anabolism (n.)
"constructive metabolism," 1886; see anabolic + -ism.
anachronism (n.)
1640s, "an error in computing time or finding dates," from Latin anachronismus, from Greek anakhronismos, from anakhronizein "refer to wrong time," from ana "against" (see ana-) + khronos "time" (see chrono-). Meaning "something out of harmony with a specified time" is first recorded 1816.
anachronistic (adj.)
"erroneous in date, involving anachronism," 1775; see anachronism + -istic.
anacoluthon (n.)
"want of grammatical sequence; changing constructions in mid-clause," whether arbitrary or intentional, 1706, from Latinized form of Greek anakoluthon, neuter of anakolouthos "inconsequent," from an- "not" (see an- (1)) + akolouthos "following," from copulative prefix a- expressing union or likeness (see a- (3)) + keleuthos "way, road, track, path" (see celerity). "As a figure of speech it has propriety and force only so far as it suggests that the emotion of the speaker is so great as to make him forget how he began his sentence" [Century Dictionary]. Related: Anacoluthic.
Anacoluthon, though a grammatical defect, is a rhetorical beauty, if naturally produced or imitated; as, "If thou art he--but oh ! how fallen!" "He who hath seen life in all its shapes, and fully knows its good and evil--No ! there is nothing on earth which can make a wise man desire a greater length of days than heaven appoints." These are instances in which the break down is the effect of emotion. [James R. Boyd, "Elements of English Composition," 1874]
anaconda (n.)
1768, a name first used in English to name a Ceylonese python, it was applied erroneously to a large South American boa, called in Brazil sucuriuba. The word is of uncertain origin, and no similar snake name is found now in Sinhalese or Tamil. One suggestion is that it is a Latinization of Sinhalese henacandaya "whip snake," literally "lightning-stem" [Barnhart]. Another suggestion is that it represents Tamil anaikkonda "having killed an elephant" [OED].
Anacreontic (adj.)
"of or in the manner of Anacreon," the "convivial bard of Greece," celebrated lyrical poet (560-478 B.C.E.), born at Teos in Ionia. Also in reference to his lyric form (1706) of a four-line stanza, rhymed alternately, each line with four beats (three trochees and a long syllable), also "convivial and amatory" (1801); and "an erotic poem celebrating love and wine" (1650s). The name is literally "Up-lord," from ana "up" (see ana-) + kreon "lord, master," Beekes calls it "an inherited word from Indo-European poetic language," from PIE *kreih- "splendor," and compares Sanskrit sri- "magnificence, riches, splendor, fame."

