archeological (adj.) Look up archeological at Dictionary.com
alternative spelling of archaeological (see archaeology). Also see ae.
archeologist (n.) Look up archeologist at Dictionary.com
alternative spelling of archaeologist. Also see ae.
archeology (n.) Look up archeology at Dictionary.com
alternative spelling of archaeology. Also see ae.
archer (n.) Look up archer at Dictionary.com
late 13c., from Anglo-French archer, Old French archier "archer, bowmaker," from Latin arcarius, from arcus "bow" (see arc). Also a 17c. name for the bishop in chess.
archery (n.) Look up archery at Dictionary.com
c.1400, from Anglo-French archerye, Old French archerie, from archier "archer" (see archer).
archetypal (adj.) Look up archetypal at Dictionary.com
1640s, from Latin archetypum (see archetype) + -al (1). Jungian sense is from 1923.
archetype (n.) Look up archetype at Dictionary.com
"original pattern from which copies are made," 1540s [Barnhart] or c.1600 [OED], from Latin archetypum, from Greek arkhetypon "pattern, model, figure on a seal," neuter of adjective arkhetypos "first-moulded," from arkhe- "first" (see archon) + typos "model, type, blow, mark of a blow" (see type). Jungian psychology sense of "pervasive idea or image from the collective unconscious" is from 1919. Jung defined archetypal images as "forms or images of a collective nature which occur practically all over the earth as constituents of myths and at the same time as autochthonous individual products of unconscious origin." ["Psychology and Religion" 1937]
archfiend (n.) Look up archfiend at Dictionary.com
1667, from arch (adj.) + fiend (n.). Originally and typically Satan (arch-foe "Satan" is from 1610s).
So stretcht out huge in length the Arch-fiend lay. ["Paradise Lost," 1667]
Archibald Look up Archibald at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, from Old High German Erchanbald, literally "genuine bold," from erchan "genuine" + bald (see bold). Archie, British World War I military slang for "German anti-aircraft fire" (1915) supposedly is from black humor of airmen dodging hostile fire and thinking of the refrain of a popular music hall song, "Archibald, certainly not!"
archipelago (n.) Look up archipelago at Dictionary.com
c.1500, from Italian arcipelago "the Aegean Sea" (13c.), from Greek arkhipelagos, from arkhi- "chief" (see archon) + pelagos "sea" (see pelagic). The Aegean Sea being full of island chains, the meaning was extended in Italian to "any sea studded with islands." Klein, noting the absence of arkhipelagos in ancient or Medieval Greek (the modern word in Greek is borrowed from Italian) believe it is an Italian mistake for Aigaion pelagos "Aegean Sea" (Medieval Latin Egeopelagus), or influenced by that name.
architect (n.) Look up architect at Dictionary.com
1550s, from Middle French architecte, from Latin architectus, from Greek arkhitekton "master builder, director of works," from arkhi- "chief" (see archon) + tekton "builder, carpenter" (see texture). An Old English word for it was heahcræftiga "high-crafter."
architectonic (adj.) Look up architectonic at Dictionary.com
1670s (architectonical is from c.1600), "pertaining to architecture," from Latin architectonicus, from Greek arkhitektonikos "pertaining to a master builder," from arkhitekton (see architect). Metaphysical sense, "pertaining to systematization of knowledge," is from 1801.
architectural (adj.) Look up architectural at Dictionary.com
1762; see architecture + -al (1). Related: Architecturally.
architecture (n.) Look up architecture at Dictionary.com
1560s, from Middle French architecture, from Latin architectura, from architectus "architect" (see architect).
architrave (n.) Look up architrave at Dictionary.com
1560s, from Italian architrave, from archi- "beginning, origin" (see archon) + trave "beam," from Latin trabem (nominative trabs) "beam, timber," from PIE *treb- "dwelling" (see tavern).
archival (adj.) Look up archival at Dictionary.com
1800; see archives + -al (1). Related: Archivally.
archive (v.) Look up archive at Dictionary.com
1819 (implied in archived), from archives. Related: Archiving.
archives (n.) Look up archives at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from French archif (16c.), from Late Latin archivum (singular), from Greek ta arkheia "public records," plural of arkheion "town hall," from arkhe "government," literally "beginning, origin, first place" (see archon).
archivist (n.) Look up archivist at Dictionary.com
1753, from Medieval Latin or Italian archivista or French archiviste (see archives).
archon (n.) Look up archon at Dictionary.com
one of the nine chief magistrates of ancient Athens, 1650s, from Greek arkhon "ruler," noun use of present participle of arkhein "to rule," from PIE *arkhein- "to begin, rule, command," a "Gk. verb of unknown origin, but showing archaic Indo-European features ... with derivatives arkhe, 'rule, beginning,' and arkhos, 'ruler' " [Watkins].
archrival (n.) Look up archrival at Dictionary.com
by 1805, from arch- + rival (n.).
archway (n.) Look up archway at Dictionary.com
1802, from arch (n.) + way (n.).
