bothersome (adj.) Look up bothersome at
"troublesome, annoying," 1817, from bother + -some (1).
botony (n.) Look up botony at
also bottony, "decoration with buds, knobs, or buttons at the extremities," 1570s, in heraldry, from Old French botoné (Modern French boutonné) "covered with buds," past participle of boutonner "to bud," from bouton "bud, button," 12c., from bouter "to strike, push," from Frankish or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *buttan, from PIE root *bhau- "to strike."
Botox Look up Botox at
a commercial name for botulinum toxin, and composed of elements from those words, approved in U.S. as a temporary cosmetic injection in 2002.
botryo- Look up botryo- at
before vowels botry-, word-forming element meaning "cluster, cluster-like," from Greek botrys "cluster of grapes," which is of unknown origin.
bottle (v.) Look up bottle at
1640s, "put into a bottle for storing and keeping," from bottle (n.). Earlier in a figurative sense, of feelings, etc., 1620s. Related: Bottled; bottling.
bottle (n.) Look up bottle at
"narrow-necked hollow vessel for holding and carrying liquids," mid-14c., originally of leather, from Old French boteille (12c., Modern French bouteille), from Vulgar Latin butticula (source also of Spanish botella, Italian bottiglia), diminutive of Late Latin buttis "a cask," which is perhaps from Greek.

In reference to a baby's feeding bottle by 1848. The bottle, figurative for "liquor," is from 17c. Bottle-washer is from 1837; bottle-shop is from 1929; bottle-opener as a mechanical device is from 1875. Bottle-arsed was old printers' slang for type wider at one end than the other.
bottle-nose (n.) Look up bottle-nose at
1630s as a type of nose, 1660s as a type of porpoise, from bottle (n.) + nose (n.). Related: Bottle-nosed (1560s).
bottleneck (n.) Look up bottleneck at
also bottle-neck, "narrow entrance, spot where traffic becomes congested," 1896; from bottle (n.) + neck (n.). Meaning "anything which obstructs a flow" is from 1922; the verb in this sense is from 1928.
bottom (v.) Look up bottom at
1540s, "to put a bottom on," from bottom (n.). Meaning "to reach the bottom of" is from 1808 (earlier figuratively, 1785). Related: Bottomed; bottoming.
bottom (n.) Look up bottom at
Old English botm, bodan "ground, soil, foundation, lowest or deepest part of anything," from Proto-Germanic *buthm- (source also of Old Frisian boden "soil," Old Norse botn, Dutch bodem, Old High German bodam, German Boden "ground, earth, soil"). This is perhaps from PIE root *bhudhno- "bottom" (source also of Sanskrit budhnah, Avestan buna- "bottom," Greek pythmen "foundation," Latin fundus "bottom, piece of land, farm," Old Irish bond "sole of the foot").

Meaning "fundamental character, essence" is from 1570s; to get to the bottom of some matter is from 1773. Meaning "posterior of a person" (the sitting part) is from 1794. Bottoms up as a call to finish one's drink is from 1917. Bottom dollar "the last dollar one has" is from 1857. To do or feel something from the bottom of (one's) heart is from 1540s. Bottom-feeder, originally of fishes, is from 1866.
bottom line (n.) Look up bottom line at
figurative sense is attested from 1967, from profit-and-loss accounting, where the final figure after both are calculated is the bottom line on the page. Also (especially as an adjective) bottom-line, bottomline.
bottom-most (adj.) Look up bottom-most at
also bottommost, 1861, from bottom (adj.) + -most.
bottomless (adj.) Look up bottomless at
early 14c., "without a bottom," from bottom + -less. From 1560s as "baseless, unsubstantial."
botulism (n.) Look up botulism at
"poisoning caused by eating imperfectly preserved food," 1878, from German Botulismus (1878), coined in German from Medieval Latin botulus "sausage" (see bowel) + -ismus suffix of action or state (see -ism). The sickness first was traced to eating tainted sausage (sausage poisoning was an old name for it).
