binaural (adj.) Look up binaural at
"pertaining to both ears," 1861, from Latin bini "twofold, two apiece" (see binary) + aural. In reference to electronic recordings, from 1933.
bind (v.) Look up bind at
Old English bindan "to tie up with bonds" (literally and figuratively), also "to make captive; to cover with dressings and bandages" (class III strong verb; past tense band, past participle bunden), from Proto-Germanic *bindan (source also of Old Saxon bindan, Old Norse and Old Frisian binda, Old High German binten "to bind," German binden, Gothic bindan), from PIE root *bhendh- "to bind" (see bend (v.)). Intransitive sense of "stick together" is from 1670s. Of books, from c. 1400.
bind (n.) Look up bind at
"anything that binds," in various senses, late Old English, from bind (v.). Meaning "tight or awkward situation" is from 1851.
binder (n.) Look up binder at
Old English bindere "one who binds" (see bind (v.)). Of various objects or products that bind, from early 16c.
bindery (n.) Look up bindery at
1810, American English; see bind (v.) + -ery.
binding (n.) Look up binding at
mid-13c., verbal noun from bind (v.). Meaning "thing that binds" is from c. 1300; "state of being bound" is from late 14c. Meaning "covering of a book" is recorded from 1640s.
bindle (n.) Look up bindle at
"tramp's bundle," c. 1900, perhaps from bundle (n.) or Scottish dialectal bindle "cord or rope to bind things." Related: Bindlestiff.
bine (n.) Look up bine at
"climbing stem, flexible shoot of a shrub," 1727, from a dialectal form of bind (n.).
bing (n.) Look up bing at
"heap or pile," 1510s, from Old Norse bingr "heap." Also used from early 14c. as a word for bin, perhaps from notion of "place where things are piled."
binge (n.) Look up binge at
1854, "drinking bout," also (v.) "drink heavily, soak up alcohol;" dialectal use of binge "soak" (a wooden vessel). Noted originally as a Northampton dialect word. Sense extended c. World War I to include eating as well as drinking. Related: Binged; binging.
bingo (n.) Look up bingo at
lotto-like game of chance, 1936; many theories about its origin, none satisfying; the most likely is bingo! as an exclamation of sudden realization or surprise (attested from 1923). Uncertain connection to the slang word for "brandy" (1690s); attested as "liquor" in American English, 1861. Thomas Chandler Haliburton ("Sam Slick") in "The Americans at Home" (1854) recounts a story of a drinking game in which the children's song about the farmer's dog was sung and when it came time to spell out the name, every participant had to take a letter in turn, and anyone who missed or flubbed had to drink.
binnacle (n.) Look up binnacle at
"wooden box for a ship's compass," c. 1750, corruption of bittacle (1620s), which is probably from Spanish bitacula or Portuguese bitacola, both from Latin habitaculum "little dwelling place," from habitare "to inhabit" (see habit).
binocle (n.) Look up binocle at
1690s, from French binocle (17c.), from Latin bini- "two by two, twofold, two apiece" (see binary) + oculus "eye" (see eye (n.)).
binocular (adj.) Look up binocular at
1738, "involving both eyes," earlier "having two eyes" (1713), from French binoculaire, from Latin bini "two by two, twofold, two apiece" (see binary) + ocularis "of the eye," from oculus "eye" (see eye (n.)). The double-tubed telescopic instrument (1871, short for binocular glass) earlier was called a binocle. Related: Binocularity.
binoculars (n.) Look up binoculars at
1866; see binocular. Earlier binocle (1690s).
binomial Look up binomial at
1550s (n.); 1560s (adj.), from Late Latin binomius "having two personal names," a hybrid from bi- (see bi-) + nomius, from nomen (see name (n.)). Taken up 16c. in the algebraic sense "consisting of two terms."
bint (n.) Look up bint at
"girlfriend," 1855, British English, from Arabic bint "daughter;" adopted by British servicemen in the Middle East.
bio (n.) Look up bio at
short for biography, attested from 1961.
bio- Look up bio- at
word-forming element, from Greek bios "one's life, course or way of living, lifetime" (as opposed to zoe "animal life, organic life"), from PIE root *gweie- (1) "to live" (source also of Sanskrit jivah "alive, living;" Old Persian *jivaka- "alive," Middle Persian zhiwak "alive;" Old English cwic, cwicu "living, alive;" Latin vivus "living, alive," vita "life;" Old Church Slavonic zivo "to live;" Lithuanian gyvas "living, alive," gyvata "(eternal) life;" Old Irish bethu "life," bith "age;" Welsh byd "world"). The correct usage is that in biography, but in modern science it has been extended to mean "organic life."
biocentric (adj.) Look up biocentric at
also bio-centric, 1889, from bio- + -centric. Anti-biocentric attested from 1882.
