arthroscopic (adj.) Look up arthroscopic at Dictionary.com
1979; see arthroscopy + -ic.
arthroscopy (n.) Look up arthroscopy at Dictionary.com
by 1977, from arthro- + -scopy.
Arthur Look up Arthur at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, from Medieval Latin Arthurus/Arturus, from Welsh arth "bear," cognate with Greek arktos, Latin ursus (see Arctic).
Arthurian (adj.) Look up Arthurian at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to the series of tales of British King Arthur and his knights," 1793, from Arthur + -ian.
artichoke (n.) Look up artichoke at Dictionary.com
1530s, from articiocco, Northern Italian variant of Italian arcicioffo, from Old Spanish alcarchofa, from Arabic al-hursufa "artichoke." The Northern Italian variation probably is from influence of ciocco "stump."

Folk etymology has twisted the word in English; the ending is probably influenced by choke, and early forms of the word in English include archecokk, hortichock, artychough, hartichoake. The plant was known in Italy by 1450s, brought to Florence from Naples in 1466, and introduced in England in the reign of Henry VIII. French artichaut (16c.), German Artischocke (16c.) both are also from Italian.
article (n.) Look up article at Dictionary.com
c.1200, "separate parts of anything written" (such as the statements in the Apostles' Creed, the clauses of a statute or contract), from Old French article (13c.), from Latin articulus, diminutive of artus "a joint" (from PIE *ar-tu-, from *ar- "to fit together;" (see arm (n.1)).

Meaning extended to "a small division," then generalized to "item, thing." Older sense preserved in Articles of War "military regulations" (1716) and Articles of Confederation (U.S. history). Meaning "literary composition in a journal, etc." (independent, but part of a larger work) first recorded 1712. Meaning "piece of property" (clothing, etc.) first attested 1796, originally in rogue's cant.
articular (adj.) Look up articular at Dictionary.com
from Latin articularis "pertaining to the joints," from articulus (see articulate (v.)).
articulate (v.) Look up articulate at Dictionary.com
1590s, "to divide speech into distinct parts" (earlier "to formally bring charges against," 1550s), from Latin articulatus, past participle of articulare "to separate into joints," also "to utter distinctly," from articulus "joint" (see article). Generalized sense of "express in words" is from 1690s. Literal sense, "to join, to attach by joints," is attested from 1610s. Earlier senses, "to set forth in articles," "to bring a charge against" (1560s) now are obsolete or nearly so. Related: Articulated; articulating.
articulate (adj.) Look up articulate at Dictionary.com
1580s in the speech sense (1570s as "formulated in articles"), from Latin articulatus (see articulate (v.)). Literal meaning "composed of segments united by joints" is from c.1600; the general sense of "speaking accurately" is short for articulate-speaking (1829). Related: Articulately.
articulated (adj.) Look up articulated at Dictionary.com
"jointed," 1610s, past participle adjective from articulate (v.). Meaning "made distinct" is from 1855.
articulation (n.) Look up articulation at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "a joint or joining; setting of bones," from Old French articulation, from Medieval Latin articulationem (nominative articulatio) "separation into joints," noun of action from past participle stem of articulare "to separate (meat) into joints," also "to utter distinctly," from articulus, diminutive of artus "joint" (see article).
artifact (n.) Look up artifact at Dictionary.com
1821, artefact, "anything made by human art," from Italian artefatto, from Latin arte "by skill" (ablative of ars "art;" see art (n.)) + factum "thing made," from facere "to make, do" (see factitious). The spelling with -i- is by 1884, by influence of the Latin stem. Archaeological application dates from 1890.
artifactual (adj.) Look up artifactual at Dictionary.com
also artefactual, 1914, from artifact + -al (1).
artifice (n.) Look up artifice at Dictionary.com
1530s, "workmanship, the making of anything by craft or skill," from Middle French artifice "skill, cunning" (14c.), from Latin artificium "a profession, trade, employment, craft; making by art," from artifex (genitive artificis) "craftsman, artist," from ars "art" (see art (n.)) + facere "do" (see factitious). Meaning "device, trick" (the usual modern sense) is from 1650s.
artificer (n.) Look up artificer at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "one who makes by art or skill," agent noun from artifice. Military sense dates from 1758.
artificial (adj.) Look up artificial at Dictionary.com
late 14c., in the phrase artificial day "part of the day from sunrise to sunset," from Old French artificial, from Latin artificialis "of or belonging to art," from artificium (see artifice). Meaning "made by man" (opposite of natural) is from early 15c. Applied to things that are not natural, whether real (artificial light) or not (artificial flowers). Artificial insemination dates from 1897. Artificial intelligence "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines" was coined in 1956.
artificially (adv.) Look up artificially at Dictionary.com
early 15c.; see artificial + -ly (2).
artillerist (n.) Look up artillerist at Dictionary.com
1778; see artillery + -ist.
artillery (n.) Look up artillery at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "warlike munitions," from Anglo-French artillerie, Old French artillerie (14c.), from artillier "to provide with engines of war" (13c.), which probably is from Medieval Latin articulum "art, skill," diminutive of Latin ars (genitive artis) "art." But some would connect it with Latin articulum "joint," and still others with Old French atillier "to equip," altered by influence of arte. Sense of "engines for discharging missiles" (catapults, slings, bows, etc.) is from late 15c.; that of "ordnance, large guns" is from 1530s.
artisan (n.) Look up artisan at Dictionary.com
1530s, from Italian artesano, from Vulgar Latin artitianus, from Latin artitus, past participle of artire "to instruct in the arts," from ars (genitive artis) "art" (see art (n.)). Barnhart reports Middle French artisan, often listed as the direct source of the English word, is attested too late to be so.
artisan (adj.) Look up artisan at Dictionary.com
1859, from artisan (n.).
artist (n.) Look up artist at Dictionary.com
1580s, "one who cultivates one of the fine arts," from Middle French artiste (14c.), from Italian artista, from Medieval Latin artista, from Latin ars (see art (n.)).

