Apollonian (adj.) Look up Apollonian at Dictionary.com
1660s, "of, pertaining to, or resembling the Greek god Apollo," from Apollo (Greek Apollon) + -ian. The Greek adjective was Apollonios. Other adjectival forms in English include Apollinarian, Apollonic, Apolline (c. 1600). Also sometimes in reference to Apollonius of Perga, the great geometer.
Apollyon Look up Apollyon at Dictionary.com
destroying angel of the bottomless pit in Rev. ix.11 (a name also sometimes given to the Devil), late 14c., from present participle of Greek apollyein "to destroy utterly" (from apo "from, away from" (see apo-) + olluein "to destroy"); a translation of Hebrew Abaddon (q.v.).
apologetic (adj.) Look up apologetic at Dictionary.com
1640s, "vindicatory, containing a defense," from French apologétique, from Latin apologeticus, from Greek apologetikos "defensible," from apologeisthai "speak in one's defense," from apologos "an account, story," from apo "away from, off" (see apo-) + logos "speech," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')." Meaning "regretfully acknowledging failure" is from 1855.
apologetics (n.) Look up apologetics at Dictionary.com
"branch of theology which defends Christian belief," 1733, from apologetic (which is attested from early 15c. as a noun meaning "formal defense"); also see -ics.
apologia (n.) Look up apologia at Dictionary.com
"defense, justification," 1784, the Latin form of apology (q.v.); popularized by J.H. Newman's "Apologia pro Vita Sua" (1864). It preserves the older sense of the English apology and the sense of the Greek original, especially as used by the Church fathers.
In common Greek, apologia refers to the speech that an accused person delivered in court, rejecting the charges filed against him or her. The apologists of the second century chose this term because they wanted to show that the charges filed against Christians were unjustified and that the truths of their faith could be described and defended. An apologia was dedicated to the Roman empoeror, who certainly never read it. [Max L. Stackhouse, "Apologia," 1988]
apological (adj.) Look up apological at Dictionary.com
c. 1600; see apology + -ical.
apologise (v.) Look up apologise at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of apologize; for suffix, see -ize. Related: Apologised; apologising.
apologist (n.) Look up apologist at Dictionary.com
"one who speaks or write in defense of something," especially "a defender of Christianity," 1630s, from French apologiste, from apologie, from Late Latin apologia "a speech in defense" (see apology).
apologize (v.) Look up apologize at Dictionary.com
1590s, "to speak in defense of;" see apology + -ize. Sense of "regretfully acknowledge" is attested by 1725. The Greek equivalent, apologizesthai, meant simply "to give an account." Related: Apologized; apologizing; apologizer.
apologue (n.) Look up apologue at Dictionary.com
"moral fable, fictitious story intended to convey useful truths," 1550s, from French apologue, from Latin apologus, from Greek apologos "a story, tale, fable," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + logos "speech" (see Logos). Literally, "(that which comes) from a speech."
apology (n.) Look up apology at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "defense, justification," from Late Latin apologia, from Greek apologia "a speech in defense," from apologeisthai "to speak in one's defense," from apologos "an account, story," from apo "away from, off" (see apo-) + logos "speech" (see Logos).

