bottom line (n.) Look up bottom line at Dictionary.com
figurative sense is attested from 1967, from profit and loss accounting, where the final figure after both are calculated is the bottom line on the page. Also (especially as an adjective) bottomline.
bottomless (adj.) Look up bottomless at Dictionary.com
early 14c., from bottom + -less.
botulism (n.) Look up botulism at Dictionary.com
1878, from German Botulismus (1878), coined in German from Latin botulus "sausage" (see bowel) + -ismus suffix of action or state (see -ism). Sickness first traced to eating tainted sausage (sausage poisoning was an old name for it).
bouche (n.) Look up bouche at Dictionary.com
French, literally "mouth" (Old French boche, 11c.), from Latin bucca "cheek," which in Late Latin replaced os (see oral) as the word for "mouth" (and also is the source of Italian bocca, Spanish boca). Borrowed in English in various senses, such as "king's allowance of food for his retinue" (mid-15c.); "mouth" (1580s); "metal plug for a cannon's vent" (1862; verb in this sense from 1781).
boudoir (n.) Look up boudoir at Dictionary.com
1777, "room where a lady may retire to be alone," from French boudoir (18c.), literally "pouting room," from bouder "to pout, sulk," which, like pout, probably ultimately is imitative of puffing.
bouffant (adj.) Look up bouffant at Dictionary.com
1869, from French bouffant, present participle of bouffer "to puff out," from Old French bouffer (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *buffare, probably ultimately imitative of puffing. As a noun by 1870. Earlier as a French word in English. First used of hairdo style 1955.
bougainvillaea (n.) Look up bougainvillaea at Dictionary.com
see bougainvillea.
bougainvillea (n.) Look up bougainvillea at Dictionary.com
type of woody vine, 1866, named for French navigator Louis Bougainville (1729-1811).
bough (n.) Look up bough at Dictionary.com
Old English bog "shoulder, arm," extended in Old English to "twig, branch" (compare limb (n.1)), from Proto-Germanic *bogaz (source also of Old Norse bogr "shoulder," Old High German buog, German Bug "shoulder, hock, joint"), from PIE *bhagus "elbow, forearm" (source also of Sanskrit bahus "arm," Armenian bazuk, Greek pakhys "forearm"). The "limb of a tree" sense is peculiar to English.
bought Look up bought at Dictionary.com
past tense and past participle of buy (v.).
boughten (adj.) Look up boughten at Dictionary.com
irregular past participle of buy; as an adjective from 1793, especially in colloquial U.S. usage, of clothing and other items, opposed to "made."
BOUGHTEN. Which is bought. This is a common word in the interior of New England and New York. It is applied to articles purchased from the shops, to distinguish them from similar articles of home manufacture. [Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1848]
bougie (n.) Look up bougie at Dictionary.com
"wax candle," 1755, from French bougie "wax candle," from Bugia, Algeria, (Arabic Bijiyah), a town with a long-established wax trade.
bouillabaisse (n.) Look up bouillabaisse at Dictionary.com
fish stew, 1845, from French bouillabaisse (19c.), from Provençal bouiabaisso, boulh-abaisso, a compound of two verbs corresponding to English boil-abase (the latter in the original sense of "to lower").
bouillon (n.) Look up bouillon at Dictionary.com
1650s, from French bouillon (11c.), noun use of past participle of bouillir "to boil," from Old French bolir (see boil (v.)).
boulder (n.) Look up boulder at Dictionary.com
1670s, variant of Middle English bulder (c. 1300), from a Scandinavian source akin to Swedish dialectal bullersten "noisy stone" (large stone in a stream, causing water to roar around it), from bullra "to roar" + sten "stone." Or the first element might be from *buller- "round object," from Proto-Germanic *bul-, from PIE root *bhel- (2) "to blow, swell."
boulevard (n.) Look up boulevard at Dictionary.com
1769, from French boulevard (15c.), originally "top surface of a military rampart," from a garbled attempt to adopt Middle Dutch bolwerc "wall of a fortification" (see bulwark) into French, which at that time lacked a -w- in its alphabet. The notion is of a promenade laid out atop demolished city walls, a way which would be much wider than urban streets. Originally in English with conscious echoes of Paris; since 1929, in U.S., used of multi-lane limited-access urban highways. Early French attempts to digest the Dutch word also include boloart, boulever, boloirque, bollvercq.
boulevardier (n.) Look up boulevardier at Dictionary.com
1856, French, "one who frequents the boulevard;" i.e.: man-about-town, one fond of urban living and society.
bounce (v.) Look up bounce at Dictionary.com
early 13c., bounsen "to thump, hit," perhaps from Dutch bonzen "to beat, thump," or Low German bunsen, or imitative; sense probably influenced by bound (v.). Sense of "to bounce like a ball" is from 1510s; the rubber check sense is from 1927. Related: Bounced; bouncing.
bounce (n.) Look up bounce at Dictionary.com
1520s, "a heavy blow," also "a leap, a rebound" from bounce (v.). In reference to politicians and public opinion polls, by 1996, American English.
bouncer (n.) Look up bouncer at Dictionary.com
mid-19c. in various senses, noun derivative of bounce (v.) in its original sense of "thump, hit." Earliest attested is "boaster, bully, braggart" (1833); also "large example of its kind" (1842); "enforcer of order in a bar or saloon" (1865, American English, originally colloquial).