Francis Scott Key in 1814 set or wrote his poem "The Star-Spangled Banner" to the melody of "To Anacreon in Heav'n," the drinking song of the popular London gentleman's club called The Anacreontic Society, dedicated to "wit, harmony, and the god of wine." The tune is late 18c. and may be the work of society member and court musician John Stafford Smith (1750-1836).
anacrusis (n.)
"unstressed syllable at the beginning of a verse," 1833, Latinized from Greek anakrousis "a pushing back," of a ship, "backing water," from anakrouein "to push back, stop short, check," from ana "back" (see ana-) + krouein "to strike," from PIE *kreue- (2) "to push, strike" (source also of Russian krusit, Lithuanian krusu "to smash, shatter," Old Church Slavonic kruchu "piece, bit of food," Old English hreowian "feel pain or sorrow," Old Norse hryggja "make sad"). Related: Anacrustic.
anadiplosis (n.)
in rhetoric, "repetition at the start of a line or phrase of the last word or words of the preceding one," 1580s, from Latin, from Greek anadiplosis, from anadiploesthai "to be doubled back, to be made double," from ana "back" (see ana-) + diploun "to double, fold over" (see diploma).
Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering. [Yoda, "Star Wars"]
anadromous (adj.)
"ascending," especially "ascending a river to spawn" (as salmon and other fishes do), 1753, from Latinized form of Greek anadromos "running upward," from ana "up, upward" (see ana-) + dramein "to run" (see dromedary).
anaemia (n.)
"deficiency of blood in a living body," 1824, a medical term from French (1761), from Latinized form of Greek anaimia "lack of blood," from anaimos "bloodless," from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + haima "blood" (see -emia).
anaemic (adj.)
"affected with anemia, deficient in blood," 1843; see anaemia + -ic. Figurative sense by 1898.
anaerobic (adj.)
"capable of living without oxygen," 1884 (earlier anaerobian, 1879), from French anaérobie, coined 1863 by French bacteriologist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), from Greek an- "without" (see an- (1)) + aer "air" (see air (n.1)) + bios "life," from PIE root *gwei- "to live."
anaesthesia (n.)
alternative spelling of anesthesia (q.v.). See æ (1).
anaesthesiologist (n.)
alternative spelling of anesthesiologist (q.v.). See æ (1).
anaesthesiology (n.)
alternative spelling of anesthesiology (q.v.). See æ (1).
anaesthetic (adj.)
alternative spelling of anesthetic (q.v.). See æ (1).
anaesthetist (n.)
alternative spelling of anesthetist (q.v.). See æ (1).
anaesthetize (v.)
alternative spelling of anesthetize (q.v.); also see æ (1). Related: Anaesthetized; anaesthetizing.
anagnorisis (n.)
"recognition," especially in dramatic works, c. 1800, from Latin, from Greek anagnorisis "recognition," from anagnorizein "to recognize," from ana "again" (see ana-) + gnorizein "to make known, gain knowledge of," from PIE root *gno- "to know."
anagogical (adj.)
"having a secondary, spiritual sense" (of Scripture, etc.), 1520s, with -ical + Greek anagoge "elevation; spiritual or mystical enlightenment," from anagein "to lead up, lift up," from ana "up" (see ana-) + agein "to lead, put in motion," from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move."
anagram (n.)
"transposition of letters in a word so as to form another; a word so formed," 1580s, from French anagramme or Modern Latin anagramma (16c.), both from Greek anagrammatizein "transpose letters of a word so as to form another," from ana "back, backwards" (see ana-) + gramma (genitive grammatos) "letter" (see -gram). Evil is an anagram of live. Related: Anagrammatic; anagrammatical; anagrammatically.
anal (adj.)
1769, from Modern Latin analis "of the anus;" see anus. Anal-retentive first attested 1957, in psychological jargon. Anal sex attested as such from 1966.
analects (n.)
1650s, "literary gleanings," from Latin analecta, from Greek analekta, literally "things chosen," neuter plural of analektos "select, choice," verbal adjective of analegein "to gather up, collect," from ana "up" (see ana-) + legein "to gather," also "to choose words," hence "to speak," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather."
analemma (n.)
1650s, "projection of the celestial sphere onto the plane of the meridian," later the name of an astronomical instrument to do this (1660s), from Latin analemma name of a type of sundial known in antiquity, originally meaning "pedestal of a sundial," hence by extension the sundial itself. This is from Greek analemma "prop, support" of any kind, such as a sling for a broken arm, from analambanein "to take up; restore, repair," from ana "up" (see ana-) + lambanein "to take" (see lemma). As the name of a tabulated scale in the form of a figure 8, showing the sun's position and equation of time throughout the year, from 1832.
analepsis (n.)
"recovery of strength after a disease," 1849, from Greek analepsis "a recovery," from analambanein "to restore, repair," literally "take up," from ana "up" (see ana-) + lambanein "to take" (see lemma).
analeptic (adj.)
1660s, in medicine, "restorative, invigorating, strengthening," from Latinized form of Greek analeptikos "restorative," from analambanein "to restore, repair," literally "take up," from ana "up" (see ana-) + lambanein "to take" (see lemma). Related: Analeptical (1610s).
analgesia (n.)
"absence of pain, incapacity of feeling pain in a part, though tactile sense is preserved," 1706, medical Latin, from Greek analgesia "want of feeling, insensibility," from analgetos "without pain, insensible to pain" (also "unfeeling, ruthless"), from an- "not" (see an- (1)) + algein "to feel pain" (see -algia). An alternative form is analgia.
analgesic (adj.)
"tending to remove pain," 1848, from analgesia + -ic. Alternative form analgetic (from Greek analgetos "without pain") is classically correct but less common. The noun meaning "an analgesic preparation, anything which removes pain" is recorded by 1860.
analgetic (adj.)
classically correct form of analgesic (q.v.).
chiefly U.S. spelling of analogue (q.v.).
analogical (adj.)
"done by or of the nature of an analogy," 1580s in mathematics; c. 1600 in general use; see analogy + -ical.
analogize (v.)
"explain by analogy, exhibit resemblances between," 1650s, from analogy + -ize, or else from French analogiser (17c.). Greek analogizesthai "to reckon, sum up, calculate, consider" suits the form but not the sense. Related: Analogized; analogizing.
analogous (adj.)
"corresponding (to some other) in particulars," 1640s, from Latin analogus, from Greek analogos "proportionate, according to due proportion," from ana "throughout; according to" (see ana-) + logos "ratio, proportion," a specialized use (see Logos). Used with to or with.
A term is analogous whose single signification applies with equal propriety to more than one object: as, the leg of the table, the leg of the animal. [William Flemming, "The Vocabulary of Philosophy," 1858]
analogue (n.)
1826, "an analogous thing," from French analogue (adj. and n.), from Latin analogus (adj.), from Greek analogos "proportionate, according to due proportion," from ana "throughout; according to" (see ana-) + logos "ratio, proportion," a specialized use (see Logos).

The word was used in English in Greek form (analogon) in 1810. Meaning "word corresponding with another" is from 1837. Computing sense, in reference to operating with numbers represented by some measurable quantity (as a slide-rule does; opposed to digital) is recorded from 1946.
analogy (n.)
early 15c., "correspondence, proportion," from Old French analogie or directly from Latin analogia, from Greek analogia "proportion," from ana "upon, according to" (see ana-) + logos "ratio," also "word, speech, reckoning," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')."

