advance (n.) Look up advance at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, "boasting, ostentation," from advance (v.). Early 15c. as "advancement in rank, wealth, etc." Advances "amorous overtures" is from 1706.
advanced (adj.) Look up advanced at Dictionary.com
1530s, "far ahead in the course of actions or ideas," past participle adjective from advance (v.). Of studies, from 1790. Military use is from 1795. In late 19c. used especially in reference to views on women's equality.
advancement (n.) Look up advancement at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, avauncement, "a raising to a higher rank," from Old French avancement "advancement, profit, advance payment," from avancer (see advance (v.)). Of money, from 1640s.
advantage (n.) Look up advantage at Dictionary.com
early 14c., avantage, "position of being in advance of another," from Old French avantage "advantage, profit, superiority," from avant "before," probably via an unrecorded Late Latin *abantaticum, from Latin abante (see advance).

The -d- is a 16c. intrusion on the analogy of Latin ad- words. Meaning "a favoring circumstance" (the opposite of disadvantage) is from late 15c. Tennis score sense is from 1640s, first recorded in writings of John Milton, of all people. Phrase to take advantage of is first attested late 14c.
advantageous (adj.) Look up advantageous at Dictionary.com
1590s, formed in English from advantage, or else from French avantageux (15c.), from avantage (see advantage). Related: Advantageously; advantageousness.
advent (n.) Look up advent at Dictionary.com
"important arrival," 1742, an extended sense of Advent "season before Christmas" (Old English), from Latin adventus "a coming, approach, arrival," in Church Latin "the coming of the Savior," from past participle stem of advenire "arrive, come to," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + venire "to come" (see venue). In English, also sometimes extended to the Pentecost.
Adventist (n.) Look up Adventist at Dictionary.com
"one of a religious denomination that believes in or looks for the early second coming of Christ," 1843; see advent + -ist. Church Latin adventus was applied to the coming of the Savior, both the first or the anticipated second, hence Adventist was a name applied to millenarian sects, especially and originally the Millerites (U.S.).
adventitious (adj.) Look up adventitious at Dictionary.com
"of the nature of an addition from without," c. 1600, from Medieval Latin adventitius "coming from abroad, extraneous," a corruption of Latin adventicius "foreign, strange, accidental," from advent- past participle stem of advenire "arrive" (see advent). Related: Adventitiously; adventitiousness.
adventure (n.) Look up adventure at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, auenture "that which happens by chance, fortune, luck," from Old French aventure (11c.) "chance, accident, occurrence, event, happening," from Latin adventura (res) "(a thing) about to happen," from adventurus, future participle of advenire "to come to, reach, arrive at," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + venire "to come" (see venue).

Meaning developed through "risk/danger" (a trial of one's chances), c. 1300, and "perilous undertaking" (late 14c.) and thence to "a novel or exciting incident" (1560s). Earlier it also meant "a wonder, a miracle; accounts of marvelous things" (13c.). The -d- was restored 15c.-16c. Venture is a 15c. variant.
adventure (v.) Look up adventure at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, "to risk the loss of," from adventure (n.). Meaning "to take a chance" is early 14c. Related: Adventured; adventuring.
adventurer (n.) Look up adventurer at Dictionary.com
late 15c., "one who plays at games of chance," agent noun from adventure (v.). Meaning "one who seeks adventures" is from 1660s.
adventuresome (adj.) Look up adventuresome at Dictionary.com
1731, from adventure + -some (1).
adventurous (adj.) Look up adventurous at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "hazardous" (also "occurring by chance," late 14c.), from Old French aventuros "chance, accidental, fortuitous;" of persons, "devoted to adventure" (Modern French aventureux), from aventure (see adventure (n.)). Sense evolution is through "rash, risk-taking" (c. 1400), "daring, fond of adventure" (mid-15c.).
adverb (n.) Look up adverb at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Late Latin adverbium "adverb," literally "that which is added to a verb," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + verbum "verb, word" (see verb). Coined by Flavius Sosipater Charisius as a translation of Greek epirrhema "adverb," from epi- "upon, on" + rhema "verb."
adverbial (adj.) Look up adverbial at Dictionary.com
1610s, "pertaining to adverbs;" earlier it meant "fond of using adverbs" (1590s), from Late Latin adverbialis, from adverbium (see adverb). Related: Adverbially (mid-15c.).
adversarial (adj.) Look up adversarial at Dictionary.com
by 1892, from adversary + -al (1). Probably coined to avoid confusion which might arise with use of adversary (adj.), which is attested from late 14c. Related: Adversarially.
