Artaxerxes Look up Artaxerxes at Dictionary.com
Persian masc. proper name, in classical history, a son of Xerxes II, also a son of Darius, from Greek Artaxerxes (explained by Herodotus as "Great Warrior"), from Old Persian Artaxšaca, literally "having a kingdom of justice," from arta- "justice" + xšaca "kingdom."
artefact (n.) Look up artefact at Dictionary.com
older and alternative spelling of artifact (n.). Related: Artefactual; artefactually.
Artemis Look up Artemis at Dictionary.com
Greek goddess of the moon, wild animals, hunting, childbirth, etc.; sister of Apollo; her name is of unknown origin.
arterial (adj.) Look up arterial at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from French artérial (Modern French artériel), from Latin arteria; see artery.
arterio- Look up arterio- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "arterial," from Latinized comb. form of Greek arteria "windpipe; artery" (see artery).
arteriole (n.) Look up arteriole at Dictionary.com
"small artery," by 1808, from Modern Latin arteriola, diminutive of arteria (see artery).
arteriosclerosis (n.) Look up arteriosclerosis at Dictionary.com
"hardening of the arteries," 1885, medical Latin, from arterio- + sclerosis.
artery (n.) Look up artery at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Anglo-French arterie, Old French artaire (13c.; Modern French artère), and directly from Latin arteria, from Greek arteria "windpipe," also "an artery," as distinct from a vein; related to aeirein "to raise" (see aorta).

They were regarded by the ancients as air ducts because the arteries do not contain blood after death; medieval writers took them for the channels of the "vital spirits," and 16c. senses of artery in English include "trachea, windpipe." The word is used in reference to artery-like systems of major rivers from 1805; of railways from 1850.
artesian (adj.) Look up artesian at Dictionary.com
1830, from French puits artésien "wells of Artois," French province where such wells were first bored 18c. by French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor (1698-1761). The place name is from Old French Arteis, from Atrebates, a tribe that lived in northwestern Gallia. Compare Arras.
artesian well Look up artesian well at Dictionary.com
see artesian
artful (adj.) Look up artful at Dictionary.com
1610s, "learned, well-versed in the (liberal) arts," also "characterized by technical skill," from art (n.) + -ful. Meaning "skilled in adapting means to ends" is from 1739. Related: Artfully; artfulness.
arthralgia (n.) Look up arthralgia at Dictionary.com
"pain in a joint," 1848, from Greek arthron "joint" (see arm (n.1)) + -algia.
arthritic (adj.) Look up arthritic at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., artetyk, "pertaining to arthritis," also as a noun, from Old French artetique (12c., Modern French arthritique), corresponding to Latin arthriticus, from Greek arthritikos, from arthron "joint" (see arm (n.1)). Spelling gradually restored to Latin form in 17c.
arthritis (n.) Look up arthritis at Dictionary.com
"inflammation of a joint," 1540s, from medical Latin arthritis, from Greek (nosos) arthritis "(disease) of the joints," from arthritis, fem. of arthrites (adj.) "pertaining to joints" (Greek nosos is a fem. noun), from arthron "a joint" (see arm (n.1)).
arthro- Look up arthro- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "pertaining to the joints," from Greek arthro- (before vowels arth-), comb. form of arthron "joint," from PIE *ar-dhro-, from *ar- "to fit together;" see arm (n.1).
arthropod (n.) Look up arthropod at Dictionary.com
1877, from Modern Latin Arthropoda, literally "those with jointed feet," biological classification of the phylum of segmented, legged invertebrates; see Arthropoda.
Arthropoda (n.) Look up Arthropoda at Dictionary.com
1870, Modern Latin, literally "those with jointed feet," coined 1845 by German zoologist Karl Theodor Ernst von Siebold (1804-1885) from Greek arthron "a joint" (see arthro-) + podos genitive of pous "foot," from PIE root *ped- (1) "a foot" (see foot (n.)).
arthroscopic (adj.) Look up arthroscopic at Dictionary.com
1979; see arthroscopy + -ic.
arthroscopy (n.) Look up arthroscopy at Dictionary.com
by 1977, from arthro- + -scopy.
Arthur Look up Arthur at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, from Medieval Latin Arthurus/Arturus, from Welsh arth "bear," cognate with Greek arktos, Latin ursus (see Arctic).
Arthurian (adj.) Look up Arthurian at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to the series of tales of British King Arthur and his knights," 1793, from Arthur + -ian.
artichoke (n.) Look up artichoke at Dictionary.com
1530s, from articiocco, Northern Italian variant of Italian arcicioffo, from Old Spanish alcarchofa, from Arabic al-hursufa "artichoke." The Northern Italian variation probably is from influence of ciocco "stump."