bouche (n.) Look up bouche at
French, literally "mouth" (Old French boche, 11c.), from Latin bucca "cheek," which in Late Latin replaced os (see oral) as the word for "mouth" (and also is the source of Italian bocca, Spanish boca). De Vaan writes that "The meaning 'mouth' is secondary, and was originally used in a derogatory way." It is perhaps from Celtic, Germanic, or a non-IE substrate language. Borrowed in English in various senses, such as "king's allowance of food for his retinue" (mid-15c.); "mouth" (1580s); "metal plug for a cannon's vent" (1862; verb in this sense from 1781).
boudoir (n.) Look up boudoir at
"room where a lady may retire to be alone or to receive her intimate friends," 1777, from French boudoir (18c.), literally "pouting room," from bouder "to pout, sulk," which, like pout, probably ultimately is imitative of puffing.
bouffant (adj.) Look up bouffant at
1869, in dressmaking, "puffed out, bulging," from French bouffant, present participle of bouffer "to puff out," from Old French bouffer (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *buffare, probably ultimately imitative of puffing. As a noun by 1870. Earlier as a French word in English. First used of hairdo styles 1955.
Bougainvillaea (n.) Look up Bougainvillaea at
see Bougainvillea.
Bougainvillea (n.) Look up Bougainvillea at
type of tropical woody vine, 1866, named for French navigator Louis Bougainville (1729-1811).
bough (n.) Look up bough at
Old English bog "shoulder, arm," extended in Old English to "twig, branch of a tree" (compare limb (n.1)), from Proto-Germanic *bogaz (source also of Old Norse bogr "shoulder," Old High German buog "upper part of the arm or leg," German Bug "shoulder, hock, joint"), from PIE root *bhagu- "arm" (source also of Sanskrit bahus "arm," Armenian bazuk, Greek pakhys "forearm"). The "limb of a tree" sense is peculiar to English.
bought Look up bought at
past tense and past participle of buy (v.).
boughten (adj.) Look up boughten at
irregular past participle of buy; as an adjective from 1793, especially in colloquial U.S. usage, of clothing and other items, opposed to "made."
BOUGHTEN. Which is bought. This is a common word in the interior of New England and New York. It is applied to articles purchased from the shops, to distinguish them from similar articles of home manufacture. [Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1848]
bougie (n.) Look up bougie at
1755, "wax candle," from French bougie "wax candle," from Bugia, Algeria, (Arabic Bijiyah), a town with a long-established wax trade. Earlier (1754) as a type of thin, flexible surgical instrument.
bouillabaisse (n.) Look up bouillabaisse at
type of fish chowder, 1845, from French bouillabaisse (19c.), from Provençal bouiabaisso, boulh-abaisso, a compound of two verbs corresponding to English boil (v.) + abase (in the original sense of "to lower").
bouillon (n.) Look up bouillon at
broth or soup from boiled beef or other meat, 1650s, from French bouillon (11c.), noun use of past participle of bouillir "to boil," from Old French bolir (see boil (v.)).
boulder (n.) Look up boulder at
1610s, "water-worn rounded stone of medium or large size," variant of Middle English bulder ston "stone worn round, cobblestone" (c. 1300), from a Scandinavian source akin to Swedish dialectal bullersten "noisy stone" (large stone in a stream, causing water to roar around it), from bullra "to roar" + sten "stone." Or the first element might be from *buller- "round object," from Proto-Germanic *bul-, from PIE root *bhel- (2) "to blow, swell." Specific geological sense "large weather-worn block of stone standing by itself" is from 1813.
boulevard (n.) Look up boulevard at
1769, "broad street or promenade planted with rows of trees," from French boulevard, originally "top surface of a military rampart" (15c.), from a garbled attempt to adopt Middle Dutch bolwerc "wall of a fortification" (see bulwark) into French, which at that time lacked a -w- in its alphabet.

