trunk of a tree" (see trunk (n.1)). Bronco-buster is attested from 1886.
Brontë Look up Brontë at
surname of the famous family of English authors; the current version is a scholarly convention and until after the deaths of the sisters it was variously spelled and accented. Juliet Barker ("The Brontës," 1994), writes that their father was registered at Cambridge in 1802 as "Patrick Branty," which he soon corrected to Bronte. The family was Irish Protestant. "At a time when literacy was extremely rare, especially in rural districts of Ireland, the usual Brontë name was spelt in a variety of ways, ranging from Prunty to Brunty and Bruntee, with no consistent version until Patrick himself decided on 'Bronte'." [Barker]
brontophobia (n.) Look up brontophobia at
"fear of thunder and thunderstorms," 1905, with -phobia + Greek bronte "thunder,"which is perhaps from PIE imitative root *bhrem- "to growl." Brontes was the name of one of the Cyclopes in Greek mythology, and bronteion was the name of the ancient theatrical machine for producing a sound of thunder.
brontosaurus (n.) Look up brontosaurus at
one of the first well-known dinosaurs, formerly noted for its great size and small brain capacity, 1879, Modern Latin, from Greek bronte "thunder" (perhaps from PIE imitative root *bhrem- "to growl") + -saurus.
brontothere (n.) Look up brontothere at
extinct genus of gigantic mammals, 1877, Modern Latin, from Greek bronte "thunder" (probably imitative) + Greek therion "beast" (from PIE root *ghwer- "wild beast").
Bronx Look up Bronx at
borough of New York City, named for Jonas Bronck, who settled there in 1641.
Jonas Bronck, who arrived at New Amsterdam in 1639, and whose name is perpetuated in Bronx Borough, Bronx Park, Bronxville -- in New York -- was a Scandinavian, in all probability a Dane and originally, as it seems, from Thorshavn, Faroe Islands, where his father was a pastor in the Lutheran Church. Faroe then belonged to Denmark-Norway and had been settled by Norwegians. The official language of the island in Bronck's days was Danish. ... Bronck may have been a Swede if we judge by the name alone for the name of Brunke is well known in Sweden. [John Oluf Evjen, "Scandinavian immigrants in New York, 1630-1674," Minneapolis, 1916]
The derisive Bronx cheer ("made by blowing through closed lips, usually with the tongue between" - OED) is attested by 1929.
bronze (n.) Look up bronze at
1721, "alloy of copper and (usually) a smaller amount of tin," from French bronze, from Italian bronzo, from Medieval Latin bronzium, which is of uncertain origin. Perhaps cognate (via notion of color) with Venetian bronza "glowing coals," or German brunst "fire." Perhaps influenced by Latin Brundisium the Italian town of Brindisi (Pliny writes of aes Brundusinum). Perhaps ultimately from Persian birinj "copper."

In Middle English, the distinction between bronze (copper-tin alloy) and brass (copper-zinc alloy) was not clear, and both were called bras (see brass (n.)). Used historically for bells, cannons, statuary, and fine mechanical works. Also from French are Dutch brons, German Bronze, etc., and ultimately from the Medieval Latin word are Spanish bronce, Russian bronza, Polish bronc, Albanian brunze, etc.

A bronze medal was given to a third-place finisher at least since 1852. The archaeological Bronze Age (1865; earlier Bronze Period, 1851) falls between the Stone and Iron ages, and is a reference to the principal material for making weapons and ornaments.
bronze (v.) Look up bronze at
1640s, "give the color or appearance of bronze to," from French bronzer (16c.) or else from bronze (n.). Figuratively, of feelings, hearts, etc., "to harden like bronze," 1726. Meaning "to make to be brown or bronze in color" (by exposure to the sun, etc.) is from 1792. Related: Bronzed; bronzing.
brooch (n.) Look up brooch at
"ornamental clasp consisting of a pin and a covering shield," early 13c., from Old French broche "long needle" (see broach (n.)). Specialized meaning led 14c. to distinct spelling.
brood (n.) Look up brood at
Old English brod "offspring of egg-laying animals, hatchlings, young birds hatched in one nest," from Proto-Germanic *brod (source also of Middle Dutch broet, Old High German bruot, German Brut "brood"), etymologically "that which is hatched by heat," from *bro- "to warm, heat," from PIE *bhre- "burn, heat, incubate," from root *bhreu- "to boil, bubble, effervesce, burn." Meaning "human offspring, children of one family" is from c. 1300.
brood (v.) Look up brood at
mid-15c., "sit on eggs for the purpose of hatching them," from brood (n.). The figurative meaning "meditate long and anxiously" (to "incubate in the mind") is first recorded 1570s, from notion of "nursing" one's anger, resentment, etc. Related: Brooded; brooding. Brood mare "female horse kept for breeding" is from 1829.
brooding (n.) Look up brooding at
"action of incubating," c. 1400, verbal noun from brood (v.). Figuratively (of weather, etc.) from 1805; of mental fixations by 1873. Related: Broodingly.
brooding (adj.) Look up brooding at
1640s, "hovering, persistently overhanging" (as a mother bird does her nest), from present participle of brood (v.); meaning "that dwells moodily" first attested 1818 (in "Frankenstein").