Folk etymology has twisted the word in English; the ending is probably influenced by choke, and early forms of the word in English include archecokk, hortichock, artychough, hartichoake. The plant was known in Italy by 1450s, brought to Florence from Naples in 1466, and introduced in England in the reign of Henry VIII. French artichaut (16c.), German Artischocke (16c.) both are also from Italian.
article (n.) Look up article at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, "separate parts of anything written" (such as the statements in the Apostles' Creed, the clauses of a statute or contract), from Old French article (13c.), from Latin articulus, diminutive of artus "a joint" (from PIE *ar-tu-, from *ar- "to fit together;" (see arm (n.1)).

Meaning extended to "a small division," then generalized to "item, thing." Older sense preserved in Articles of War "military regulations" (1716) and Articles of Confederation (U.S. history). Meaning "literary composition in a journal, etc." (independent, but part of a larger work) first recorded 1712. Meaning "piece of property" (clothing, etc.) first attested 1796, originally in rogue's cant.
articular (adj.) Look up articular at Dictionary.com
from Latin articularis "pertaining to the joints," from articulus (see articulate (v.)).
articulate (adj.) Look up articulate at Dictionary.com
1580s in the speech sense (1570s as "formulated in articles"), from Latin articulatus (see articulate (v.)). Literal meaning "composed of segments united by joints" is from c. 1600; the general sense of "speaking accurately" is short for articulate-speaking (1829). Related: Articulately.
articulate (v.) Look up articulate at Dictionary.com
1590s, "to divide speech into distinct parts" (earlier "to formally bring charges against," 1550s), from Latin articulatus, past participle of articulare "to separate into joints," also "to utter distinctly," from articulus "joint" (see article). Generalized sense of "express in words" is from 1690s. Literal sense, "to join, to attach by joints," is attested from 1610s. Earlier senses, "to set forth in articles," "to bring a charge against" (1560s) now are obsolete or nearly so. Related: Articulated; articulating.
articulated (adj.) Look up articulated at Dictionary.com
"jointed," 1610s, past participle adjective from articulate (v.). Meaning "made distinct" is from 1855.
articulation (n.) Look up articulation at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "a joint or joining; setting of bones," from Old French articulation, from Medieval Latin articulationem (nominative articulatio) "separation into joints," noun of action from past participle stem of articulare "to separate (meat) into joints," also "to utter distinctly," from articulus, diminutive of artus "joint" (see article).
artifact (n.) Look up artifact at Dictionary.com
1821, artefact, "anything made by human art," from Italian artefatto, from Latin arte "by skill" (ablative of ars "art;" see art (n.)) + factum "thing made," from facere "to make, do" (see factitious). The spelling with -i- is by 1884, by influence of the Latin stem. Archaeological application dates from 1890.
artifactual (adj.) Look up artifactual at Dictionary.com
also artefactual, 1914, from artifact + -al (1).
artifice (n.) Look up artifice at Dictionary.com
1530s, "workmanship, the making of anything by craft or skill," from Middle French artifice "skill, cunning" (14c.), from Latin artificium "a profession, trade, employment, craft; making by art," from artifex (genitive artificis) "craftsman, artist," from stem of ars "art" (see art (n.)) + facere "to make, do" (see factitious). Meaning "device, trick" (the usual modern sense) is from 1650s.
artificer (n.) Look up artificer at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "one who makes by art or skill," agent noun from artifice. Military sense dates from 1758.
artificial (adj.) Look up artificial at Dictionary.com
late 14c., in the phrase artificial day "part of the day from sunrise to sunset," from Old French artificial, from Latin artificialis "of or belonging to art," from artificium (see artifice). Meaning "made by man" (opposite of natural) is from early 15c. Applied to things that are not natural, whether real (artificial light) or not (artificial flowers). Artificial insemination dates from 1897. Artificial intelligence "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines" was coined in 1956.
artificially (adv.) Look up artificially at Dictionary.com
early 15c.; see artificial + -ly (2).
artillerist (n.) Look up artillerist at Dictionary.com
1778; see artillery + -ist.
artillery (n.) Look up artillery at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "warlike munitions," from Anglo-French artillerie, Old French artillerie (14c.), from artillier "to provide with engines of war" (13c.), which probably is from Medieval Latin articulum "art, skill," diminutive of Latin ars (genitive artis) "art." But some would connect it with Latin articulum "joint," and still others with Old French atillier "to equip," altered by influence of arte. Sense of "engines for discharging missiles" (catapults, slings, bows, etc.) is from late 15c.; that of "ordnance, large guns" is from 1530s.
artisan (n.) Look up artisan at Dictionary.com
1530s, from Italian artesano, from Vulgar Latin artitianus, from Latin artitus, past participle of artire "to instruct in the arts," from ars (genitive artis) "art" (see art (n.)). Barnhart reports Middle French artisan, often listed as the direct source of the English word, is attested too late to be so.
artisan (adj.) Look up artisan at Dictionary.com
1859, from artisan (n.).
artist (n.) Look up artist at Dictionary.com
1580s, "one who cultivates one of the fine arts," from Middle French artiste (14c.), from Italian artista, from Medieval Latin artista, from Latin ars (see art (n.)).

