appraisal (n.) Look up appraisal at
"setting of a price," by 1784, American English, from appraise + -al (2). Figurative sense, "act of appraising" (originally a term of literary criticism) is from 1817.
appraise (v.) Look up appraise at
c. 1400, "to set a value on," from stem of Old French aprisier "apraise, set a price on" (14c., Modern French apprécier), from Late Latin appretiare "value, estimate," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + pretium "price" (see price (n.)). Original English spelling apprize altered by influence of praise. Related: Appraised; appraising.
appraiser (n.) Look up appraiser at
early 15c., agent noun from appraise (v.).
appreciable (adj.) Look up appreciable at
1779 (mid-15c. in sense "worthy"); from French appréciable and directly from Medieval Latin appretiabilis, from Late Latin appretiare (see appreciate). Related: Appreciably.
appreciate (v.) Look up appreciate at
1650s, "to esteem or value highly," from Late Latin appretiatus, past participle of appretiare "to set a price to" (see appraise). Meaning "to rise in value" (intransitive) first recorded 1789. Related: Appreciated; appreciating.
appreciated (adj.) Look up appreciated at
"enhanced in value," 1794; "received with gratitude," by 1831; past participle adjective from appreciate.
appreciation (n.) Look up appreciation at
c. 1600 (with an isolated use from c. 1400), from Anglo-French appreciation, noun of action from Old French apprécier (14c.), from Late Latin appretiare "estimate the quality of" (see appreciate). Generally with a sense of "high estimation" from c. 1650. Meaning "expression of (favorable) estimation" is from 1858; sense of "rise in value" is from c. 1790.
appreciative (adj.) Look up appreciative at
1650s (implied in appreciatively); see appreciate + -ive. Related: Appreciativeness.
apprehend (v.) Look up apprehend at
mid-14c., "to grasp in the senses or mind," from Old French aprendre (12c.) "teach; learn; take, grasp; acquire," or directly from Latin apprehendere "to take hold of, grasp," from ad- "to" + prehendere "to seize" (see prehensile). Metaphoric extension to "seize with the mind" took place in Latin, and was the sole sense of cognate Old French aprendre (Modern French apprendre "to learn, to be informed about;" also compare apprentice). Original sense returned in English in meaning "to seize in the name of the law, arrest," recorded from 1540s, which use probably was taken directly from Latin. Related: Apprehended; apprehending.
apprehensible (adj.) Look up apprehensible at
late 15c., from Latin apprehensibilis "that can be seized," from apprehens-, past participle stem of apprehendere (see apprehend).
apprehension (n.) Look up apprehension at
"perception, comprehension," late 14c., from Old French apprehension or directly from Latin apprehensionem (nominative apprehensio), noun of action from past participle stem of apprehendere (see apprehend). Sense of "seizure on behalf of authority" is 1570s; that of "anticipation" (usually with dread) is recorded from c. 1600.
apprehensive (adj.) Look up apprehensive at
late 14c., "capable of perceiving, fitted for mental impression," from Medieval Latin apprehensivus, from Latin apprehensus, past participle of apprehendere (see apprehend). Meaning "fearful of what is to come" is recorded from 1718, via notion of "capable of grasping with the mind" (c. 1600). Related: Apprehensively; apprehensiveness.
apprentice (n.) Look up apprentice at
c. 1300, from Old French aprentiz "someone learning" (13c., Modern French apprenti, taking the older form as a plural), also as an adjective, "unskilled, inexperienced," from aprendre (Modern French apprendre) "to learn; to teach," contracted from Latin apprehendere (see apprehend). Shortened form prentice long was more usual in English.
apprentice (v.) Look up apprentice at
1630s, from apprentice (n.). Related: Apprenticed; apprenticing.
apprenticeship (n.) Look up apprenticeship at
1590s, from apprentice (n.) + -ship. Replaced earlier apprenticehood (late 14c., with -hood).
apprise (v.) Look up apprise at
"to notify," 1690s, from French appris, past participle of apprendre "to inform, teach," literally "to lay hold of (in the mind)," another metaphoric meaning of Latin apprehendere (see apprehend). Related: Apprised; apprising.
apprize (v.) Look up apprize at
occasional legalese form of appraise, c. 1400. Related: Apprized; apprizing.
approach (v.) Look up approach at
c. 1300, from Anglo-French approcher, Old French aprochier "approach, come closer" (12c., Modern French approcher), from Late Latin appropiare "go nearer to," from Latin ad- "to" (see ad-) + Late Latin propiare "come nearer," comparative of Latin prope "near" (see propinquity). Replaced Old English neahlæcan.