In classical Greek, "a well-reasoned reply; a 'thought-out response' to the accusations made," as that of Socrates. The original English sense of "self-justification" yielded a meaning "frank expression of regret for wrong done," first recorded 1590s, but this was not the main sense until 18c. Johnson's dictionary defines it as "Defence; excuse," and adds, "Apology generally signifies rather excuse than vindication, and tends rather to extenuate the fault, than prove innocence," which might indicate the path of the sense shift. The old sense has tended to shift to the Latin form apologia (1784), known from early Christian writings in defense of the faith.
aponeurosis (n.) Look up aponeurosis at Dictionary.com
"fascia, fascia-like tendon, white fibrous membrane of the body (often connecting a muscle with a tendon)," 1670s, from Latin, from Greek aponeurosis, from aponeuroein, from apo "change into" (see apo-) + neuron "sinew" (see neuro-).
apophasis (n.) Look up apophasis at Dictionary.com
in rhetoric, "a denial of an intention to speak of something which nonetheless is hinted at," 1650s, from Late Latin apophasis, from Greek apophasis "denial, negation," from apophanai "to speak off," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + phanai "to speak," related to pheme "voice," from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say."
apophatic (adj.) Look up apophatic at Dictionary.com
"involving a mention of something one feigns to deny; involving knowledge obtained by negation," 1850, from Latinized form of Greek apophatikos, from apophasis "denial, negation," from apophanai "to speak off," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + phanai "to speak," related to pheme "voice," from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say."
apophthegm (n.) Look up apophthegm at Dictionary.com
see apothegm. Related: Apophthegmatic.
apoplectic (adj.) Look up apoplectic at Dictionary.com
1610s, "involving apoplexy," from French apoplectique (16c.), from Latin apoplecticus, from Greek apoplektikos "disabled by a stroke, crippled, struck dumb, senseless; crippled, palsied," extended form of apoplektos, verbal adjective of apoplessein "strike down and incapacitate" (see apoplexy). Meaning "showing symptoms of apoplexy" (1721) gradually shaded into "enraged, very angry" by early 19c. Noun meaning "one suffering apoplexy" is from 1660s.
apoplexy (n.) Look up apoplexy at Dictionary.com
"sudden fit of paralysis and dizziness," late 14c., from Old French apoplexie or directly from Late Latin apoplexia, from Greek apoplexia, from apoplektos "disabled by a stroke, struck dumb," verbal adjective from apoplessein "to strike down and incapacitate," from apo "off" (see apo-), in this case probably an intensive prefix, + plessein "to hit," from PIE root *plak- (2) "to strike" (source also of plague, which also has a root sense of "stricken"). The Latin translation, sideratio, means "disease caused by a constellation."
aporetic (adj.) Look up aporetic at Dictionary.com
"inclined to doubt," c. 1600, from French aporetique, from Greek aporetikos, from aporeein "to be at a loss, be without means or resources," from aporos "impassable, impracticable, very difficult; hard to deal with; at a loss," from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + poros "passage" (see pore (n.)).
aporia (n.) Look up aporia at Dictionary.com
1580s, in rhetoric, "professed doubt as to where to begin," from Latin, from Greek aporia "difficulty, perplexity, want of means, poverty," abstract noun from aporos "impassable, impracticable, very difficult; hard to deal with; at a loss," from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + poros "passage" (from PIE root *per- (2) "to lead, pass over"). Meaning "equality of reasons for or against" is by 1893.
aposiopesis (n.) Look up aposiopesis at Dictionary.com
rhetorical artifice wherein the speaker suddenly breaks off in the middle of a sentence, 1570s, from Latin, from Greek aposiopesis "a becoming silent," also "rhetorical figure of breaking off," from aposiopan "become silent," from apo "off, away" (see apo-) + siope "silence," from PIE root *swī- "to be silent." Related: Aposiopetic.
apostasy (n.) Look up apostasy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "renunciation, abandonment or neglect of established religion," from Late Latin apostasia, from later Greek apostasia for earlier apostasis "revolt, defection," literally "a standing off," from apostanai "to stand away" (see apostate (n.)). General (non-religious) sense "abandonment of what one has professed" is attested from 1570s.
apostate (adj.) Look up apostate at Dictionary.com
"unfaithful to a religious creed or to a principle," late 14c., see apostate (n.).
apostate (n.) Look up apostate at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "one who forsakes his religion or faith," from Old French apostat and directly from Late Latin apostata (which form also was used in English), from Greek apostasia, apostasis "defection, desertion, rebellion," from apostanai "to defect," literally "to stand off," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + stanai, aorist of histanai "to set, place," literally "cause to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."

Used from mid-14c. in non-religious situations, "one who has forsaken the party, opinion, etc., to which he previously adhered."
apostatise (v.) Look up apostatise at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of apostatize (q.v.); for suffix, see -ize. Related: Apostatised; apostatising.
apostatize (v.) Look up apostatize at Dictionary.com
"abandon one.s faith, principles, or church," 1610s, from Late Latin apostatizare, earlier apostatare, from apostata "one who forsakes his religion or faith" (see apostate (n.)). Related: Apostatized; apostatizing. The past participle form apostazied is attested from late 14c.
apostille (n.) Look up apostille at Dictionary.com
"marginal note, especially on text of the Bible," also apostil, 1520s, from French apostille (15c.), which is of uncertain origin; perhaps from á "to" + Medieval Latin postilla, which probably represents Latin post illa, literally "after those."
apostle (n.) Look up apostle at Dictionary.com
Old English apostol "messenger," especially the twelve witnesses sent forth by Jesus to preach his Gospel (Luke vi.13), from Late Latin apostolus, from Greek apostolos "messenger, envoy," literally "person sent forth," from apostellein "send away, send forth," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + stellein in its secondary sense of "to send," from PIE *stel-yo-, suffixed form of root *stel- "to put, stand," with derivatives referring to a standing object or place (see stall (n.1)). Compare epistle.