Originally used especially of the arts presided over by the Muses (history, poetry, comedy, tragedy, music, dancing, astronomy), but also used 17c. for "one skilled in any art or craft" (including professors, surgeons, craftsmen, cooks). Now especially of "one who practices the arts of design or visual arts" (a sense first attested 1747).
artiste (n.) Look up artiste at Dictionary.com
1819 in English, from 1804 as a French word, from French artiste; a reborrowing of artist, at first in a foreign context, later used to fill the gap after the sense of artist had become limited toward the visual arts and especially painting.
Artiste: an admirable word (albeit somewhat Frenchified) of late applied, with nice discrimination, to every species of exhibitor, from a rope-dancer down to a mere painter or sculptor. On looking into little Entick (my great authority in these matters), I find we have already the word artist; but with stupid English perversity, we have hitherto used that in a much more restricted sense than its newly-imported rival, which it is becoming the excellent fashion to adopt. ["Paul Pry's Journal of a Residence at Little-Pedlington," Philadelphia, 1836]
artistic (adj.) Look up artistic at Dictionary.com
1753, from French artistique, from artiste (see artist). Native artist-like was recorded from 1711; artistly from 1754; artistical from 1801. Related: Artistically.
artistry (n.) Look up artistry at Dictionary.com
"artistic ability," 1837, from artist + -ry; as chemistry from chemist, etc.
artless (adj.) Look up artless at Dictionary.com
1580s, "unskillful," from art (n.) + -less. Later also "uncultured" (1590s); then "unartificial, natural" (1670s) and "guileless, ingenuous" (1714). Related: Artlessly; artlessness.
artsy (adj.) Look up artsy at Dictionary.com
"pretentiously artistic," 1902, from arts (see art (n.)); originally especially artsy-craftsy, with reference to the arts and crafts movement; always more or less dismissive or pejorative; artsy-fartsy was in use by 1971.
artwork (n.) Look up artwork at Dictionary.com
also art-work, 1877, from art (n.) + work (n.).
arty (adj.) Look up arty at Dictionary.com
1901, "having artistic pretentions," from art (n.) + -y (2); also see artsy.
arugula (n.) Look up arugula at Dictionary.com
edible cruciform plant (Eruca sativa) used originally in the Mediterranean region as a salad; the American English and Australian form of the name is (via Italian immigrants) from a dialectal variant of Italian ruchetta, a diminutive form of ruca-, from Latin eruca, a name of some cabbage-like plant, from PIE *gher(s)-uka-, from root *ghers- "to bristle" (see horror).

In England, the usual name is rocket (see rocket (n.1)), which is from Italian ruchetta via French roquette. It also sometimes is called hedge mustard.
ARVN Look up ARVN at Dictionary.com
acronym for Army of the Republic of Vietnam, ground military force of South Vietnam, organized 1955.
Aryan Look up Aryan at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, as a term in classical history, from Latin Arianus, Ariana, from Greek Aria, Areia, names applied in classical times to the eastern part of ancient Persia and to its inhabitants. Ancient Persians used the name in reference to themselves (Old Persian ariya-), hence Iran. Ultimately from Sanskrit arya- "compatriot;" in later language "noble, of good family."

Also the name Sanskrit-speaking invaders of India gave themselves in the ancient texts, from which early 19c. European philologists (Friedrich Schlegel, 1819, who linked the word with German Ehre "honor") applied it to the ancient people we now call Indo-Europeans (suspecting that this is what they called themselves); this use is attested in English from 1851. The term fell into the hands of racists, and in German from 1845 it was specifically contrasted to Semitic (Lassen).

German philologist Max Müller (1823-1900) popularized the term in his writings on comparative linguistics, recommending it as the name (replacing Indo-European, Indo-Germanic, Caucasian, Japhetic) for the group of related, inflected languages connected with these peoples, mostly found in Europe but also including Sanskrit and Persian. Arian was used in this sense from 1839 (and is more philologically correct), but this spelling caused confusion with Arian, the term in ecclesiastical history.

Gradually replaced in comparative linguistics c. 1900 by Indo-European, except when used to distinguish Indo-European languages of India from non-Indo-European ones. Used in Nazi ideology to mean "member of a Caucasian Gentile race of Nordic type." As an ethnic designation, however, it is properly limited to Indo-Iranians (most justly to the latter) and has fallen from general academic use since the Nazi era.
Aryanism (n.) Look up Aryanism at Dictionary.com
1888, "characteristic Aryan principles," from Aryan + -ism. As a belief in cultural or racial superiority of Aryans, from 1905.