approach (n.) Look up approach at
mid-15c., from approach (v.). Figurative sense of "means of handling a problem, etc." is first attested 1905.
approachable (adj.) Look up approachable at
1570s, from approach (v.) + -able. Figurative sense, "affable, friendly," is from 1610s. Related: Approachably; approachability.
approbate (v.) Look up approbate at
late 15c., from Latin approbatus, past participle of approbare "to assent to (as good), favor" (see approve). Related: Approbated; approbating.
approbation (n.) Look up approbation at
late 14c., "proven effectiveness, excellence," from Old French aprobacion or directly from Latin approbationem (nominative approbatio) "an approval," noun of action from past participle stem of approbare (see approve). Meaning "approval, endorsement" is from early 15c.
appropre (v.) Look up appropre at
mid-14c., from Old French aproprier, from Late Latin appropriare (see appropriate (v.)).
appropriate (v.) Look up appropriate at
early 15c., "take possession of," from Late Latin appropriatus, past participle of appropriare, adpropriare (c.450) "to make one's own," from Latin ad- "to" (see ad-) + propriare "take as one's own," from proprius "one's own" (see proper). Related: Appropriated; appropriating.
appropriate (adj.) Look up appropriate at
"specially suitable, proper," early 15c., from Latin appropriatus, past participle of appropriare (see appropriate (v.)). Related: Appropriately; appropriateness.
appropriation (n.) Look up appropriation at
late 14c., "taking (something) as private property," from Late Latin appropriationem (nominative appropriatio) "a making one's own," noun of action from past participle stem of appropriare (see appropriate). Meaning "setting aside for some purpose" (especially of money) first attested 1789 in U.S. Constitution.
approval (n.) Look up approval at
1680s, from approve + -al (2). According to OED, "Rare bef. 1800; now generally used instead of" approvance (1590s, from French aprovance).
approve (v.) Look up approve at
c. 1300, "to demonstrate, prove;" mid-14c., "to attest (something) with authority," from Old French aprover (Modern French approuver) "approve, agree to," from Latin approbare "to assent to as good, regard as good," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + probare "to try, test something (to find if it is good)," from probus "honest, genuine" (see prove).

The meaning extended late 14c. to "to sanction, endorse, confirm formally" then to "assent to (something) as good" (early 15c.), especially in reference to the actions of authorities, parliaments, etc. Related: Approved; approving.
approximate (adj.) Look up approximate at
early 15c., from Latin approximatus, past participle of approximare "to come near to," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + proximare "come near," from proximus "nearest," superlative of prope "near" (see propinquity).
approximate (v.) Look up approximate at
early 15c., "to bring or put close," from approximate (adj.). Meaning "to come close" is from 1789. Related: Approximated; approximating.
approximately (adv.) Look up approximately at
1742, from approximate (adj.) + -ly (2).
approximation (n.) Look up approximation at
early 15c., "act of coming near or close," noun of action from approximate (v.). Meaning "result of approximating" is from 1650s.
appurtenance (n.) Look up appurtenance at
c. 1300, "right, privilege or possession subsidiary to a principal one," from Anglo-French apurtenance (12c.), Old French apartenance, present participle of apartenir "be related to," from Latin appertinere "to pertain to," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + pertinere "belong to" (see pertain).
appurtenances (n.) Look up appurtenances at
"apparatus, gear," late 14c.; see appurtenance.
appurtenant (adj.) Look up appurtenant at
late 14c., from Anglo-French apurtenant, Old French apartenant, present participle of apartenir "be related to" (see appurtenance).
apraxia (n.) Look up apraxia at
1877, medical Latin, from German apraxie (H. Steinthal, 1871), from Greek apraxia "inaction," from privative prefix a- (see a- (3)) + praxis "a doing, action, business" (see praxis) + abstract noun ending -ia.
apricate (v.) Look up apricate at
1690s, "to bask in the sun," from Latin apricatus, past participle of apricari "to bask in the sun," from apricus "exposed" (to the sun); perhaps contracted from *apericus, from aperire "to open" (see overt). Transitive sense is recorded from 1851.
apricot (n.) Look up apricot at
1550s, abrecock, from Catalan abercoc, related to Portuguese albricoque, from Arabic al-birquq, through Byzantine Greek berikokkia from Latin (malum) praecoquum "early-ripening (fruit)" (see precocious). Form assimilated to French abricot.
