applique (n.)
1841, from French appliqué "work applied or laid on to another material," noun use of past participle of appliquer "to apply" (Old French apliquier, 12c.), from Latin applicare "attach to, join, connect" (see apply).
apply (v.)
late 14c., "join or combine (with); attach (to something), adhere," from Old French aploiier "apply, use, attach" (12c., Modern French appliquer), from Latin applicare "attach to, join, connect;" figuratively, "devote (oneself) to, give attention," from ad "to" (see ad-) + plicare "fold" (from PIE root *plek- "to plait").

The etymological sense is "bring things in contact with one another." In English, from c. 1400 as "use or employ" something for a certain purpose;" from early 15c. of lotions, plasters, etc., "place in contact with the body," also, of one's mental powers or faculties, "put to work at a task or pursuit." Meaning "seek a job by submitting an application for one" is from 1851. A by-form applicate is recorded from 1530s. Related: Applied; applying.
appoint (v.)
late 14c., "to decide, resolve; to arrange the time of (a meeting, etc.)," from Anglo-French appointer, Old French apointier "make ready, arrange, settle, place" (12c., Modern French appointer), from apointer "duly, fitly," from phrase à point "to the point," from a- "to" (see ad-) + point "point," from Latin punctum "small hole made by pricking" (from nasalized form of PIE root *peuk- "to prick"). The ground sense is "to come to a point (about some matter)," therefore "agree, settle." Meaning "put in charge, authoritatively nominate or assign" is early 15c. Related: Appointed; appointing.
appointed (adj.)
with qualifying adverb, "equipped, furnished," 1530s, from past participle of appoint (v.) in specialized sense "equip, furnish" (late 15c.).
appointee (n.)
1768, after French appointé, from apointer "arrange, settle, place;" see appoint + -ee.
appointment (n.)
early 15c., "an agreement," also "a fixing of a date for official business," from Old French apointement, from apointer "arrange, settle, place" (see appoint). Meaning "act of placing in office" is attested from 1650s.
Appomattox
eccentric spelling of plural of Appomattoc, name of a local subgroup of the Powhatan (Algonquian) confederacy in Virginia (first attested as Apamatic, 1607). Site of last battle for Army of Northern Virginia (CSA) in the American Civil War, and of Lee's surrender to Grant in Wilmer McLean house, April 9, 1865.
apportion (v.)
"divide and assign according to rule," 1570s, from Middle French apportionner, from Old French aporcioner "apportion, share out," from a- "to" (see ad-) + portioner "to divide into portions," from portion "share, portion" (see portion (n.)). Related: Apportioned; apportioning.
apportionment (n.)
"a dividing into portions or shares," 1620s, from apportion + -ment. Perhaps influenced by French apportionnement. In U.S. especially of distribution of seats in the House of Representatives.
appose (v.)
"to apply" (one thing to another), 1590s, either from French apposer (from a "to;" see ad-, + poser "to place;" see pose (v.1)), or else formed in English from Latin apponere "lay beside, set near; put upon, apply" (see apposite) on analogy of compose, expose, etc. In Middle English, an identical word was a variant spelling of oppose. Related: Apposed; apposing.
apposite (adj.)
1620s, "well-put or applied, appropriate," from Latin appositus, adpositus "contiguous, neighboring;" figuratively "fit, proper, suitable," past participle of apponere "lay beside, set near," especially "serve, set before," also "put upon, apply," from ad "to, toward" (see ad-) + ponere "to place" (past participle positus; see position (n.)).
apposition (n.)
"application" (of one thing to another), mid-15c., originally in grammatical sense "the relation to a noun or pronoun of another noun or clause added to it by way of explanation," from Latin appositionem (nominative appositio), noun of action from past participle stem of apponere "to put to" (see apposite). General sense is from 1540s.
appositive (adj.)
1690s, "applicable," from Latin apposit-, past participle stem of apponere "set near, set before; apply, give in addition; appoint, designate" (see apposite) + -ive. As a noun in grammar, "words in apposition," from 1847.
appraisal (n.)
"setting of a price, valuation," by 1784, American English, from appraise + -al (2). Figurative sense, "act of appraising" (originally a term of literary criticism) is from 1817. Appraisement is earlier (1640s).
appraise (v.)
c. 1400, "to set a value on," from stem of Old French aprisier "apraise, set a price on" (14c., Modern French apprécier), from Late Latin appretiare "value, estimate," from ad "to" (see ad-) + pretium "price" (see price (n.)). Original English spelling apprize altered by influence of praise. Related: Appraised; appraising.
appraiser (n.)
"one who estimates worth" of any kind, early 15c., agent noun from appraise (v.).
appreciable (adj.)