The notion is of a promenade laid out atop demolished city walls, a way which would be much wider than urban streets. Originally in English with conscious echoes of Paris; in U.S., since 1929, used of multi-lane limited-access urban highways. Early French attempts to digest the Dutch word also include boloart, boulever, boloirque, bollvercq.
boulevardier (n.) Look up boulevardier at
1856, a French word in English, "one who frequents the boulevard;" i.e. "man-about-town, one fond of urban living and society."
bounce (n.) Look up bounce at
1520s, "a heavy blow," also "a leap, a rebound" from bounce (v.). In reference to politicians and public opinion polls, by 1996, American English.
bounce (v.) Look up bounce at
early 13c., bounsen "to thump, hit," of uncertain origin, perhaps from Dutch bonzen "to beat, thump," or Low German bunsen, or imitative. The sense probably has been influenced by bound (v.). In 17c., "to talk big, bluster; bully, scold." Meaning "to bound like a ball" is from 1510s; transitive sense "cause to rebound" is from 1876. Of a check, "be returned for insufficient funds" is from 1927. Related: Bounced; bouncing.
bouncer (n.) Look up bouncer at
1762, "one who bounces," agent noun from bounce (v.), which originally meant "to thump, hit." Given various specific senses in 19c., such as "boaster, bully, braggart" (1833); also "large example of its kind" (1842); "enforcer of order in a bar or saloon" (1865, American English, originally colloquial).
"The Bouncer" is merely the English "chucker out". When liberty verges on license and gaiety on wanton delirium, the Bouncer selects the gayest of the gay, and -- bounces him! ["London Daily News," July 26, 1883]
bouncing (adj.) Look up bouncing at
"vigorous, big, strong," 1570s, present-participle adjective from bounce (v.).
bouncy (adj.) Look up bouncy at
1895, from bounce (n.) + -y (2).
bound (n.1) Look up bound at
c. 1300, "boundary marker," from Anglo-Latin bunda, from Old French bonde "limit, boundary, boundary stone" (12c., Modern French borne), variant of bodne, from Medieval Latin bodina, which is perhaps from Gaulish.

From mid-14c. as "an external limit, that which limits or circumscribes;" figuratively, of feelings, etc., from late 14c. From late 14c. as "limits of an estate or territory." Now chiefly in out of bounds, which originally referred to limits imposed on students at schools; the other senses generally have gone with boundary.
bound (adj.1) Look up bound at
"fastened," mid-14c. in figurative sense of "compelled," earlier in fuller form bounden (c. 1300), past participle adjective from bind (v.). Meaning "under obligation" is from late 15c.; the literal sense "made fast by tying (with fetters, chains, etc.)" is by 1550s. In philology, designating a grammatical element which occurs only in combination with others (opposed to free), from 1926.
bound (adj.2) Look up bound at
c. 1200, boun, "ready to go;" hence "going or intending to go" (c. 1400), from Old Norse buinn past participle of bua "to prepare," also "to dwell, to live," from Proto-Germanic *bowan (source also of Old High German buan "to dwell," Old Danish both "dwelling, stall"), from PIE root *bheue- "to be, exist, grow." Final -d is presumably through association with bound (adj.1).
bound (v.2) Look up bound at
"to leap, spring upward, jump," 1590s, from Middle French bondir "to rebound, resound, echo," from Old French bondir "to leap, jump, rebound;" originally "make a noise, sound (a horn), beat (a drum)," 13c., ultimately "to echo back," from Vulgar Latin *bombitire "to buzz, hum" (see bomb (n.)), perhaps on model of Old French tentir, from Vulgar Latin *tinnitire.
bound (n.2) Look up bound at
"a leap onward or upward, a springing," 1550s, from bound (v.2).
bound (v.1) Look up bound at
"to form the boundary of," also "to set the boundaries of," late 14c., from bound (n.1). Related: Bounded; bounding.
boundary (n.) Look up boundary at
"that which indicates the limits of anything," 1620s, from bound (n.1) + -ary. Strictly, a visible mark indicating a dividing line, a bound being the limit or furthest point of extension of any one thing.
bounder (n.) Look up bounder at
1560s, "one who sets bounds," agent noun from bound (v.1); British English slang meaning "person of objectionable social behavior, would-be stylish person," is from 1882, perhaps from bound (v.2) on notion of one trying to "bound" into high society, but earliest usage suggests one outside the "bounds" of acceptable socializing, which would connect it with bound (n.1).
boundless (adj.) Look up boundless at
"without bounds or limits," 1590s, from bound (n.1) + -less. Related: Boundlessly; boundlessness.