A mathematical term given a wider sense by Plato. Meaning "partial agreement, likeness or proportion between things" is from 1540s. In logic, "an argument from the similarity of things in some ways inferring their similarity in others," c. 1600.
analyse (v.)
chiefly British English spelling of analyze (q.v.), which was the former spelling there (as in Johnson's dictionary). In 17c. analize also was used.
Analyse is better than analyze, but merely as being the one of the two equally indefensible forms that has won. The correct but now impossible form would be analysize (or analysise), with analysist for existing analyst. [Fowler]
analysis (n.)
1580s, "resolution of anything complex into simple elements" (opposite of synthesis), from Medieval Latin analysis (15c.), from Greek analysis "solution of a problem by analysis," literally "a breaking up, a loosening, releasing," noun of action from analyein "unloose, release, set free; to loose a ship from its moorings," in Aristotle, "to analyze," from ana "up, back, throughout" (see ana-) + lysis "a loosening," from lyein "to unfasten" (from PIE root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart").

Meaning "statement presenting results of an analytic process" is from 1660s. Psychological sense is from 1890. English also formerly had a noun analyse (1630s), from French analyse, from Medieval Latin analysis. Phrase in the final (or last) analysis (1844), translates French en dernière analyse.
analyst (n.)
1650s, "one versed in algebraic analysis, mathematician skilled in algebraic geometry," from French analyste "a person who analyzes," from analyser, from analyse "analysis," from Medieval Latin analysis (see analysis). As a short form of psychoanalyst, attested from 1914; the one analyzed is an analysand (1933). Greek analyter meant "a deliverer."
analytic (adj.)
"relating to or operating by analogy," c. 1600, from Medieval Latin analyticus, from Greek analytikos "analytical," from analytos "dissolved," from analyein "unloose, release, set free," from ana "up, back, throughout" (see ana-) + lysis "a loosening," from lyein "to unfasten" (from PIE root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart").
analytical (adj.)
"employing analytic methods," 1520s, with -al (1) + Medieval Latin analyticus, from Medieval Latin analyticus, from Greek analytikos "analytical," from analytos "dissolved," from analyein "unloose, release, set free," from ana "up, back, throughout" (see ana-) + lysis "a loosening," from lyein "to unfasten" (from PIE root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart").

In linguistics, of languages that use particles and auxiliaries (rather than inflections) to modify meaning and show relations of words, from 1830. Analytical chemistry resolves compounds into elements. Related: Analytically.
analytics (n.)
the division of logic which distinguishes good from bad arguments, 1590s, from Latin analytica from Greek analytika, from stem of analyein "unloose, release, set free," from ana "up, back, throughout" (see ana-) + lysis "a loosening," from lyein "to unfasten" (from PIE root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart"); also see -ics. Ta Analytika was the name of Aristotle's treatises on logic.
analyze (v.)
c. 1600, of material things, "to dissect, take to pieces," from French analyser, from the noun analyse "analysis" (see analysis). Of literature, "examine critically to get the essence of," from 1610s; meaning in chemistry ("resolve a compound into elements") dates from 1660s. General sense of "to examine closely" dates from 1809; psychological sense is from 1909. Related: Analyzed; analyzing.
analyzer (n.)
also analyser, "one who or that which analyzes" in any sense, 1620s, agent noun from analyze (v.).
anamnesis (n.)
"recollection, remembrance, reminiscence," 1650s, from Greek anamnesis "a calling to mind, remembrance," noun of action from stem of anamimneskein "remember, remind (someone) of (something), make mention of," from ana "back" (see ana-) + mimneskesthai "to recall, cause to remember," related to mnemnon "mindful," mneme "memory;" from PIE root *men- (1) "to think." In Platonic philosophy, "recollection of a prior life."
anamnestic (adj.)
1753, from Latinized form of Greek anamnestikos "able to recall to mind," from stem of anamimneskein "remember" (see anamnesis).
anamniotic (adj.)
1880, "without an amnion" (of amphibians and fishes); from an- (1) "not, without" + amniotic.
anamorphic (adj.)
1904, in geology in reference to certain metamorphic rocks; see anamorphosis + -ic. Cinematographic use dates from 1954 in reference to lenses to fit wide-screen pictures onto standard screens.
anamorphism (n.)
"distorted projection or perspective," 1836; see anamorphosis + -ism.
anamorphosis (n.)
"distorted projection or drawing" (one that looks normal from a particular angle or with a certain mirror), 1727, from Greek anamorphosis "transformation," noun of action from anamorphoein "to transform," from ana "up" (see ana-) + morphosis, from morphe "form" (see Morpheus). In botany, "monstrous development of a part" (1830); in evolutionary biology, "gradual change of form in a species over time" (1852).
anan (interj.)
variant of anon (q.v.).