Arctic (adj.) Look up Arctic at Dictionary.com
late 14c., artik, from Old French artique, from Medieval Latin articus, from Latin arcticus, from Greek arktikos "of the north," literally "of the (constellation) Bear," from arktos "bear; Ursa Major; the region of the north," the Bear being a northerly constellation. From *rkto-, the usual Indo-European base for "bear" (cognates: Avestan aresho, Armenian arj, Albanian ari, Latin ursus, Welsh arth); see bear (n.) for why the name changed in Germanic. The -c- was restored from 1550s. As a noun, "the Arctic regions," from 1560s.
Arctic Circle Look up Arctic Circle at Dictionary.com
1550s, in reference to a celestial circle, a line around the sky which, in any location, bounds the stars which are ever-visible from that latitude (in the Northern Hemisphere, this is focused on the celestial north pole); the concept goes back to the ancient Greeks, for whom this set of constellations included most prominently the two bears (arktoi), hence the name for the circle (see arctic). Of Earth, the circle 66 degrees 32 minutes north of the equator, marking the southern extremity of the polar day, it is recorded from 1620s.
Arcturus Look up Arcturus at Dictionary.com
late 14c., bright star in the constellation Bootes (also used of the whole constellation), from Latin Arcturus, from Greek Arktouros; anciently associated with the Bear, and its name is Greek for "guardian of the bear." See arctic; second element is from ouros "watcher, guardian, ward," from PIE root *wer- (4) "perceive" (see ward (n.)).

Arcturus in the Bible (Job ix:9 and xxxviii:32) is a mistranslation by Jerome (continued in KJV) of Hebrew 'Ayish, which refers to what we see as the "bowl" of the Big Dipper. In Israel and Arabia, the seven stars of the Great Bear seem to have been a bier (the "bowl") followed by three mourners. In the Septuagint it was translated as Pleiada, which is equally incorrect. The double nature of the great bear/wagon (see Big Dipper) has given two different names to the constellation that follows it: Arktouros "bear-ward" and bootes "the wagoner."
arcuate (adj.) Look up arcuate at Dictionary.com
"bent like a bow," 1620s, from Latin arcuatus "bow-like, arched," past participle of arcuare "to bend like a bow," from arcus "bow" (see arc (n.)).
ardency (n.) Look up ardency at Dictionary.com
1540s, "warmth of feeling, desire," from ardent + -cy. A figurative sense, the literal meaning "intensity of heat" wasn't attested in English until 1630s.
ardent (adj.) Look up ardent at Dictionary.com
early 14c., of alcoholic distillates, brandy (ardent spirits), etc., from Old French ardant (13c.) "burning, hot; zealous," from Latin ardentem (nominative ardens) "glowing, fiery, hot, ablaze," also used figuratively of passions, present participle of ardere "to burn," from PIE root *as- "to burn, glow" from PIE root *as- "to burn, glow" (cognates: Old English æsce "ashes;" see ash (n.1)).

Ardent spirits (late 15c.) so called because they are inflammable, but the term now, if used at all, probably is felt in the figurative sense. The figurative sense (of "burning with" passions, desire, etc.) is from late 14c.; literal sense of "burning, parching" (c.1400) remains rare. Related: Ardently.
ardor (n.) Look up ardor at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "heat of passion or desire," from Old French ardure "heat, glow; passion" (12c.), from Latin ardorem (nominative ardor) "a flame, fire, burning, heat;" also of feelings, etc., "eagerness, zeal," from ardere "to burn" (see ardent). In Middle English, used of base passions; since Milton's time, of noble ones.
ardour (n.) Look up ardour at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of ardor (q.v.); for spelling, see -or.
arduous (adj.) Look up arduous at Dictionary.com
1530s, "hard to accomplish, difficult to do," from Latin arduus "high, steep," also figuratively, "difficult," from PIE root *eredh- "to grow, high" (see ortho-). Literal sense of "high, steep, difficult to climb," attested in English from 1709.
ardurous (adj.) Look up ardurous at Dictionary.com
"full of ardor," 1770, a variant of arduous with overtones of amorous, generally useful only to poets and first attested in Chatterton; perhaps, then, like his works, an instance of faux medievalism.