bounteous (adj.) Look up bounteous at
late 14c., bounteuous, bountevous, from Old French bontieus, bontive; see bounty + -ous. Originally "full of goodness to others," but since c. 1400 shading toward "generous in bestowing," a sense which logically might have been left to bountiful. Related: Bounteously; bounteousness.
bountiful (adj.) Look up bountiful at
mid-15c., "liberal in bestowing gifts;" see bounty + -ful. From 1530s as "characterized by bounty, abundant, ample." Related: Bountifully; bountifulness.
bounty (n.) Look up bounty at
late 13c., "a gift, a reward, a favor bestowed freely;" c. 1300, "goodness, virtue; beauty; ; excellence; knightly prowess, strength, valor, chivalry," early 14c., "a helpful act, an act of generosity, a good deed," also "liberality in giving, generosity, munificence," from Anglo-French bountee, Old French bonte "goodness" (12c., Modern French bonté), from Latin bonitatem (nominative bonitas) "goodness," from bonus "good" (see bonus).

Sense of "gift bestowed by a sovereign or the state" led to extended senses of "premium or gratuity to a military recruit" (1702) and "reward for killing or taking a criminal or enemy" (1764) or dangerous animal (1847). Bounty-jumper, "one who enlists in the military, collects the bounty, and flees without reporting for duty" is from the American Civil War (by 1864). Bounty-hunter is from 1893, American English, originally in reference to wild animals.
I do ... promise, that there shall be paid ... the following several and respective premiums and Bounties for the prisoners and Scalps of the Enemy Indians that shall be taken or killed .... ["Papers of the Governor of Pennsylvania," 1764]
bouquet (n.) Look up bouquet at
"bunch of flowers," 1716, introduced to English by Lady Mary Montague from French bouquet, originally "little wood," from Picard form of Old French bochet, boschet (14c.), diminutive of bosco, from Medieval Latin boscus "grove" (see bush (n.)). Meaning "perfume from a wine" is recorded by 1815.
bourbon (n.) Look up bourbon at
type of American corn whiskey, 1846, from Bourbon County, Kentucky, where it first was made, supposedly in 1789. Bourbon County was organized 1785, one of the nine established by the Virginia legislature before Kentucky became a state. The name reflects the fondness felt in the United States for the French royal family, and especially Louis XVI, in gratitude for the indispensable support he had given to the rebel colonists. See Bourbon.
Bourbon Look up Bourbon at
line of French kings (who also ruled in Naples and Spain), of whom it was proverbially said, "they learn nothing and forget nothing." The royal family ruled in France 1589-1792 and 1815-1848; its name is from Bourbon l'Archambault, chief town of a lordship in central France, probably from Borvo, name of a local Celtic deity associated with thermal springs, whose name probably is related to Celtic borvo "foam, froth." Proverbially, they "forget nothing and learn nothing" (attested by 1830, source unknown), hence the name was used generally of extreme conservatives.
bourdon (n.) Look up bourdon at
see burden (n.2).
bourgeois (adj.) Look up bourgeois at
1560s, "of or pertaining to the French middle class," from French bourgeois, from Old French burgeis, borjois "town dweller" (as distinct from "peasant"), from borc "town, village," from Frankish *burg "city" (from PIE root *bhergh- (2) "high," with derivatives referring to hills and hill-forts).

Later extended to tradespeople or citizens of middle rank in other nations. Sense of "socially or aesthetically conventional; middle-class in manners or taste" is from 1764. Also (from the position of the upper class) "wanting in dignity or refinement, common, not aristocratic."
"Bourgeois," I observed, "is an epithet which the riff-raff apply to what is respectable, and the aristocracy to what is decent." [Anthony Hope, "The Dolly Dialogues," 1907]
As a noun, "citizen or freeman of a city," 1670s. In communist and socialist writing, "a capitalist, anyone deemed an exploiter of the proletariat" (1883).
"But after all," Fanning was saying, "it's better to be a good ordinary bourgeois than a bad ordinary bohemian, or a sham aristocrat, or a secondrate intellectual ...." [Aldous Huxley, "After the Fireworks," 1930]