"The Bouncer" is merely the English "chucker out". When liberty verges on license and gaiety on wanton delirium, the Bouncer selects the gayest of the gay, and -- bounces him! ["London Daily News," July 26, 1883]
bouncing (adj.) Look up bouncing at Dictionary.com
"vigorous, big," 1570s, present participle adjective from bounce (v.).
bouncy (adj.) Look up bouncy at Dictionary.com
1895, from bounce (n.) + -y (2).
bound (v.1) Look up bound at Dictionary.com
"to form the boundary of," also "to set the boundaries of," late 14c., from bound (n.). Related: Bounded; bounding.
bound (v.2) Look up bound at Dictionary.com
"to leap," 1580s, from Middle French bondir "to rebound, resound, echo," from Old French bondir "to leap, jump, rebound; make a noise, sound (a horn), beat (a drum)," 13c., ultimately "to echo back," from Vulgar Latin *bombitire "to buzz, hum" (see bomb (n.)), perhaps on model of Old French tentir, from Vulgar Latin *tinnitire.
bound (adj.1) Look up bound at Dictionary.com
"fastened," mid-14c., in figurative sense of "compelled," from bounden, past participle of bind (v.). Meaning "under obligation" is from late 15c.; the literal sense "made fast by tying" is the latest recorded (1550s).
bound (n.1) Look up bound at Dictionary.com
"limit," c. 1200, from Anglo-Latin bunda, from Old French bonde "limit, boundary, boundary stone" (12c., Modern French borne), variant of bodne, from Medieval Latin bodina, perhaps from Gaulish. Now chiefly in out of bounds, which originally referred to limits imposed on students at schools.
bound (n.2) Look up bound at Dictionary.com
"a leap, a springing," 1580s, from bound (v.2).
bound (adj.2) Look up bound at Dictionary.com
"ready to go," c. 1200, boun, from Old Norse buinn past participle of bua "to prepare," also "to dwell, to live," from Proto-Germanic *bowan (source also of Old High German buan "to dwell," Old Danish both "dwelling, stall"), from PIE root *bheue- "to be, exist, grow." Final -d is presumably through association with bound (adj.1).
boundary (n.) Look up boundary at Dictionary.com
1620s, from bound (n.) + -ary.
bounder (n.) Look up bounder at Dictionary.com
1560s, "one who sets bounds," agent noun from bound (v.1); British English slang meaning "person of objectionable social behavior, would-be stylish person," is from 1882, perhaps from bound (v.2) on notion of one trying to "bound" into high society, but earliest usage suggests one outside the "bounds" of acceptable socializing, which would connect it with the noun.
boundless (adj.) Look up boundless at Dictionary.com
1590s, from bound (n.) + -less. Related: Boundlessly; boundlessness.
bounteous (adj.) Look up bounteous at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from bounty + -ous; originally "full of goodness," but always shading toward "generous in bestowing," a sense which logically might have been left to bountiful. Related: Bounteously; bounteousness.
bountiful (adj.) Look up bountiful at Dictionary.com
late 15c., from bounty + -ful. Related: Bountifully.
bounty (n.) Look up bounty at Dictionary.com
mid-13c., "generosity," from Old French bonte "goodness" (12c., Modern French bonté), from Latin bonitatem (nominative bonitas) "goodness," from bonus "good" (see bonus). Sense of "gift bestowed by a sovereign or the state" led to extended senses of "gratuity to a military recruit" (1702) and "reward for killing or taking a criminal or enemy" (1764).
I do ... promise, that there shall be paid ... the following several and respective premiums and Bounties for the prisoners and Scalps of the Enemy Indians that shall be taken or killed .... ["Papers of the Governor of Pennsylvania," 1764]
bouquet (n.) Look up bouquet at Dictionary.com
1716, introduced to English by Lady Mary Montague from French bouquet, originally "little wood," from Picard form of Old French bochet (14c.), diminutive of bosco, from Medieval Latin boscus "grove" (see bush (n.)).
bourbon (n.) Look up bourbon at Dictionary.com
type of American corn whiskey, 1846, from Bourbon County, Kentucky, where it first was made, supposedly in 1789. Bourbon County was organized 1785, one of the nine established by the Virginia legislature before Kentucky became a state. The name reflects the fondness felt in the United States for the French royal family, and especially Louis XVI, in gratitude for the indispensable support he had given to the rebel colonists. See Bourbon.