biochemical (adj.) Look up biochemical at
also bio-chemical, 1851, after German biochemisch, from bio- + chemical. Related: Biochemically.
biochemist (n.) Look up biochemist at
also bio-chemist, 1897; see bio- + chemist.
biochemistry (n.) Look up biochemistry at
also bio-chemistry, 1857, from bio- + chemistry.
biocide (n.) Look up biocide at
"destruction of living tissue or living species," 1947, from bio- + -cide.
biodegradable (adj.) Look up biodegradable at
also bio-degradable, 1960, from bio- + degrade + -able.
biodiesel (n.) Look up biodiesel at
also bio-diesel, 1992, from bio- + diesel.
biodiversity (n.) Look up biodiversity at
also bio-diversity, by 1988, from bio- + diversity.
bioethics (n.) Look up bioethics at
also bio-ethics, coined 1970 by U.S. biochemist Van Rensselaer Potter II (1911-2001), who defined it as "Biology combined with diverse humanistic knowledge forging a science that sets a system of medical and environmental priorities for acceptable survival." From bio- + ethics.
biofeedback (n.) Look up biofeedback at
also bio-feedback, 1969, from bio- + feedback. Said to have been coined by U.S. psychologist and parapsychologist Gardner Murphy (1890-1975).
biofuel (n.) Look up biofuel at
also bio-fuel, by 1984, from bio- + fuel (n.).
biogenesis (n.) Look up biogenesis at
also bio-genesis, 1870, "theory that living organisms arise only from pre-existing living matter," coined by English biologist T.H. Huxley (1825-1895) from Greek bios "life" (see bio-) + -genesis "birth, origin, creation." Related: Biogenetic; biogenetical.
biogenic (adj.) Look up biogenic at
1904, with reference to Haeckel's recapitulation theory; 1913 as "produced by living organisms," from bio- + genic "produced by" (see genus).
biogeny (n.) Look up biogeny at
1870, "biogenesis;" see biogenic. As "history of the evolution of an organism," 1879.
biogeography (n.) Look up biogeography at
also bio-geography, 1892, from bio- + geography. Related: Biogeographical.
biographer (n.) Look up biographer at
1715; see biography + -er (1). Earlier was biographist (1660s).
Of every great and eminent character, part breaks forth into public view, and part lies hid in domestic privacy. Those qualities which have been exerted in any known and lasting performances may, at any distance of time, be traced and estimated; but silent excellencies are soon forgotten; and those minute peculiarities which discriminate every man from all others, if the are not recorded by those whom personal knowledge enabled to observe them, are irrecoverably lost. [Johnson, "Life of Sir Thomas Browne," 1756]
biographical (adj.) Look up biographical at
1738; see biography + -ical. Related: Biographically.
biography (n.) Look up biography at
1680s, probably from Latin biographia, from Late Greek biographia "description of life," from Greek bios "life" (see bio-) + graphia "record, account" (see -graphy). Biographia was not in classical Greek (bios alone was the word for it), though it is attested in later Greek from c.500.
biohazard (n.) Look up biohazard at
also bio-hazard, 1973, from bio- + hazard (n.).
biological (adj.) Look up biological at
1840, from biology + -ical. Biological clock attested from 1955; not especially of human reproductive urges until c. 1991. Related: Biologically.
biologist (n.) Look up biologist at
1813, from biology + -ist. Earliest use is in reference to human life. In modern scientific sense, by 1874.
biology (n.) Look up biology at
1819, from Greek bios "life" (see bio-) + -logy. Suggested 1802 by German naturalist Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (1776-1837), and introduced as a scientific term that year in French by Lamarck.
bioluminescence (n.) Look up bioluminescence at
also bio-luminescence, 1909; see bio- + luminescence.
bioluminescent (adj.) Look up bioluminescent at
also bio-luminescent, 1929; see bioluminescence.
biomass (n.) Look up biomass at
also bio-mass, c. 1980, from bio- + mass (n.1).
biome (n.) Look up biome at
1908, from Greek bios (see bio-) + -ome.
biomechanics (n.) Look up biomechanics at
also bio-mechanics, 1933, "study of the action of forces on the body," from bio- + mechanic (also see -ics). Earlier (1924) as a term in Russian theater, from Russian biomekhanika (1921).
biomedical (adj.) Look up biomedical at
also bio-medical, 1961, from bio- + medical (adj.).
biometric (adj.) Look up biometric at
1888, from bio- + -metric.
biometrics (n.) Look up biometrics at
"application of mathematics to biology," 1902, from biometric (also see -ics); slightly earlier in this sense was biometry (1901), which was coined by Whewell and used by him and others with a sense of "calculation of life expectancy" (1831).
biometry (n.) Look up biometry at
see biometrics.