adversary (n.) Look up adversary at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., aduersere, from Anglo-French adverser (13c.), Old French adversaire "adversary, opponent, enemy," or directly from Latin adversarius "opponent, adversary, rival," noun use of adjective meaning "opposite, hostile, contrary," literally "turned toward one," from adversus "turned against" (see adverse). The Latin word is glossed in Old English by wiðerbroca.
adverse (adj.) Look up adverse at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "contrary, opposing," from Old French avers (13c., Modern French adverse) "antagonistic, unfriendly, contrary, foreign" (as in gent avers "infidel race"), from Latin adversus "turned against, turned toward, fronting, facing," figuratively "hostile, adverse, unfavorable," past participle of advertere, from ad- "to" (see ad-) + vertere "to turn" (see versus). For distinction of use, see see averse. Related: Adversely.
adversity (n.) Look up adversity at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, aduersite "misfortune, hardship, difficulty," from Old French aversité "adversity, calamity, misfortune; hostility, wickedness, malice" (Modern French adversité), from Latin adversitatem (nominative adversitas) "opposition," from adversus (see adverse).
advert (v.) Look up advert at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., averten "to turn (something) aside," from Middle French avertir (12c.), from Late Latin advertere (see advertise). The -d- added 16c. on the Latin model. Related: Adverted; adverting.
advert (n.) Look up advert at Dictionary.com
colloquial shortening of advertisement, attested by 1860.
advertise (v.) Look up advertise at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "to take notice of," from Middle French advertiss-, present participle stem of a(d)vertir "to warn" (12c.), from Latin advertere "turn toward," from ad- "toward" (see ad-) + vertere "to turn" (see versus).

Sense shifted to "to give notice to others, warn" (late 15c.) by influence of advertisement; specific meaning "to call attention to goods for sale, rewards, etc." had emerged by late 18c. Original meaning remains in the verb advert "to give attention to." Related: Advertised; advertising.
advertised (adj.) Look up advertised at Dictionary.com
late 15c., "informed;" 1780s, "publicly announced," past participle adjective from advertise.
advertisement (n.) Look up advertisement at Dictionary.com
early 15c., "written statement calling attention to" something, "public notice" (of anything, but often of a sale); from Middle French avertissement, from stem of avertir (see advertise). Meaning "public notice" (usually paid), the main modern sense, emerged 1580s and was fully developed by 18c.
advertiser (n.) Look up advertiser at Dictionary.com
1560s, agent noun from advertise (v.).
advice (n.) Look up advice at Dictionary.com
late 13c., auys "opinion," from Old French avis "opinion, view, judgment, idea" (13c.), from phrase ço m'est à vis "it seems to me," or from Vulgar Latin *mi est visum "in my view," ultimately from Latin visum, neuter past participle of videre "to see" (see vision).

The unhistorical -d- was introduced in English 15c., on model of Latin words in ad-. Substitution of -c- for -s- is 18c., to preserve the breath sound and to distinguish from advise. Meaning "opinion given as to action, counsel" is from late 14c.
advisability (n.) Look up advisability at Dictionary.com
1778 (in a letter from George Washington at Valley Forge), from advisable + -ity.
advisable (adj.) Look up advisable at Dictionary.com
1640s, from advise (v.) + -able.
advise (v.) Look up advise at Dictionary.com
late 13c., avisen "to view, consider," from Old French aviser "deliberate, reflect, consider" (13c.), from avis "opinion" (see advice). Meaning "to give counsel to" is late 14c. Related: Advised; advising.
advisement (n.) Look up advisement at Dictionary.com
early 14c., avisement "examination, inspection, observation," from Old French avisement "consideration, reflection," from aviser (see advise). Meaning "advice, counsel" is from c. 1400, as is that of "consultation, conference."
adviser (n.) Look up adviser at Dictionary.com
1610s, agent noun from advise (v.). Meaning "military person sent to help a government or army in a foreign country" is recorded from 1915. Alternative form, Latinate advisor, is perhaps a back-formation from advisory.
advisory (adj.) Look up advisory at Dictionary.com
1778; see advise + -ory. The noun meaning "weather warning" is from 1931.
advocacy (n.) Look up advocacy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French avocacie (14c.), from Medieval Latin advocatia, noun of state from Latin advocatus (see advocate (n.)).