The current form of the word, predominant since 16c., is influenced by Old French apostle (12c., Modern French apôtre), from the same Late Latin source. Meaning "missionary who brings Christianity to a new region or people" is from early 15c. Figurative sense of "chief advocate of a new principle or system" is from 1810. The New Testament book title Apostles (c. 1400) is short for "The Acts and Epistles of the Apostles."
apostleship (n.) Look up apostleship at Dictionary.com
1520s, from apostle + -ship. Old English had apostolhad (Middle English apostlehed).
apostolic (adj.) Look up apostolic at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to, related to, or descended from the apostles," early 15c., from French apostolique or directly from Church Latin apostolicus, from Greek apostolikos, from apostolos (see apostle). Apostolical also is early 15c.
apostrophe (n.1) Look up apostrophe at Dictionary.com
"mark indicating an omitted letter," 1580s, from Middle French apostrophe, from Late Latin apostrophus, from Greek apostrophos (prosoidia) "(the accent of) turning away," thus, a mark showing where a letter has been omitted, from apostrephein "avert, turn away," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + strephein "to turn" (from PIE root *streb(h)- "to wind, turn").

In English, the mark often represents loss of -e- in -es, possessive ending. By 18c. it was being extended to all possessives, whether they ever had an -e- or not.
apostrophe (n.2) Look up apostrophe at Dictionary.com
"a turning aside of an orator in the course of a speech to address briefly some individual," 1530s, from Middle French apostrophe, from Late Latin apostrophus, from Greek apostrophos, literally "turning away," from apostrephein "avert, turn away," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + strephein "to turn" (from PIE root *streb(h)- "to wind, turn"). Related: Apostrophic; apostrophize.
apothecary (n.) Look up apothecary at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "shopkeeper," especially "pharmacist; one who stores, compounds, and sells medicaments," from Old French apotecaire (13c., Modern French apothicaire), from Late Latin apothecarius "storekeeper," from Latin apotheca "storehouse," from Greek apotheke "barn, storehouse," literally "a place where things are put away," from apo "away" (see apo-) + theke "receptacle," from suffixed form of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put."

The same Latin word produced French boutique, Spanish bodega, German Apotheke. Cognate compounds produced Sanskrit apadha- "concealment," Old Persian apadana- "palace."