Latin praecoquis early-ripe, can probably be attributed to the fact that the fruit was considered a variety of peach that ripened sooner than other peaches .... [Barnhart]
The older Latin name for it was prunum Armeniacum or malum Armeniacum, in reference to supposed origin in Armenia. As a color name, first attested 1906.
April Look up April at
fourth month, c. 1300, aueril, from Old French avril (11c.), from Latin (mensis) Aprilis, second month of the ancient Roman calendar, of uncertain origin, perhaps based on Apru, an Etruscan borrowing of Greek Aphrodite. Or perhaps *ap(e)rilis "the following, the next," from its place as the second month of the old Roman calendar, from Proto-Italic *ap(e)ro-, from PIE *apo- "away, off" (see apo-; compare Sanskrit aparah "second," Gothic afar "after"). With month-name suffix -ilis as in Quintilis, Sextilis (the old names of July and August). In English in Latin form from mid-12c. Replaced Old English Eastermonað, which was named for a fertility goddess (see Easter). Re-spelled in Middle English on Latin model (apprile first attested late 14c.).
April fool (n.) Look up April fool at
1680s; April-gowk (from Old Norse gaukr "a cuckoo") is a northern variant. April Fool's Day customs of sending people on false errands seem to have come to England from France late 17c.; originally All Fool's Day (1712). In Cumberland, Westmorland and northern parts of Lancashire and Yorkshire, however, May 1 was the day for hoaxing, and the fool was a May gosling. That custom was first attested 1791.
apron (n.) Look up apron at
mid-15c., faulty separation (as also in adder, umpire) of a napron (c. 1300), from Old French naperon "small table-cloth," diminutive of nappe "cloth," from Latin mappa "napkin." Napron was still in use as recently as late 16c. The shift of Latin -m- to -n- was a tendency in Old French (conter from computare, printemps from primum, natte "mat, matting," from matta). Symbolic of "wife's business" from 1610s. Apron-string tenure was in reference to property held in virtue of one's wife, or during her lifetime only.
Even at his age, he ought not to be always tied to his mother's apron string. [Anne Brontë, "The Tenant of Wildfell Hall," 1848]
apropos (adv.) Look up apropos at
1660s, "opportunely," from French à propos "to the purpose," from propos "thing said in conversation, talk; purpose, plan," from Latin propositium "purpose," past participle of proponere "to set forth, propose" (see propound). Meaning "as regards" is 1761, from French. As an adjective, "to the point or purpose," from 1690s.
apse (n.) Look up apse at
"semicircular extension at the end of a church," 1846, from Latin apsis "an arch, a vault," from Greek hapsis (Ionic apsis) "loop, arch," originally "a fastening, felloe of a wheel," from haptein "fasten together," which is of unknown origin. The original sense in Greek seems to have been the joining of the arcs to form a circle, especially in making a wheel. The architectural term is earlier attested in English in the Latin form (1706).
apsis (n.) Look up apsis at
"perigree of the moon, perihelion of a planet" (plural apsides), 1650s, from Latin apsis "arch, vault" (see apse).
apt (adj.) Look up apt at
mid-14c., "inclined, disposed;" late 14c., "suited, fitted, adapted," from Old French ate (13c., Modern French apte), or directly from Latin aptus "fit, suited," adjectival use of past participle of *apere "to attach, join, tie to," from PIE root *ap- (1) "to grasp, take, reach" (source also of Sanskrit apnoti "he reaches," Latin apisci "to reach after, attain," Hittite epmi "I seize"). Elliptical sense of "becoming, appropriate" is from 1560s.
aptitude (n.) Look up aptitude at
early 15c., "tendency, likelihood," from Middle French aptitude (14c.) or directly from Late Latin aptitudo (genitive aptitudinis) "fitness," noun of quality from Latin aptus "joined, fitted" (see apt). Meaning "natural capacity to learn" is 1540s; that of "quality of being fit (for a purpose or position)" is from 1640s.
aptly (adv.) Look up aptly at
early 15c., "by natural means," from apt + -ly (2).
aptness (n.) Look up aptness at
1530s, from apt + -ness.
aqua (n.) Look up aqua at
"water," late 14c.; see aqua-. Used in late Middle English in combinations to mean "decoction, solution" (as in aqua regia, a mix of concentrated acids, literally "royal water," so called for its power to dissolve gold and other "noble" metals). As the name of a light greenish-blue color, 1936.
aqua fortis (n.) Look up aqua fortis at
old name for "concentrated nitric acid," c. 1600, Latin, literally "strong water;" see aqua- + fort. So called for its power of dissolving metals (copper, silver) unaffected by other agents.