Bourbon Look up Bourbon at Dictionary.com
line of French kings (who also ruled in Naples and Spain), of whom it was proverbially said, "they learn nothing and forget nothing." The royal family ruled in France 1589-1792 and 1815-1848; its name is from Bourbon l'Archambault, chief town of a lordship in central France, probably from Borvo, name of a local Celtic deity associated with thermal springs, whose name probably is related to Celtic borvo "foam, froth."
bourgeois (adj.) Look up bourgeois at Dictionary.com
1560s, "of the French middle class," from French bourgeois, from Old French burgeis, borjois "town dweller" (see bourgeoisie). Sense of "socially or aesthetically conventional" is from 1764; in communist and socialist writing, as a noun, "a capitalist" (1883).
It is better to be a good ordinary bourgeois than a bad ordinary bohemian. [Aldous Huxley, 1930]
bourgeoise (adj.) Look up bourgeoise at Dictionary.com
proper French fem. of bourgeois (q.v.).
bourgeoisie (n.) Look up bourgeoisie at Dictionary.com
1707, "body of freemen in a French town; the French middle class," from French bourgeois, from Old French burgeis, borjois (12c.) "town dweller" (as distinct from "peasant"), from borc "town, village," from Frankish *burg "city" (see borough). Communist use for "the capitalist class generally" attested from 1886.
bourn (n.2) Look up bourn at Dictionary.com
"destination," 1520s, from French borne, apparently a variant of bodne (see bound (n.)). Used by Shakespeare in Hamlet's soliloquy (1602), from which it entered into English poetic speech. He meant it probably in the correct sense of "boundary," but it has been taken to mean "goal" (Wordsworth, Matthew Arnold) or sometimes "realm" (Keats).
The dread of something after death, The vndiscouered Countrey; from whose Borne No Traueller returnes. ["Hamlet" III.i.79]
bourn (n.1) Look up bourn at Dictionary.com
also bourne, "small stream," especially of the winter torrents of the chalk downs, Old English brunna, burna "brook, stream," from Proto-Germanic *brunnoz "spring, fountain" (source also of Old High German brunno, Old Norse brunnr, Old Frisian burna, German Brunnen "fountain," Gothis brunna "well"), ultimately from PIE root *bhreu- "to boil, bubble, effervesce, burn."
bourse (n.) Look up bourse at Dictionary.com
"stock exchange," 1570s, burse, from Old French borse "money bag, purse" (12c.), from Medieval Latin bursa "a bag" (see purse (n.)). French spelling and modern sense of "exchange for merchants" is first recorded 1845, from the name of the Paris stock exchange. The term originated because in 13c. Bruges the sign of a purse (or perhaps three purses), hung on the front of the house where merchants met.
boustrophedon (n.) Look up boustrophedon at Dictionary.com
1783, ancient form of writing with lines alternately written left-to-right and right-to-left, from Greek, literally "turning as an ox in plowing," from bous "ox" (from PIE root *gwou- "ox, bull, cow") + strephein "to turn" (see strophe).
bout (n.) Look up bout at Dictionary.com
1540s, from Middle English bught, probably from an unrecorded Old English variant of byht "a bend," from Proto-Germanic *bukhta- (see bight (n.)). Sense evolved from "a circuit of any kind" (as of a plow) to "a round at any kind of exercise" (1570s), "a round at fighting" (1590s), "a fit of drinking" (1660s).
boutique (n.) Look up boutique at Dictionary.com
"fashion shop," 1953, earlier "small shop of any sort" (1767), from French boutique (14c.), from Old Provençal botica, from Latin apotheca "storehouse" (see apothecary). Latin apotheca directly into French normally would have yielded *avouaie.
boutonniere (n.) Look up boutonniere at Dictionary.com
1877, from French boutonnière, from bouton "button" (see button (n.)).
bovine (adj.) Look up bovine at Dictionary.com
1817, from French bovin (14c.), from Late Latin bovinus, from Latin bos (genitive bovis) "ox, cow," from PIE root *gwou- "ox, bull, cow." Figurative sense of "inert and stupid" is from 1855.
bovver Look up bovver at Dictionary.com
1969, Cockney pronunciation of bother "trouble" (q.v.), given wide extended usage in skinhead slang.
bow (v.) Look up bow at Dictionary.com
Old English bugan "to bend, to bow down, to bend the body in condescension," also "to turn back" (class II strong verb; past tense beag, past participle bogen), from Proto-Germanic *bugon (source also of Dutch buigen, Middle Low German bugen, Old High German biogan, German biegen, Gothic biugan "to bend," Old Norse boginn "bent"), from *beugen, from PIE root *bheug- "to bend." The noun in this sense is first recorded 1650s. Related: Bowed; bowing. To bow out "withdraw" is from 1942.