Drugs and herbs being among the chief items of non-perishable goods, the meaning narrowed 17c. to "druggist" (the Apothecaries' Company of London separated from the Grocers' in 1617). Apothecaries were notorious for "the assumed gravity and affectation of knowledge generally put on by the gentlemen of this profession, who are commonly as superficial in their learning as they are pedantic in their language" [Francis Grose, "A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1796]. Hence, Apothecary's Latin, barbarously mangled, also known as Dog Latin.
apothegm (n.) Look up apothegm at Dictionary.com
"short, pithy, instructive saying," 1550s, from Greek apophthegma "terse, pointed saying," literally "something clearly spoken," from apophthengesthai "to speak one's opinion plainly," from apo "from" (see apo-) + phthengesthai "to utter" (see diphthong). See aphorism for nuances of usage. Spelling apophthegm, restored by Johnson, is "now more frequent in England," according to OED (1989). Related: Apothegmatic.
apotheosis (n.) Look up apotheosis at Dictionary.com
"deification," 1600s, from Late Latin apotheosis "deification," especially of an emperor or royal person, from Greek apotheosis, from apotheoun "deify, make (someone) a god," from apo, meaning, here, "change" (see apo-) + theos "god" (from PIE root *dhes-, forming words for religious concepts).
apotheosize (v.) Look up apotheosize at Dictionary.com
"exalt to godhood, deify," 1760; see apotheosis + -ize. Related: Apotheosized; apotheosizing. Earlier in same sense was apotheose (1670s).
apothesis (n.) Look up apothesis at Dictionary.com
"setting of a fractured or dislocated limb," 1811, from Greek apothesis "setting of a limb," literally "a laying up in store; a putting back or away," noun of action from apotithenai "to lay aside," from apo "off, away" (see apo-) + tithenai "to put, set, place," from reduplicated form of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put."
apotropaic (adj.) Look up apotropaic at Dictionary.com
"having the power of averting evil influence," 1883, with -ic + Greek apotropaios "averting evil," from apotrepein "to turn away, avert," from apo "off, away" (see apo-) + trepein "to turn" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). Related: Apotropaion "amulet, etc., reputed to avert evil."
app (n.) Look up app at Dictionary.com
computerese shorthand for application, attested by 1992.
Appalachia Look up Appalachia at Dictionary.com
"cultural and geographical region of inland Eastern U.S.," 1880s, from the Appalachian Mountains, which are its core. Earlier Appalachia was proposed as a better name for "United States of America" by Washington Irving in 1839 (though he preferred Alleghenia) and this may have been the coinage of the word (see America).
Appalachian Look up Appalachian at Dictionary.com
in reference to the North American mountain range, c. 1600, Mountaynes Apalatsi; written apalachen by Spanish explorers and originally in reference only to the southern end of the range. Originally the name of the Apalachee, a Muskogean people of northwestern Florida, perhaps from Apalachee abalahci "other side of the river" or Hitchiti (Muskogean) apalwahči "dwelling on one side." Spelling shifted under influence of adjectives in -ian.
appall (v.) Look up appall at Dictionary.com
also appal, early 14c., "to fade;" c. 1400, "to grow pale," from Old French apalir "become or make pale," from a- "to" (see ad-) + palir "grow pale," from Latin pallere "to be pale" (from PIE root *pel- (1) "pale"). Transitive meaning "cause dismay or shock," is 1530s. Related: Appalled; appalling.
appalled (adj.) Look up appalled at Dictionary.com
1570s, "enfeebled;" c. 1600, "dismayed;" past participle adjective from appall.
appalling (adj.) Look up appalling at Dictionary.com
"causing dismay or horror," 1620s, present participle adjective from appall. Colloquial weakened sense of "distasteful" is attested from 1919. Related: Appallingly.
Appaloosa Look up Appaloosa at Dictionary.com
breed of horses favored by Indian tribes in U.S. West, 1849, either from Opelousa (perhaps from Choctaw api losa "black body") in Louisiana, or from the name of the Palouse Indians, who lived near the river of that name in Idaho, whose name is from Sahaptin palou:s "what is standing up in the water."
appanage (n.) Look up appanage at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, "provision made for the younger children of royal or noble families," from French appanage (16c.), restored from earlier apanage (13c.), a term in feudal law, from apaner "to endow with means of subsistence," from Medieval Latin appanare "equip with bread," from ad "to" (see ad-) + panis "bread," from PIE root *pa- "to feed." The restored double -p- was subsequently abandoned in French. Meaning "dependent territory" is from 1807.
apparat (n.) Look up apparat at Dictionary.com
"administrative machinery of the Communist Party in Russia," 1950, from Russian, from German apparat "apparatus, instrument," from Latin apparatus "tools, implements" (see apparatus).
apparatchik (n.) Look up apparatchik at Dictionary.com
"Communist agent or spy," 1941, originally in writings of Arthur Koestler, from Russian, from apparat "political organization" (see apparat). Russian plural is apparatchiki.
apparatus (n.) Look up apparatus at Dictionary.com
"a collection of tools, utensils, etc. adapted as a means to some end," 1620s, from Latin apparatus "tools, implements, equipment; preparation, a preparing," noun of state from past participle stem of apparare "prepare," from ad "to" (see ad-) + parare "make ready" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").
apparel (v.) Look up apparel at Dictionary.com
late 13c., "to prepare, make preparations;" late 14c., "equip, provide with proper clothing; dress or dress up," from Old French apareillier "prepare, make (someone) ready, dress (oneself)" (12c., Modern French appareiller), from Vulgar Latin *appariculare. This is either from Latin apparare "prepare, make ready" (see apparatus), or from Vulgar Latin *ad-particulare "to put things together." "The 15th c. spellings were almost endless" [OED].

Cognate with Italian aparecchiare, Spanish aparejar, Portuguese aparelhar. Related: Appareled; apparelled; appareling; apparelling.
apparel (n.) Look up apparel at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, "fighting equipment or accouterments, armor, weapons;" mid-14c., "furnishings, trappings;" late 14c., "personal outfit, a person's outer clothing, attire," from Old French apareil "preparation, planning; dress, vestments," from apareillier (see apparel (v.)). Middle English also had apparelment (late 14c.).