Originally used especially of the arts presided over by the Muses (history, poetry, comedy, tragedy, music, dancing, astronomy), but also used 17c. for "one skilled in any art or craft" (including professors, surgeons, craftsmen, cooks). Now especially of "one who practices the arts of design or visual arts" (a sense first attested 1747).
artiste (n.) Look up artiste at Dictionary.com
1819 in English, from 1804 as a French word, from French artiste; a reborrowing of artist, at first in a foreign context, later used to fill the gap after the sense of artist had become limited toward the visual arts and especially painting.
Artiste: an admirable word (albeit somewhat Frenchified) of late applied, with nice discrimination, to every species of exhibitor, from a rope-dancer down to a mere painter or sculptor. On looking into little Entick (my great authority in these matters), I find we have already the word artist; but with stupid English perversity, we have hitherto used that in a much more restricted sense than its newly-imported rival, which it is becoming the excellent fashion to adopt. ["Paul Pry's Journal of a Residence at Little-Pedlington," Philadelphia, 1836]
artistic (adj.) Look up artistic at Dictionary.com
1753, from French artistique, from artiste (see artist). Native artist-like was recorded from 1711; artistly from 1754; artistical from 1801. Related: Artistically.
artistry (n.) Look up artistry at Dictionary.com
"artistic ability," 1837, from artist + -ry; as chemistry from chemist, etc.
artless (adj.) Look up artless at Dictionary.com
1580s, "unskillful," from art (n.) + -less. Later also "uncultured" (1590s); then "unartificial, natural" (1670s) and "guileless, ingenuous" (1714). Related: Artlessly; artlessness.
artsy (adj.) Look up artsy at Dictionary.com
"pretentiously artistic," 1902, from arts (see art (n.)); originally especially artsy-craftsy, with reference to the arts and crafts movement; always more or less dismissive or pejorative; artsy-fartsy was in use by 1971.
artwork (n.) Look up artwork at Dictionary.com
also art-work, 1877, from art (n.) + work (n.).
arty (adj.) Look up arty at Dictionary.com
1901, "having artistic pretentions," from art (n.) + -y (2); also see artsy.
arugula (n.) Look up arugula at Dictionary.com
edible cruciform plant (Eruca sativa) used originally in the Mediterranean region as a salad; the American English and Australian form of the name is (via Italian immigrants) from dialectal variant of Italian ruchetta, a diminutive form of ruca-, from Latin eruca, a name of some cabbage-like plant, from PIE *gher(s)-uka-, from root *ghers- "to bristle" (see horror).

In England, the usual name is rocket (see rocket (n.1)), which is from Italian ruchetta via French roquette. It also sometimes is called hedge mustard.
ARVN Look up ARVN at Dictionary.com
acronym for Army of the Republic of Vietnam, ground military force of South Vietnam, organized 1955.
Aryan Look up Aryan at Dictionary.com
c.1600, as a term in classical history, from Latin Arianus, Ariana, from Greek Aria, Areia, names applied in classical times to the eastern part of ancient Persia and to its inhabitants. Ancient Persians used the name in reference to themselves (Old Persian ariya-), hence Iran. Ultimately from Sanskrit arya- "compatriot;" in later language "noble, of good family."

Also the name Sanskrit-speaking invaders of India gave themselves in the ancient texts, from which early 19c. European philologists (Friedrich Schlegel, 1819, who linked the word with German Ehre "honor") applied it to the ancient people we now call Indo-Europeans (suspecting that this is what they called themselves); this use is attested in English from 1851. The term fell into the hands of racists, and in German from 1845 it was specifically contrasted to Semitic (Lassen).

German philologist Max Müller (1823-1900) popularized the term in his writings on comparative linguistics, recommending it as the name (replacing Indo-European, Indo-Germanic, Caucasian, Jshortened) for the group of related, inflected languages connected with these peoples, mostly found in Europe but also including Sanskrit and Persian. Arian was used in this sense from 1839 (and is more philologically correct), but this spelling caused confusion with Arian, the term in ecclesiastical history.