are (v.) Look up are at Dictionary.com
present plural indicative of be (q.v.), from Old English earun (Mercian), aron (Northumbrian). Also from Old Norse cognates. In 17c., began to replace be, ben as first person plural present indicative in standard English. The only non-dialectal survival of be in this sense is the powers that be. But in southwest England, we be (in Devonshire us be) remains non-standard idiom as a contradictory positive ("You people aren't speaking correct English." "Oh, yes we be!").
are (n.) Look up are at Dictionary.com
square unit of 10 meters on each side, 1819, from French, formed 1795 by decree of the French National Convention, from Latin area "vacant piece of ground" (see area).
area (n.) Look up area at Dictionary.com
1530s, "vacant piece of ground," from Latin area "level ground, open space," used of building sites, playgrounds, threshing floors, etc.; of uncertain origin. Perhaps related to arere "to become dry," on notion of a burned clearing or dry, bare space. The generic sense of "amount of surface (whether open or not) contained within any set of limits" is from 1845. Area code in North American telephone systems is attested from 1959.
areal (adj.) Look up areal at Dictionary.com
1670s, from Latin arealis, from area (see area).
aren't Look up aren't at Dictionary.com
1794, contraction of are not, originally written are'n't and generally so into early 19c.
If "ain't I?" is objected to, surely "aren't I?" is very much worse. [Lady Grove, "The Social Fetich," 1907]
arena (n.) Look up arena at Dictionary.com
1620s, "place of combat," from Latin harena "place of combat," originally "sand, sandy place," perhaps from Etruscan. The central stages of Roman amphitheaters were strewn with sand to soak up the blood.
areola (n.) Look up areola at Dictionary.com
"colored circle around a nipple," 1706, from Latin areola, literally "small area," diminutive of area (see area). Introduced in this sense 1605 by Swiss anatomist and botanist Caspar Bauhin (1560-1624).
areolas (n.) Look up areolas at Dictionary.com
nativized plural of areola (q.v.), which has its proper plural in areolae (see -ae).
Areopagite (n.) Look up Areopagite at Dictionary.com
"member of the Areopagus court," late 14c.; see Areopagus + -ite (1). See Acts xvii:34.
Areopagus Look up Areopagus at Dictionary.com
1640s, Greek, Areios pagos "the hill of Ares," west of the Acropolis in Athens, where the highest judicial court sat; second element from pagos "rocky hill." Sense extended to "any important tribunal."
Ares Look up Ares at Dictionary.com
Greek god of war, identified by Romans with their Mars; literally "injurer, destroyer," from are "bane, ruin," perhaps cognate with Sanskrit irasya "ill-will" (see ire).
arete (n.1) Look up arete at Dictionary.com
"sharp crest of a mountain," 1862, from Swiss French arête, from Latin arista "ear of grain, the top of an ear," which probably is of Etruscan origin. The figure is of something jagged.
arete (n.2) Look up arete at Dictionary.com
important concept in Greek philosophy, "virtue, excellence," especially of manly qualities; literally "that which is good." The comparative form is areion, the superlative is aristos (compare aristocracy).
argent (n.) Look up argent at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "quicksilver, the metal mercury," from Old French argent (11c.), from Latin argentum "silver, silver work, white money," from PIE *arg-ent- (cognates: Avestan erezata-, Old Persian ardata-, Armenian arcat, Old Irish argat, Breton arc'hant "silver"), from root *arg- "to shine; white," thus "the shining or white metal, silver" (cognates: Greek argos "white," arguron "silver;" Sanskrit arjuna- "white, shining," rajata- "silver," Hittite harki- "white"). Meaning "silver, silver coin" is early 15c. in English; the adjective sense "silver-colored," late 15c.
Argentina Look up Argentina at Dictionary.com
South American nation, from Latin argentinus "of silver" (see argent); a Latinized form of (Rio) de la Plata, from Spanish plata "silver."
argentine (adj.) Look up argentine at Dictionary.com
"silver-colored," mid-15c., from Latin argentinus "of silver," from argentum (see argent).
Argentine (adj.) Look up Argentine at Dictionary.com
"of or from Argentina," 1830 (from 1829 as a noun); Argentinian is from 1845 as a noun; 1858 as an adjective.
Argive (adj.) Look up Argive at Dictionary.com
"of Argos," hence, especially in Homeric usage, "the Greeks," as a byword for Achaean (he describes Agamemnon as king of Argos), 1520s, from Latin Argivus, from Greek Argeios "of Argos."