advocate (n.) Look up advocate at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "one whose profession is to plead cases in a court of justice," a technical term from Roman law, from Old French avocat "barrister, advocate, spokesman," from Latin advocatus "one called to aid; a pleader, advocate," noun use of past participle of advocare "to call" (as witness or advisor) from ad- "to" (see ad-) + vocare "to call," related to vocem (see voice (n.)). Also in Middle English as "one who intercedes for another," and "protector, champion, patron." Feminine forms advocatess, advocatrice were in use in 15c.
advocate (v.) Look up advocate at Dictionary.com
1640s, from advocate (n.). Related: Advocated; advocating; advocation.
adware (n.) Look up adware at Dictionary.com
2000 (earlier as the name of a software company), from ad (n.) + -ware, abstracted from software, etc.
adze (n.) Look up adze at Dictionary.com
also adz, "cutting tool resembling an axe, but with a curved blade at a right-angle to the handle, used for dressing timber," 18c. spelling modification of ads, addes, from Middle English adese, adse, from Old English adesa "adze, hatchet," which is of unknown origin. Adze "has been monosyllabic only since the seventeenth century. The word has no cognates, though it resembles the names of the adz and the hammer in many languages" [Liberman, 2008]. Perhaps somehow related to Old French aisse, Latin ascia "axe" (see axe).
ae Look up ae at Dictionary.com
see æ. As a word, it can represent Old English æ "law," especially law of nature or God's law; hence "legal custom, marriage" (cognatw with Old High German ewa, Old Saxon eo), according to Buck probably literally "way, manner, custom," from PIE *ei- "to go."
Aegean Look up Aegean at Dictionary.com
sea between Greece and Asia Minor, 1570s, traditionally named for Aegeus, father of Theseus, who threw himself to his death in it when he thought his son had perished; but perhaps from Greek aiges "waves," a word of unknown origin.
aegis (n.) Look up aegis at Dictionary.com
"protection," 1793, from Latin aegis, from Greek Aigis, the name of the shield of Zeus, said by Herodotus to be related to aix (genitive aigos) "goat," from PIE *aig- "goat" (source also of Sanskrit ajah, Lithuanian ozys "he-goat"), as the shield was of goatskin. Athene's aigis was a short goat-skin cloak, covered with scales, set with a gorgon's head, and fringed with snakes. The exact use and purpose of it is not now clear.
The goatskin would be worn with the two forelegs tied in front of the wearer's breast, or possibly with the head passed through an opening made at the neck, by the removal of the animal's head. [F. Warre Cornish, ed., "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities," London, 1898]
aegrotat (n.) Look up aegrotat at Dictionary.com
certificate that a student is ill, Latin, literally "he is sick," third person singular of aegrotare "to be sick," from aeger "sick."
Aeneas Look up Aeneas at Dictionary.com
hero of the "Æneid," son of Anchises and Aphrodite, Latin, from Greek Aineias, which is of unknown origin, perhaps literally "praise-worthy," from ainos "tale, story, saying, praise" (related to enigma); or perhaps related to ainos "horrible, terrible." The Aeneid (late 15c. in English) is literally "of or pertaining to Aeneas," from French Enéide, Latin Æneida.
Aeolian (adj.) Look up Aeolian at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, "of the wind," from Latin Æolus "god of the winds," from Greek Aiolos, from aiolos "quickly moving." Æolian harp first recorded 1791. The ancient district of Aiolis in Asia Minor was said to have been named for the wind god, hence Æolian also refers to one branch of the ancient Greek people.
Aeolus Look up Aeolus at Dictionary.com
see Aeolian.
aeon (n.) Look up aeon at Dictionary.com
1640s; see eon.
aerate (v.) Look up aerate at Dictionary.com
1794, from Latin aer (genitive aeris; see air (n.1)) + verbal suffix -ate (2). Related: Aerated; aerating.
aeration (n.) Look up aeration at Dictionary.com
1570s, from French aération, from aérer (v.), from Latin aer (see air (n.1)). In some cases, from aerate.
aerial (adj.) Look up aerial at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from Latin aerius "airy, aerial, lofty, high" (from Greek aerios "of the air, pertaining to air," from aer "air;" see air (n.1)) + adjectival suffix -al (1).
aerial (n.) Look up aerial at Dictionary.com
1902 (short for aerial antenna, etc.); see aerial (adj.).
aerie (n.) Look up aerie at Dictionary.com
"eagle's nest," 1580s (attested in Anglo-Latin from early 13c.), from Old French aire "nest," Medieval Latin area "nest of a bird of prey" (12c.), perhaps from Latin area "level ground, garden bed" [Littré], though some doubt this [Klein]. Another theory connects it to atrium. Formerly misspelled eyrie (1660s) on the mistaken assumption that it derived from Middle English ey "egg."