Gradually replaced in comparative linguistics c.1900 by Indo-European, except when used to distinguish Indo-European languages of India from non-Indo-European ones. Used in Nazi ideology to mean "member of a Caucasian Gentile race of Nordic type." As an ethnic designation, however, it is properly limited to Indo-Iranians (most justly to the latter) and has fallen from general academic use since the Nazi era.
as (adv.) Look up as at Dictionary.com
c.1200, worn-down form of Old English alswa "quite so" (see also), fully established by c.1400. Equivalent to so; any distinction in use is purely idiomatic. Related to German als "as, than," from Middle High German also. Phrase as well "just as much" is recorded from late 15c.; the phrase also can imply "as well as not," "as well as anything else." Interjection of incredulity as if! (i.e. "as if that really could happen") is attested from 1995, an exact duplication of Latin quasi.
asafetida (n.) Look up asafetida at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Medieval Latin asa (Latinized from Persian aza "mastic") + foetida, fem. of foetidus "stinking" (see fetid).
asafoetida (n.) Look up asafoetida at Dictionary.com
alternative spelling of asafetida (q.v.); also see oe.
asap Look up asap at Dictionary.com
see a.s.a.p.
asbestine (adj.) Look up asbestine at Dictionary.com
1620s, from Latin asbestinus, from Greek asbestinos, from asbestos (see asbestos).
asbestos (n.) Look up asbestos at Dictionary.com
1650s, earlier albeston, abestus (c.1100), name of a fabulous stone, which, set afire, could not be extinguished; from Old French abeste, abestos, from Latin asbestos "quicklime" (which "burns" when cold water is poured on it), from Greek asbestos, literally "inextinguishable," from a- "not" (see a- (3)) + sbestos, verbal adjective from sbennynai "to quench," from PIE root *(s)gwes- "to quench, extinguish" (cognates: Lithuanian gestu "to go out," Old Church Slavonic gaso, Hittite kishtari "is being put out").

The Greek word was used by Dioscorides as a noun meaning "quicklime." "Erroneously applied by Pliny to an incombustible fibre, which he believed to be vegetable, but which was really the amiantos of the Greeks" [OED]. Meaning "mineral capable of being woven into incombustible fabric" is from c.1600 in English; earlier this was called amiant (early 15c.), from Latin amiantus, from Greek amiantos, literally "undefiled" (so called because it showed no mark or stain when thrown into fire). Supposed in the Middle Ages to be salamanders' wool. Prester John, the Emperor of India, and Pope Alexander III were said to have had robes or tunics made of it.
ascend (v.) Look up ascend at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Latin ascendere "to climb up, mount, ascend," figuratively "to rise, reach," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + scandere "to climb" (see scan (v.)). Also in 15c. used with a sense "to mount (a female) for copulation." Related: Ascended; ascending. An Old English word for it was stigan.
ascendance (n.) Look up ascendance at Dictionary.com
1742, from ascend + -ance. Properly "the act of ascending," but used from the start in English as a synonym of ascendancy.
ascendancy (n.) Look up ascendancy at Dictionary.com
1712; see ascendant + -cy.
ascendant (adj.) Look up ascendant at Dictionary.com
late 14c., ascendent, astrological use is earliest, from Middle French ascendant (noun and adjective) and directly from Latin ascendentem (nominative ascendans), present participle of ascendere "to mount, ascend, go up" (see ascend). Sense "moving upward, rising" is recorded from 1590s. In the ascendant "ruling, dominant" (not, as is often thought, "rising") is from 1670s.
ascendency (n.) Look up ascendency at Dictionary.com
alternative spelling of ascendancy (see -ance).
ascension (n.) Look up ascension at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "ascent of Christ into Heaven on the 40th day after the Resurrection," from Latin ascensionem (nominative ascensio) "a rising," noun of action from past participle stem of ascendere "to mount, ascend, go up" (see ascend). Astronomical sense is recorded late 14c.; meaning "action of ascending" is from 1590s. Related: Ascensional.
ascent (n.) Look up ascent at Dictionary.com
c.1610, "action of ascending," from ascend on model of descend/descent; "climbing" sense is from 1753.
ascertain (v.) Look up ascertain at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "to inform, to give assurance," from Anglo-French acerteiner, Old French acertener "to assure, certify" (13c.), from a "to" (see ad-) + certain "certain" (see certain). Modern meaning of "find out for sure by experiment or investigation" is first attested 1794. Related: Ascertained; ascertaining.
ascertainable (adj.) Look up ascertainable at Dictionary.com
1783, from ascertain + -able. Related: Ascertainably.
ascetic (adj.) Look up ascetic at Dictionary.com
1640s, from Greek asketikos "rigorously self-disciplined, laborious," from asketes "monk, hermit," earlier "one who practices an art or trade," from askein "to exercise, train," originally "to train for athletic competition, practice gymnastics, exercise."
ascetic (n.) Look up ascetic at Dictionary.com
"one of the early Christians who retired to the desert to live solitary lives of meditation and prayer," 1670s, from ascetic (adj.).
asceticism (n.) Look up asceticism at Dictionary.com
1640s, from ascetic (adj.) + -ism. Sometimes also ascetism (c.1850).