1779, "capable of being judges or estimated," from French appréciable and directly from Medieval Latin appretiabilis, from Late Latin appretiare "set a price to" (see appreciate). The word had been used in Middle English in a sense of "worthy" (mid-15c.). Related: Appreciably.
appreciate (v.)
1650s, "to esteem or value highly," from Late Latin appretiatus, past participle of appretiare "to set a price to," from ad "to" (see ad-) + pretium "price" (see price (n.)). Meaning "to rise in value" (intransitive) is by 1789; sense of "be fully conscious of" is by 1833. "Appreciate is to set a just value on; it implies the use of wise judgment or delicate perception" [Century Dictionary]. Related: Appreciated; appreciating.
appreciated (adj.)
1794, "enhanced in value;" by 1831 as "received with gratitude;" past participle adjective from appreciate (v.).
appreciation (n.)
c. 1600 "act of estimating the quality and worth of something," from French appréciation, noun of action from apprécier (14c.), from Late Latin appretiare "estimate the quality of" (see appreciate). Generally with a sense of "high estimation" after c. 1650; sense of "a rise in value" is by 1789; that of "act of setting a value on" is from 1799. Meaning "expression of (favorable) estimation" is from 1858. There is an isolated use of appreciacioun in Middle English (c. 1400) of uncertain meaning.
appreciative (adj.)
1650s (implied in appreciatively); see appreciate + -ive. Related: Appreciativeness.
apprehend (v.)
late 14c., "grasp with the senses or mind;" early 15c. as "grasp, take hold of" physically, from Latin apprehendere "to take hold of, grasp," from ad "to" (see ad-) + prehendere "to seize" (see prehensile). Often "to hold in opinion but without positive certainty."
We "apprehend" many truths which we do not "comprehend" [Richard Trench, "On the Study of Words," 1856]
The metaphoric extension to "seize with the mind" took place in Latin and was the sole sense of cognate Old French aprendre (12c., Modern French appréhender); also compare apprentice). Specific meaning "seize in the name of the law, arrest," is from 1540s. Meaning "be in fear of the future, anticipate with dread" is from c. 1600. Related: Apprehended; apprehending.
apprehensible (adj.)
late 15c., "capable of attaining," especially with the intellect, from Latin apprehensibilis "that can be seized," from apprehens-, past participle stem of apprehendere "seize, take hold of" mentally or physically (see apprehend).
apprehension (n.)
late 14c., "perception, comprehension," from Old French apreension "comprehension, something learned" or directly from Latin apprehensionem (nominative apprehensio), noun of action from past participle stem of apprehendere "take hold of, grasp" physically or mentally (see apprehend). Sense of "seizure on behalf of authority" is 1570s; that of "anticipation" (usually with dread), "fear of the future" is from c. 1600.
apprehensive (adj.)
late 14c., "capable of perceiving, fitted for mental impression," from Medieval Latin apprehensivus, from Latin apprehens-, past participle stem of apprehendere "take hold of, grasp" physically or mentally (see apprehend). Meaning "fearful of what is to come" is recorded from 1630s, via notion of "capable of grasping with the mind" (c. 1600). Related: Apprehensively; apprehensiveness.
apprentice (n.)
"one bound by legal agreement to an employer to learn a craft or trade," c. 1300, from Old French aprentiz "someone learning" (13c., Modern French apprenti, taking the older form as a plural), also as an adjective, "unskilled, inexperienced," from aprendre "to learn; to teach" (Modern French apprendre), contracted from Latin apprehendere "take hold of, grasp" mentally or physically, in Medieval Latin "to learn" (see apprehend). Shortened form prentice, prentis long was more usual in English.
apprentice (v.)
"to bind to a master for instruction in his craft," 1630s, from apprentice (n.). Related: Apprenticed; apprenticing.
apprenticeship (n.)
1590s; see apprentice (n.) + -ship. Replaced earlier apprenticehood (late 14c., with -hood).
apprise (v.)
"to notify, give notice," 1690s, from French appris, past participle of apprendre "to inform, teach" (Old French aprendre, 12c.), literally "to lay hold of (in the mind)," from Latin apprehendere "take hold of, grasp" mentally or physically, from ad "to" (see ad-) + prehendere "to seize" (see prehensile). Related: Apprised; apprising.
apprize (v.)
occasional legalese form of appraise, c. 1400. Compare prize. Related: Apprized; apprizing.
approach (v.)
c. 1300, "to go or come near" in place; late 14c. "come near in time," also "come near in quality or character, resemble, become similar," from Anglo-French approcher, Old French aprochier "come closer" (12c., Modern French approcher), from Late Latin appropiare, adpropiare "go nearer to," from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + Late Latin propiare "come nearer," comparative of Latin prope "near" (see propinquity). Replaced Old English neahlæcan.
approach (n.)
mid-15c., "act of drawing near, arrival," from approach (v.). Meaning "way or means by which something is approached" is from 1630s. Figurative sense of "means of handling a problem, etc." is attested by 1905. Sense of "final stage of an aircraft flight before landing" is by 1930.
approachable (adj.)
