adulterer (n.) Look up adulterer at
early 15c., earlier avouter (c. 1300), avoutrer (late 14c.), agent noun from obsolete verb adulter "commit adultery; adulterate" (late 14c.), from Latin adulterare "to corrupt" (see adulteration).
adulteress (n.) Look up adulteress at
late 14c., avoutresse, agent noun in fem. form from obsolete verb adulter (see adulterer).
adulterous (adj.) Look up adulterous at
c. 1400, avoutrious "addicted to adultery," from obsolete verb adulter (see adulterer) + -ous.
adultery (n.) Look up adultery at
"voluntary violation of the marriage bed," c. 1300, avoutrie, from Old French avouterie (12c.), noun of condition from avoutre, from Latin adulterare "to corrupt" (see adulteration). Modern spelling, with the re-inserted -d-, is from early 15c. (see ad-).

In Middle English, also "sex between husband and wife for recreational purposes; idolatry, perversion, heresy." Classified as single adultery (with an unmarried person) and double adultery (with a married person). Old English word was æwbryce "breach of law(ful marriage)" (compare German Ehebruch). Adultery Dune in Arizona corresponds to Navajo sei adilehe "adultery sand," where illicit lovers met privately.
adulthood (n.) Look up adulthood at
1850, from adult + -hood.
adumbrate (v.) Look up adumbrate at
"to outline, to sketch," 1580s, from Latin adumbratus "sketched, shadowed in outline," past participle of adumbrare "to represent (a thing) in outline" (see adumbration). Meaning "to overshadow" is 1660s. Related: Adumbrated; adumbrating.
adumbration (n.) Look up adumbration at
1530s, from Latin adumbrationem (nominative adumbratio) "a sketch in shadow, sketch, outline," noun of action from past participle stem of adumbrare "to cast a shadow, overshadow, represent (a thing) in outline," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + umbrare "to cast in shadow," from PIE *andho- "blind, dark" (see umbrage).
advance (v.) Look up advance at
mid-13c., avauncen, transitive, "improve (something), further the development of," from Old French avancier "move forward" (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *abanteare (source of Italian avanzare, Spanish avanzar), from Late Latin abante "from before," composed of ab- "from" (see ab-) + ante "before, in front of, against" (see ante).

The -d- was inserted 16c. on mistaken notion that initial a- was from Latin ad-. From c. 1300 as "to promote;" intransitive sense is mid-14c., "move forward." Meaning "to give money before it is legally due" is first attested 1670s. Related: Advanced; advancing. The adjective (in advance warning, etc.) is recorded from 1843.
advance (n.) Look up advance at
c. 1300, "boasting, ostentation," from advance (v.). Early 15c. as "advancement in rank, wealth, etc." Advances "amorous overtures" is from 1706.
advanced (adj.) Look up advanced at
1530s, "far ahead in the course of actions or ideas," past participle adjective from advance (v.). Of studies, from 1790. Military use is from 1795. In late 19c. used especially in reference to views on women's equality.
advancement (n.) Look up advancement at
c. 1300, avauncement, "a raising to a higher rank," from Old French avancement "advancement, profit, advance payment," from avancer (see advance (v.)). Of money, from 1640s.
advantage (n.) Look up advantage at
early 14c., avantage, "position of being in advance of another," from Old French avantage "advantage, profit, superiority," from avant "before," probably via an unrecorded Late Latin *abantaticum, from Latin abante (see advance).

The -d- is a 16c. intrusion on the analogy of Latin ad- words. Meaning "a favoring circumstance" (the opposite of disadvantage) is from late 15c. Tennis score sense is from 1640s, first recorded in writings of John Milton, of all people. Phrase to take advantage of is first attested late 14c.
advantageous (adj.) Look up advantageous at
1590s, formed in English from advantage, or else from French avantageux (15c.), from avantage (see advantage). Related: Advantageously; advantageousness.
advent (n.) Look up advent at
"important arrival," 1742, an extended sense of Advent "season before Christmas" (Old English), from Latin adventus "a coming, approach, arrival," in Church Latin "the coming of the Savior," from past participle stem of advenire "arrive, come to," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + venire "to come" (see venue). In English, also sometimes extended to the Pentecost.
Adventist (n.) Look up Adventist at
"one of a religious denomination that believes in or looks for the early second coming of Christ," 1843; see advent + -ist. Church Latin adventus was applied to the coming of the Savior, both the first or the anticipated second, hence Adventist was a name applied to millenarian sects, especially and originally the Millerites (U.S.).
adventitious (adj.) Look up adventitious at
"of the nature of an addition from without," c. 1600, from Medieval Latin adventitius "coming from abroad, extraneous," a corruption of Latin adventicius "foreign, strange, accidental," from advent- past participle stem of advenire "arrive" (see advent). Related: Adventitiously; adventitiousness.
adventure (n.) Look up adventure at
c. 1200, auenture "that which happens by chance, fortune, luck," from Old French aventure (11c.) "chance, accident, occurrence, event, happening," from Latin adventura (res) "(a thing) about to happen," from adventurus, future participle of advenire "to come to, reach, arrive at," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + venire "to come" (see venue).