1570s, "accessible," from approach (v.) + -able. Figurative sense, "affable, friendly," is from 1610s. Related: Approachably; approachability.
approbate (v.)
"express a liking or satisfaction," late 15c., from Latin approbatus, past participle of approbare "to assent to (as good), favor" (see approve). Related: Approbated; approbating.
approbation (n.)
"approval, endorsement," early 15c., from Old French aprobacion "approval" (Modern French approbation) and directly from Latin approbationem (nominative approbatio) "an approval," noun of action from past participle stem of approbare "to assent to" as good (see approve). Also in Middle English in a now-obsolete sense of "proven effectiveness, excellence" (late 14c.).
appropre (v.)
mid-14c., "appropriate, take possession of," from Old French apropriier "annex; make fit or suitable" (12c., Modern French appropre), from Late Latin appropriare "make one's own" (see appropriate (v.)).
appropriate (v.)
early 15c., "take possession of, take exclusively," from Late Latin appropriatus, past participle of appropriare, adpropriare "to make one's own," from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + propriare "take as one's own," from proprius "one's own" (see proper). Related: Appropriated; appropriating.
appropriate (adj.)
"specially suitable, proper," early 15c., from Latin appropriatus, past participle of appropriare "make one's own" (see appropriate (v.)). Related: Appropriately; appropriateness.
appropriation (n.)
late 14c., "the taking of (something) as private property," from Late Latin appropriationem (nominative appropriatio) "a making one's own," noun of action from past participle stem of appropriare "to make one's own," from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + propriare "take as one's own," from proprius "one's own" (see proper). Meaning "act of setting aside for some purpose" (especially of money) first attested 1789 in U.S. Constitution.
approval (n.)
"commendation, sanction," 1680s, from approve + -al (2). According to OED, "Rare bef. 1800; now generally used instead of" approvance (1590s, from French aprovance).
approve (v.)
c. 1300, apreven, approven, "to demonstrate, prove," from Old French aprover (Modern French approuver) "approve, agree to," from Latin approbare "to assent to as good, regard as good," from ad "to" (see ad-) + probare "to try, test something (to find if it is good)," from probus "honest, genuine" (see prove).

The meaning was extended late 14c. to "regard or assent to (something) as good or superior; commend; sanction, endorse, confirm formally," especially in reference to the actions of authorities, parliaments, etc. Related: Approved; approving.
approved (adj.)
"tried, tested; experienced, expert; reliable, effective, trustworthy," late 14c., past-participle adjective from approve (v.).
approximate (adj.)
"near in position, close to," 1640s, from Late Latin approximatus, past participle of approximare "to come near to," from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + proximare "come near," from proximus "nearest," superlative of prope "near" (see propinquity). Meaning "near in accuracy or correctness" is by 1816. Also used in Middle English in a sense "similar" (early 15c.).
approximate (v.)
early 15c., "to bring or put close," from Late Latin approximatus, past participle of approximare "to come near to," from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + proximare "come near," from proximus "nearest," superlative of prope "near" (see propinquity). Intransitive meaning "to come close" is from 1789. Related: Approximated; approximating.
approximately (adv.)
1742, from approximate (adj.) + -ly (2).
approximation (n.)
early 15c., "act of coming near or close," noun of action from approximate (v.). Meaning "result of approximating" is from 1650s.
appurtenance (n.)
c. 1300, "right, privilege or possession subsidiary to a principal one," especially in law, "a right, privilege, or improvement belonging to a property," from Anglo-French apurtenance (12c.), Old French apartenance, apertenance, present participle of apartenir "be related to," from Late Latin appertinere "to pertain to, belong to," from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + pertinere "belong; be the right of" (see pertain).
appurtenances (n.)
late 14c., "apparatus, gear;" see appurtenance.
appurtenant (adj.)
"belonging, incident, or pertaining to," late 14c., from Anglo-French apurtenant, Old French apartenant, apertenant, present participle of apartenir "be related to" (see appurtenance).
apraxia (n.)
"loss of the knowledge of the uses of things," 1877, medical Latin, from German apraxie, coined 1871 by German philologist and philosopher Heymann Steinthal (1823-1899), from Greek apraxia "inaction," from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + praxis "a doing, action, business" (see praxis) + abstract noun ending -ia.