Meaning developed through "risk/danger" (a trial of one's chances), c. 1300, and "perilous undertaking" (late 14c.) and thence to "a novel or exciting incident" (1560s). Earlier it also meant "a wonder, a miracle; accounts of marvelous things" (13c.). The -d- was restored 15c.-16c. Venture is a 15c. variant.
adventure (v.) Look up adventure at
c. 1300, "to risk the loss of," from adventure (n.). Meaning "to take a chance" is early 14c. Related: Adventured; adventuring.
adventurer (n.) Look up adventurer at
late 15c., "one who plays at games of chance," agent noun from adventure (v.). Meaning "one who seeks adventures" is from 1660s.
adventuresome (adj.) Look up adventuresome at
1731, from adventure + -some (1).
adventurous (adj.) Look up adventurous at
mid-14c., "hazardous" (also "occurring by chance," late 14c.), from Old French aventuros "chance, accidental, fortuitous;" of persons, "devoted to adventure" (Modern French aventureux), from aventure (see adventure (n.)). Sense evolution is through "rash, risk-taking" (c. 1400), "daring, fond of adventure" (mid-15c.).
adverb (n.) Look up adverb at
late 14c., from Late Latin adverbium "adverb," literally "that which is added to a verb," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + verbum "verb, word" (see verb). Coined by Flavius Sosipater Charisius as a translation of Greek epirrhema "adverb," from epi- "upon, on" + rhema "verb."
adverbial (adj.) Look up adverbial at
1610s, "pertaining to adverbs;" earlier it meant "fond of using adverbs" (1590s), from Late Latin adverbialis, from adverbium (see adverb). Related: Adverbially (mid-15c.).
adversarial (adj.) Look up adversarial at
by 1892, from adversary + -al (1). Probably coined to avoid confusion which might arise with use of adversary (adj.), which is attested from late 14c. Related: Adversarially.
adversary (n.) Look up adversary at
mid-14c., aduersere, from Anglo-French adverser (13c.), Old French adversaire "adversary, opponent, enemy," or directly from Latin adversarius "opponent, adversary, rival," noun use of adjective meaning "opposite, hostile, contrary," literally "turned toward one," from adversus "turned against" (see adverse). The Latin word is glossed in Old English by wiðerbroca.
adverse (adj.) Look up adverse at
late 14c., "contrary, opposing," from Old French avers (13c., Modern French adverse) "antagonistic, unfriendly, contrary, foreign" (as in gent avers "infidel race"), from Latin adversus "turned against, turned toward, fronting, facing," figuratively "hostile, adverse, unfavorable," past participle of advertere, from ad- "to" (see ad-) + vertere "to turn" (see versus). For distinction of use, see averse. Related: Adversely.
adversity (n.) Look up adversity at
c. 1200, aduersite "misfortune, hardship, difficulty," from Old French aversité "adversity, calamity, misfortune; hostility, wickedness, malice" (Modern French adversité), from Latin adversitatem (nominative adversitas) "opposition," from adversus (see adverse).
advert (v.) Look up advert at
mid-15c., averten "to turn (something) aside," from Middle French avertir (12c.), from Late Latin advertere (see advertise). The -d- added 16c. on the Latin model. Related: Adverted; adverting.
advert (n.) Look up advert at
colloquial shortening of advertisement, attested by 1860.
advertise (v.) Look up advertise at
early 15c., "to take notice of," from Middle French advertiss-, present participle stem of a(d)vertir "to warn" (12c.), from Latin advertere "turn toward," from ad- "toward" (see ad-) + vertere "to turn" (see versus).

Sense shifted to "to give notice to others, warn" (late 15c.) by influence of advertisement; specific meaning "to call attention to goods for sale, rewards, etc." had emerged by late 18c. Original meaning remains in the verb advert "to give attention to." Related: Advertised; advertising.
advertised (adj.) Look up advertised at
late 15c., "informed;" 1780s, "publicly announced," past participle adjective from advertise.
advertisement (n.) Look up advertisement at
early 15c., "written statement calling attention to" something, "public notice" (of anything, but often of a sale); from Middle French avertissement, from stem of avertir (see advertise). Meaning "public notice" (usually paid), the main modern sense, emerged 1580s and was fully developed by 18c.
advertiser (n.) Look up advertiser at
1560s, agent noun from advertise (v.).
advice (n.) Look up advice at
late 13c., auys "opinion," from Old French avis "opinion, view, judgment, idea" (13c.), from phrase ço m'est à vis "it seems to me," or from Vulgar Latin *mi est visum "in my view," ultimately from Latin visum, neuter past participle of videre "to see" (see vision).

The unhistorical -d- was introduced in English 15c., on model of Latin words in ad-. Substitution of -c- for -s- is 18c., to preserve the breath sound and to distinguish from advise. Meaning "opinion given as to action, counsel" is from late 14c.
advisability (n.) Look up advisability at
1778 (in a letter from George Washington at Valley Forge), from advisable + -ity.
advisable (adj.) Look up advisable at
1640s, from advise (v.) + -able.
advise (v.) Look up advise at
late 13c., avisen "to view, consider," from Old French aviser "deliberate, reflect, consider" (13c.), from avis "opinion" (see advice). Meaning "to give counsel to" is late 14c. Related: Advised; advising.
advisement (n.) Look up advisement at
early 14c., avisement "examination, inspection, observation," from Old French avisement "consideration, reflection," from aviser (see advise). Meaning "advice, counsel" is from c. 1400, as is that of "consultation, conference."
adviser (n.) Look up adviser at
1610s, agent noun from advise (v.). Meaning "military person sent to help a government or army in a foreign country" is recorded from 1915. Alternative form, Latinate advisor, is perhaps a back-formation from advisory.
advisory (adj.) Look up advisory at
1778; see advise + -ory. The noun meaning "weather warning" is from 1931.
advocacy (n.) Look up advocacy at
late 14c., from Old French avocacie (14c.), from Medieval Latin advocatia, abstract noun from Latin advocatus (see advocate (n.)).
advocate (n.) Look up advocate at
mid-14c., "one whose profession is to plead cases in a court of justice," a technical term from Roman law, from Old French avocat "barrister, advocate, spokesman," from Latin advocatus "one called to aid; a pleader, advocate," noun use of past participle of advocare "to call" (as witness or advisor) from ad- "to" (see ad-) + vocare "to call," related to vocem (see voice (n.)). Also in Middle English as "one who intercedes for another," and "protector, champion, patron." Feminine forms advocatess, advocatrice were in use in 15c.
advocate (v.) Look up advocate at
1640s, from advocate (n.). Related: Advocated; advocating; advocation.
adware (n.) Look up adware at
2000 (earlier as the name of a software company), from ad (n.) + -ware, abstracted from software, etc.
adze (n.) Look up adze at
also adz, "cutting tool resembling an axe, but with a curved blade at a right-angle to the handle, used for dressing timber," 18c. spelling modification of ads, addes, from Middle English adese, adse, from Old English adesa "adze, hatchet," which is of unknown origin. Adze "has been monosyllabic only since the seventeenth century. The word has no cognates, though it resembles the names of the adz and the hammer in many languages" [Liberman, 2008]. Perhaps somehow related to Old French aisse, Latin ascia "axe" (see axe).
ae Look up ae at
see æ. As a word, it can represent Old English æ "law," especially law of nature or God's law; hence "legal custom, marriage" (cognate with Old High German ewa, Old Saxon eo), according to Buck probably literally "way, manner, custom," from PIE *ei- "to go."
AEF Look up AEF at
also A.E.F., abbreviation of American Expeditionary Force, the U.S. military force sent to Europe in 1917 during World War I.
Aegean Look up Aegean at
sea between Greece and Asia Minor, 1570s, traditionally named for Aegeus, father of Theseus, who threw himself to his death in it when he thought his son had perished; but perhaps from Greek aiges "waves," a word of unknown origin.
aegis (n.) Look up aegis at
"protection," 1793, from Latin aegis, from Greek Aigis, the name of the shield of Zeus, said by Herodotus to be related to aix (genitive aigos) "goat," from PIE *aig- "goat" (source also of Sanskrit ajah, Lithuanian ozys "he-goat"), as the shield was of goatskin. Athene's aigis was a short goat-skin cloak, covered with scales, set with a gorgon's head, and fringed with snakes. The exact use and purpose of it is not now clear.
The goatskin would be worn with the two forelegs tied in front of the wearer's breast, or possibly with the head passed through an opening made at the neck, by the removal of the animal's head. [F. Warre Cornish, ed., "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities," London, 1898]
aegrotat (n.) Look up aegrotat at
certificate that a student is ill, Latin, literally "he is sick," third person singular of aegrotare "to be sick," from aeger "sick."